Waterford history

The Dromana estate in 1640

The Dromana estate in 1640

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

In 1640 Sir Gerald Fitzgerald of Dromana was lord of the extensive County Waterford family estate centred on the castle and house of Dromana, perched high on a rock on the eastern bank of the River Blackwater. Sir Gerald Fitzgerald was the eldest son of Sir John Óge Fitzgerald of Dromana and his wife, Hon. Eleanor Butler, daughter of 2nd Baron Dunboyne. On 1st March 1626 Sir John Óge Fitzgerald died leaving Gerald Fitzgerald, a minor, as his eldest son and heir.[1]

As a minor, Gerald Fitzgerald became a ward of the crown and was brought up a Protestant. The wardship of Gerald Fitzgerald was held for a time by Sir Edward Villiers, Lord President of Munster. After the death of Sir Edward Villiers, the wardship was purchased by Gerald’s paternal grandmother, Ellen Fitzgibbon Fitzgerald. Eventually Sir Gerald Fitzgerald of Dromana came of age and married Mabel, daughter of Sir Robert Digby of Coleshill, Warwickshire by his wife Lettice, only child of Gerald Fitzgerald, Lord Offaly, eldest son of 11th Earl of Kildare. Sir Gerald Fitzgerald of Dromana died in August 1643 leaving his only son, John Fitzgerald (born c. February 1642), as heir.[2]

The estate of Sir Gerald Fitzgerald in 1640

The Civil Survey of County Waterford, made in 1655, was taken to find who owned what properties in 1640 and to measure the bounds of those properties. The completed survey could then be used to assign land to the adventurers, those who gave money to finance the Parliamentary army during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms (1641-1653) as repayment for the money advanced.[3] For our present purpose the Civil Survey gives a good account of the various properties owned by Sir Gerald Fitzgerald in 1640. The measures and valuations of each property will be given below along with any additional information relating to the property.

The Civil Survey adopted the barony as the territorial basis of the survey and this article will follow that course. Therefore the first property of Sir Gerald Fitzgerald that we find was situated at Templemichael in the Barony of Coshmore and Coshbride in the far west of County Waterford.

Barony of Coshmore and Coshbride

Templemichael parish

The civil parish of Templemichael was made up of two land divisions, Ballynatray and Templemichael. The latter was the property of Sir Gerald Fitzgerald of Dromana. Templemichael was bounded on the east by the River Blackwater, on the south by the River Tourig, on the west by Cornifeagh and Ballydonnell and on the north by the River Glendine. There was a “small” castle and fishing weir on the land.[4]

Sometime before 1420 the third Earl of Ormond granted half the lordship of Inchiquin to his niece and unofficial spouse, Katherine of Desmond. About the same time Katherine also acquired the manor of Rhincrew which place became known as Templemichael. In 1443 she granted Templemichael to her nephew, Gerald Fitz James of Dromana, afterwards lord of the Decies. The Fitzgerald family held Templemichael until 1750 when they sold it to Richard Dawson of Dublin.[5]

In 1640 the land of Templemichael measured 7½ ploughlands. There were 907 acres made up by 5 acres of meadow (£2 10s), 602 acres of arable (£125 10s), 150 acres of rocky ground (£12) and 150 acres of scrub land (£10). The total property was valued at £150.

The surveyors described Sir Gerald Fitzgerald as an Irish Papist even though he was brought up a Protestant. They further said that Templemichael was in the jointer of Sir Gerald’s wife and because she was married to an Irish Papist was dispossessed of Templemichael. In addition to this issue of religion there was 3,000 acres of mountain and course land between Templemichael and the neighbouring land of Ballynatray that was in disputed ownership. In 1655 Gifford Stoute held this disputed land and paid rent of £72 to the government.[6]

Barony of Decies within Drum[7]

Aglish parish

Dromanabeg, Ballyngown and Kilmurry: There were 410 acres in the three townlands and this was made up of 80 acres of arable (£12 16s 8d), 150 acres of pasture (£7), 20 acres of red bog (£6), along with 160 acres of shrubby wood (£4). The total property was valued at £29 16s 8d.[8]

Curryheene, Ballycullan and Graige: There were 480 acres consisting of 110 acres of arable (£16 10s), 120 acres of pasture (£6), 220 acres of mountain (£1), 10 acres of red bog (3s 4d), along with 20 acres of rocky ground and shrubby wood (6s 8d). The total property was valued at £24.[9]

Ballynecourty, Coolehisty and Aglish: There were 367 acres consisting of 7 acres of meadow (£1 8s), 150 acres of arable (£7 10s), 200 acres of pasture (£10), and 10 acres of marsh bog (10s). The total property was valued at £19 8s.[10]

Dromore Upper and Lower with Glannassie and Tenescarty: These four townlands contained 1,050 acres which consisted of 10 acres of meadow (£2), 450 acres of arable (£67 10s), 465 acres of pasture (£23 10s), 50 acres of red bog (£1 5s), along with 25 acres of rocky ground (4s) and 50 acres of shrubby wood (15s). The total property was valued at £95 4s. On 16th August 1641 Sir Gerald Fitzgerald gave a lease of the two parts of Dromore onto John Bucknor, English Protestant, for 99 years in recognition of the faithful service given by John Bucknor to Sir Gerald and to his father, John Fitzgerald and to his grandfather, Sir John Fitzgerald of Dromana. Previous to this lease John Bucknor had expended money on buildings, fencing and enclosing the two parts of Dromore.[11]

On 14th September 1642 a gift was made by Sir Gerald Fitzgerald to John Bucknor of the two parts of Dromore with Glannassie and Tenescarty in consideration of the losses sustained by John Bucknor at the start of the 1641 Rebellion. These losses included buildings burnt and his dwelling house demolished. The rent for the four townlands was £10 yearly for the first twenty years, £15 for the subsequent thirty years and £42 yearly for the following fifty years.[12]

Curraghdarragh and Lakensallagh: There were 250 acres here, consisting of 80 acres of arable (£12), 110 acres of pasture (£5 10s), 10 acres of red bog (5s 4d), along with 25 acres of rocky ground (8s) and 25 acres of shrubby wood (8s 4d). The total property was valued at £18 11s 8d.[13]

Lisgriffen: This place was found by the Civil Survey commissioners towards the end of their survey. They described this unprofitable piece of land (value 20s) as containing about 20 acres of shrubby wood and rough pasture in the mountains of Slievegroyne belonging to Sir Gerald Fitzgerald of Dromana. It was the local people who called the place Lisgriffen.[14]

041

A view across the former Dromana estate in Aglish parish

Ardmore parish

Ballycurren: This townland measured 550 acres which was made up by 8 acres of meadow (£2), 160 acres of arable (£16), 180 acres of pasture (£12), 100 acres of mountain (16s 8d), 10 acres of red bog (3s 4d), along with 70 acres of rocky ground (17s 6d) and 22 acres of shrubby wood (5s 6d). The total property was valued at £32 3s.[15]

Ballymccartt: There were 800 acres in this townland made up by 8 acres of meadow (£2), 150 acres of arable (£15), 250 acres of pasture (£18), 200 acres of mountain (£1), along with 120 acres of rocky ground (£1 10s) and 72 acres of shrubby wood (18s). The total value of this townland was £38 8s.[16]

Ballyguine: There were 300 acres consisting of 7 acres of meadow (£1 15s), 30 acres of arable (£3), 120 acres of pasture (£9), along with 100 acres of rocky ground (£1 5s) and 43 acres of shrubby wood (9s 9d). The total value of Ballyguine was £15 9s 9d.[17]

General comment: The Civil Survey commissioners noted for the parish of Ardmore that on 3rd March 1619 Sir Gerald Fitzgerald of Dromana and his wife Ellen made a lease of their Ardmore property for 47 years at a yearly rent of £21 to Pierce Power in consideration of £60. This Pierce Power was a Protestant gent living at Ballygarran near Lismore who owned seven acres at Farrangarrott in Ardmore parish.[18]

Clashmore parish

Craggs, Kilmore, Knockanelarish, Shanniballymore, Abbarta and Coolbagh: These six townlands measured 1,200 acres made up by 10 acres of meadow (£2), 600 acres of arable (£90), 570 acres of pasture (£28), along with 20 acres of mountain (6s 8d). The total property was valued at £24. Craggs was possibly the Le Gregge of 1298 which had one villata held by the Irish (worth £4 13s 6d) and was owned by Thomas Fitz Maurice (father of the 1st Earl of Desmond).[19] For more information on Thomas Fitz Maurice see http://celtic2realms-medievalnews.blogspot.ie/2015/02/thomas-apa-fitz-maurice-of-desmond_28.html

Ballycarran (two divisions): Two townlands of Ballycarran measured 700 acres of which 250 acres were arable (£25), 300 acres of pasture (£7 10s), 90 acres of mountain (7s 2d), along with 20 acres of rocky ground (6s 8d) and 40 acres of shrubby wood (10s). The total property was valued at £33 14s 2d.[20]

Raheen: This townland measured 140 acres made up of 70 acres of arable (£10 10s), 64 acres of pasture (£3 4s), and 6 acres of shrubby wood (6s). Raheen was valued at £14.[21]

Ardsallagh, Tenybiny, Tenknock, Shanacoole and Ballyncrompane: These five townlands measured 1,030 acres which was made up of 450 acres of arable (£67 10s), 525 acres of pasture (£26 5s), 5 acres of bog (2s 6d), along with 50 acres of shrubby wood (£2 10s). The total property was valued at £96 7s 6d. Ardsallagh is possibly the Artsilach in the cantred of Oveagh owned by Thomas Fitz Maurice Fitzgerald (father of the 1st Earl of Desmond) in 1298. At that time it had half a villata held by the Irish and worth £4. Sir Reginald de Dene, a cousin of Fitz Maurice, held the other half villata and rendered 13s 4d while doing suit at the manorial court.[22]

General comment: All the different townlands owned by Sir Gerald Fitzgerald of Dromana in the parish of Clashmore were part and parcel of the manor of Dromana.[23]

Kilmolash parish

Cloghballydonisy, Killree and Killnegibbog: On 1st May 1653 the three places belonging to Sir Gerald Fitzgerald of Dromana and the adjunct lands of Clement Gough were given by the Commissioners of the Revenue to Lieutenant Colonel Francis Foulkes and Cornett Robert Foulkes for seven years at a rent of £33 per year.[24]

Kinsalebeg parish

Ballyheeny: There were 203 acres made up by 3 acres of meadow (15s), 80 acres of arable (£12), 100 acres of pasture (£7 10s), 120 acres of mountain (8s 4d), 20 acres of bog (1s 8d), along with 20 acres of shrubby ground (10s). The total value of Ballyheeny was £20 15s.[25]

Lisgenan parish

Sir Gerald Fitzgerald held eleven of the eleven and a half ploughlands in the parish of Lisgenan. Only the townland of Ballyquin with its half ploughland was owned by somebody else, namely, Sir Peter Aylward of Faithlegg near Waterford City. The property of Sir Gerald Fitzgerald in Lisgenan was governed under the manor of Grange. This manor kept a court leet twice a year and a court baron as often as was thought needed along with all the usual royalties due to a manor except fellon’s goods.[26]

Grange: There were 1,300 acres made up by 50 acres of meadow (£12), 500 acres of arable (£50), 600 acres of pasture (£45), along with 150 acres of rocky ground and shrubby (£1 17s 6d). The total property was valued at £109 7s 6d. On 9th January 1632 Grange was leased to Edward Stoute and William Meagh for 51 years at £180 yearly rent. In 1655 it was held by Nicholas Stoute by virtue of the lease. Grange was possibly the location of Lisgenan with its three quarters of a villata (worth £4) that was owned in 1298 by Thomas Fitz Maurice Fitzgerald (father of the 1st Earl of Desmond).[27]

Knocknegeragh: There was 230 acres made up of 5 acres of meadow (£1 5s), 100 acres of arable (£10), 100 acres of pasture (£7), along with 25 acres of rocky ground and shrubby wood (6s 3d). The total property was valued at £3 11s 3d. John Percivall held this place in 1655 by a lease but by what terms the Civil Survey commissioners did not know.[28]

Ballygangaden: There were 170 acres made up by 4 acres of meadow (£1), 80 acres of arable (£8), 56 acres of pasture (£4 4s), along with 30 acres of rocky ground and shrubby wood (7s 6d). The total property was valued at £13 11s 6d.[29]

Ballylean: Ballylean had 140 acres made up of 4 acres of meadow (£1), 50 acres of arable (£5), 50 acres of pasture (£3 15s), along with 36 acres of rocky ground and shrubby wood (9s). The total property was valued at £10 4s.[30]

Ballyshonikins: There were 720 acres made up of 12 acres of meadow (£3), 260 acres of arable (£16), 360 acres of pasture (£16), along with 88 acres of rocky ground and shrubby wood (£1 2s 8d). The total property was valued at £36 2s 8d.[31]

Rushins and half of Ballyguine: There were 480 acres made up of 10 acres of meadow (£2 10s), 100 acres of arable (£10), 130 acres of pasture (£9 15s), 120 acres of mountain (8s 4d), 20 acres of bog (1s 8d), along with 100 acres of rocky ground and shrubby wood (15s). The total property was valued at £24. In 1298 Rushins was owned by Thomas Fitz Maurice Fitzgerald (father of the 1st Earl of Desmond) and had half a villata worth 100s per year.[32]

Grelagh: There were 700 acres in Grelagh consisting of 6 acres of meadow (£1), 20 acres of arable (£2), 380 acres of pasture (£28 10s), 150 acres of mountain (18s 8d), along with 144 acres of rocky ground and shrubby wood (£1 16s). The total property was valued at £34 14s 8d. Grelagh was owned in 1298 by Thomas Fitz Maurice Fitzgerald (father of the 1st Earl of Desmond) where there were three quarters of a villata worth 28s per year.[33]

Ballyellinan: There were 220 acres made up of 6 acres of meadow (£1 10s), 70 acres of arable (£7), 80 acres of pasture (£6), along with 64 acres of rocky ground and shrubby wood (16s). The total property was valued at £15 6s. Ballyellinan could be the Ballyarlle of 1298 which was owned by Thomas Fitz Maurice with its half a villata held by various tenants and worth 20s. Sir John le Poher, junior, held one villata at Ballyellinan in 1298 with Ballycotyng and rendered 30s to Thomas Fitz Maurice as a free tenant.[34]

Adergauall: There was 100 acres made up of 2 acres of meadow (10s), 60 acres of pasture (£4 10s), along with 38 acres of rocky ground and shrubby wood (9s 6d). The total property was valued at £5 9s 6d. Adergauall was possibly the Eddegaul in Oveagh cantred which was owned by Thomas Fitz Maurice in 1298 and where Adam Christopher held one quarter of a villata worth 26s 8d per year.[35]

Ringagonagh parish

Helvichead, Ballygalemore, Bynegonyny & Knockanepower: These four townlands measured 430 acres which consisted of 3 acres of meadow (12s), 230 acres of arable (£23 10s), 170 acres of pasture (£8 10s), and 27 acres of mountain (12s 6d). The total property was valued at £33 4s 6d.[36]

Moelleorny, Shanakill & Rathnemeenagh: There was here 290 acres consisting of 130 acres of arable (£12 8s 10d), 140 acres of pasture (£7), 3 acres of mountain (1s), 3 acres of red bog (9s), along with 13 acres of shrubby wood on part profitable land (12s 6d). The total property was valued at £20 10s 6d. The townland of Moelleorny paid 5s annual chief rent to the Earl of Cork as part of the manor of Ballynecourty. The farmers of the three townlands had liberty to graze the mountains of Slievegroyne.[37]

Ballynecourty & Gortnedeyhy: These two townlands measured 230 acres consisting of 110 acres of arable (£16), 110 acres of pasture (£5), and 10 acres of shrubby wood in a bog (2s 6d). The total property was valued at £21 2s 6d. The farmers of the two townlands had liberty to graze the mountains of Slievegroyne while 10s annual chief rent was due to the Earl of Cork as part of the manor of Ballynecourty.[38]

Total area of estate for the above lands – table one

Barony & parish Places Ploughlands Acres Value
Coshmore/Coshbride
Templemichael Templemichael 7.5 907 £150
Decies within Drum
Aglish Dromanabeg & two others 1.25 410 £29 16s 8d
Curryheene & two others 1.5 480 £24
Ballynecourty & two others 1.25 367 £19 8s
Dromore Upper & Lower

& two others

3.25 1,050 £95 4
Curraghdarragh

& Lakensallagh

1.0 250 £18 11s 8d
Ardmore Ballycurren 1.33 550 £32 3s
Ballymccartt 2.0 800 £38 8s
Ballyguine 1.0 300 £15 9s 9d
Clashmore Craggs & five others 3.25 + an oxland 1,200 £120 6s 8d
Ballycarran (two parts) 2.0 700 £33 14s 2d
Raheen 0.5 140 £14
Ardsallagh & four others 3.5 1,030 £96 7s 6d
Kilmolash Cloghballydonisy & two others 1.5 300 £23 18s
Kinsalebeg Ballyheeny 0.5 203 £20 15s
Lisgenan Grange 4.25 1,300 £109 7s 6d
Knocknegeragh 1.0 230 £18 11s 3d
Ballygangeden 0.5 170 £13 11s 6d
Ballylean 0.5 140 £10 4s
Ballyshonikins 2.5 720 £36 2s 8d
Rushin & Ballyguine 2.0 480 £24
Grelagh 2.0 700 £34 14s 8d
Ballyellinan 0.5 220 £15 6s
Adergauall 0.25 100 £5 0s 6d
Ringagonagh
Helvickhead & three others 1.33 430 £33 4s 6d
Moellcorney & two others 1.66 290 £20 10s 6d
Ballynecourty & Gortnedeyhy 1.0 230 £21 2s 6d
Total 48.82 13,697 £1,073 18s

Ploughlands

It is to be noted that the ploughland is not as popular opinion would have it. In popular opinion one ploughland should be about 120 acres of arable land or 300 statute acres but that is on the assumption that a ploughland is a measure of area – it is not. A ploughland is a measure of value. It was a measure of land that could be ploughed in a year by one plough drawn by eight oxen. As soil types different from place to place so the amount of ground that a plough team can cover varies. One could compare it to one litre of milk and one litre of beer. They are both one litre but the nutritional value of each is different.

Barony of Decies without Drum

Affane parish

Dromana More, Ballyhanemore & Dromroe: There were 800 acres in these three townlands made up by 20 acres of meadow (£5), 500 acres of arable (£75), 200 acres of pasture (£10), 40 acres of mountain (10s), and 20 acres of red bog (5s), along with 20 acres of shrubby wood (5s). The three townlands were valued at £91. In addition there were two weirs on the River Blackwater worth £5. The chief castle and residence of Sir Gerald Fitzgerald of Dromana was located in the townland of Dromana More.[39]

Dromana (20)Dromana House, home of Sir Gerald Fitzgerald

Colligan parish

Colligan, Garrycloyne & Knockruoe: There were 660 acres consisting of 90 acres of arable (£13), 290 acres of pasture (£14 10s), 100 acres of mountain (£1 6s), 20 acres of red bog (7s), along with 30 acres of rocky ground (15s) and shrubby wood on unprofitable land (£4). In Colligan there were 42 trees fit for timber. The total property was valued at £33 9s. on 20th February 1633 Sir Gerald Fitzgerald leased Colligan and Garrycloyne to Sir Richard Osbourne of Knockmoan for 81 years at £20 annual rent with payment of a great fine. On 31st July 1637 Sir Richard conveyed the two townlands to his second son, Nicholas Osbourne of Cappagh who held them in 1641.[40]

Dungarvan parish

Ballymemauge: There were 460 acres consisting of 5 acres of meadow (£1), 160 acres of arable (£18), 200 acres of pasture (£15), 45 acres of red bog (17s), along with 50 acres of shrubby wood on mountain (£1 3s). The total property was valued at £36. On 20th February 1633 Sir Gerald Fitzgerald leased this place to Sir Richard Osbourne of Knockmoan for 81 years at a yearly rent of £30 with the payment of a great fine. On 31st July 1637 Sir Richard Osbourne granted the land to his second son, Nicholas Osbourne of Cappagh who held it in 1641 and suffered material loss in the Rebellion.[41]

Coolecormucke: There were 90 acres consisting of 30 acres of meadow (£5) and 60 acres of arable (£12). The total property was valued at £17. On 20th February 1633 Sir Gerald Fitzgerald leased this place to Sir Richard Osbourne for 81 years for £15 yearly rent and the payment of a great fine. In 1637 Sir Richard gave it to his second son Nicholas Osbourne and he held it in 1641.[42]

Ballycullenane: There were 140 acres consisting of 4 acres of meadow (16s), 60 acres of arable (£9), 40 acres of pasture (£2), 20 acres of mountain (10s), 6 acres of red bog (6s), along with 10 acres of shrubby wood (£1). The total property was valued at £13 12s. On 23rd March 1631 Sir Gerald Fitzgerald leased this place to James Fitzgerald for 31 years for a yearly rent of £12. In February 1640 James Fitzgerald, in consideration of £22, granted the unexpired term of years to Nicholas Osbourne of Cappagh.[43]

Ballyduff: There were 120 acres consisting of 3 acres of meadow (12s), 40 acres of arable (£6), 70 acres of pasture (£3 10s), along with 7 acres of red bog (2s). The total property was valued at £10 4s. In 1641 Nicholas Osbourne claimed to be the tenant of Ballyduff by the unexpired term of years of a lease held by Lawrence Faghy, a deceased Englishman.[44]

Kilmurry: There were 80 acres consisting of 4 acres of meadow (16s), 46 acres of arable (8s), and 30 acres of pasture (£1 10s). The total property was valued at £8 14s. On 20th March 1631 Sir Gerald Fitzgerald of Dromana leased this place for 31 years to Thomas Fitz Harris of Ballygageen for £12 annual rent. On 13th August 1641, in consideration of £10, Thomas Fitz Harris conveyed the unexpired term of years to Sir Richard Osbourne.[45]

Ballygeyry: There were 160 acres consisting of 3 acres of meadow (12s), 90 acres of arable (£13 10s), 40 acres of pasture (£2), 10 acres of mountain (5s), and 8 acres of red bog (8s), along with 9 acres of shrubby wood on mountain ground (6s). The total property was valued at £17 1s. In addition, Ballygeyry had the liberty of commons on the mountain of Slieve Gua. On 20th March 1631 Sir Gerald Fitzgerald leased Ballygeyry to Thomas Fitz Harris for 31 years at £13 annual rent. On 13th August 1641, in consideration of £10, Thomas Fitz Harris conveyed the lease to Sir Richard Osbourne.[46]

Abbeyside burgery land called Turner’s Land: There were 34 acres consisting of 30 acres of arable (£4 10s) and 4 acres of pasture (6s). The total property was valued at £4 16s. There was chief rent of 5s 6d due out of this property to the Earl of Cork.[47]

Fews parish

Noryleagh, Ballynefinsogy, Ballyboy, Grangewood, Rathnemoyden, Graigerush, and Commons: Sir Gerald Fitzgerald of Dromana owned the entire parish of Fews in 1640. The parish measured 2,000 acres and this consisted of 300 acres of arable (£46), 1,000 acres of pasture (£39), 300 acres of mountain (£8 10s), 100 acres of red bog (£3 10s), along with 100 acres of shrubby wood (£3 10s) and 200 acres of bog for pasture (£9 10s). The total property was valued at £24. All the townlands in Fews parish had free liberty of the mountain on Monevully.[48]

Kilgobinet parish

Garranbane: This townland measured 300 acres and consisted of 10 acres of meadow (£2), 200 acres of arable (£20), 60 acres of pasture (£4 10s), along with 30 acres of shrubby wood and bog for pasture (£1 10s). The townland was valued at £28.[49]

Monerode: This townland was 150 acres consisting of 50 acres of arable (£6), 50 acres of pasture (£3), and 50 acres of mountain for pasture and shrubby wood (£1 10s). The total property was valued at £10 10s. In 1298 Geoffrey Brun was a free tenant of Thomas Fitz Maurice Fitzgerald (father of the 1st Earl of Desmond) and rendered 6s 8d without doing suit at the manorial court.[50]

Ballyconnery: This place measured 150 acres consisting of 100 acres of pasture (£6), and 50 acres of shrubby wood on the mountain (£1 10s). The total property was valued at £7 10s.[51]

Ballynekilly, Scart Idriny and Barrykre: These three townlands measured 100 acres and this consisted of 40 acres of arable (£3 10s), 20 acres of pasture (£1 10s), along with 40 acres of mountain and bog for pasture (10s). The total property was valued at £5 10s. Previous to 1640 Ballynekilly and Scart Idriny were mortgaged to John Hore of Dungarvan.[52]

Kilrossanty parish

Knockehelan: This townland had 80 acres which consisted of 20 acres of arable (£6 10s), 40 acres of pasture (£2 10s), 10 acres of red bog (5s), and 10 acres of bog for pasture (10s). The total value of the townland was £9 15s.[53]

Modeligo parish

Mountain Castle, Glantallagh, Lisleagh and Likowrane: There were 420 acres consisting of 10 acres of meadow (£2), 80 acres of arable (£10), 140 acres of pasture (£6), 80 acres of mountain (£1), 20 acres of red bog (5s), along with 20 acres of rocky ground (5s) and 70 acres of shrubby wood on the mountain (£1 5s). The total value of the four townlands was £20 15s. There was in 1640 a small castle at Mountain Castle which was defensible. In 1618 a deed of enfeoffment by Daniel Fitz Philip McGrath of Mountain Castle said that Daniel had lease of same for 101 years from Sir John Fitzgerald of Dromana (grandfather of Sir Gerald Fitzgerald). When did this lease start and when did it end are as yet unknown. The rent to Dromana was £16 and by 1639 the rent had increased to £50. In 1639 Philip McGrath leased Mountain Castle to his son John McGrath.[54]

Upper and Lower Garrans: These two townlands contained 400 acres and this was made up of 40 acres of meadow (£8), 200 acres of arable (£30), and 160 acres of pasture (£6). The total property was valued at £44.[55]

Seskinan parish

Nire, Blyantisowre, Knockboy, Lacknydarry, Killcuony, Ballynegulkie, Corredoon, Buollenvonteen, Tour, Inymy, Canernelegy and Cloneguggiall with a third part of manor of Mountain Castle: Sir Gerald Fitzgerald of Dromana owned the full area of Seskinan parish with the individual townlands listed. The parish measured 1,600 acres and this consisted of 120 acres of meadow (£4), 500 acres of arable (£50), 700 acres of pasture (£35), 200 acres of mountain (£3 8s), 30 acres of red bog (7s), along with 10 acres of rocky ground (4d) and 40 acres of shrubby wood on the mountain (£1 4s). The total parish was valued at £93 19s 4d.[56]

DSC05592

The land north of Knockboy church on the Dromana estate

Stradbally parish

Carrighelly: This townland had 90 acres consisting of 3 acres of meadow (12s), 40 acres of arable (£5), and 40 acres of pasture (£3) along with 7 acres of shrubby bog for pasture (8s). Carrighelly was valued at £9. The townland contained the stump of an old castle.[57]

Carrig Irea: There were 50 acres here consisting of 20 acres of arable (£2), 20 acres of pasture (12s), and 5 acres of shrubby bog (4s) with 5 acres of bog for pasture (4s). The townland was valued at £3.[58]

Whitechurch parish

Ballyhemelagh with Ballygambon and Killcannan: The three townlands measured 629 acres and this consisted of 32 acres of meadow (£6 10s), 213 acres of arable (£31 19s), 313 acres of pasture (£18 13s), 20 acres of mountain (5s), 20 acres of red bog (15s), along with 31 acres of shrubby wood on the mountain (18s). The total property was valued at £59. Sir Gerald Fitzgerald paid 2s 4d chief rent out of the land of Killcannon to the Earl of Cork.[59]

Knockanedun: Knockanedun had 100 acres consisting of 60 acres of arable (£8), and 40 acres of pasture (£3). The total value was £11.[60]

Killnefarney: This townland measured 85 acres which consisted of 40 acres of arable (£6), 30 acres of pasture (£1 15s), 7 acres of red bog (5s), along with 8 acres of shrubby wood on the bog (4s). The total value of the townland was £8 4s.[61]

Total area of estate in Decies without Drum – table two

Barony & parish Places Ploughlands Acres Value
Decies without Drum
Affane Dromana More & two others 1.66 800 £91
Colligan Colligan & two others 2.0 660 £33 9s
Dungarvan Ballymemauge 2.0 460 £36
Coolecormucke 0.25 90 £17
Ballycullenane 0.5 140 £13 12s
Ballyduff 0.5 120 £10 4s
Kilmurry 0.25 80 £8 14s
Ballygeyry 0.5 160 £17 1s
Turner’s Land 34 £4 16s
Fews Noryleagh & six others 6.25 2,000 £110
Kilgobinet Garranbane 1.0 300 £28
Monerode 0.66 150 £10 10s
Ballyconnery 0.66 150 £7 10s
Ballynekilly & two others 0.33 100 £5 10s
Kilrossanty Knockehelan 0.5 80 £9 15s
Modeligo Mountain Castle & three others 1.0 420 £20 15s
Garrans Upper & Lower 0.33 400 £44
Stradbally Carrighelly 0.5 90 £9
Carrig Irea 0.5 50 £3
Seskinan Nire & eleven others 5.0 + a third part 1,600 £93 19s 4d
Whitechurch Ballyhemelagh & two others 1.66 629 £59
Knockanedun 0.5 100 £11
Killnefarney 0.5 85 £8 4s
Total 27.35 8,698 £651 19s 4d

Total area and value of the Dromana estate in County Waterford in 1640

Ploughlands Acres Value
Table one 48.82 13,697 £1,073 18s
Table two 27.35 8,698 £651 19s 4d
Total 76.17 22,395 £1,725 17s 4d

The acreage recorded in the Civil Survey was given in Irish plantation acres which contains about 7,840 square yards compared to 4,840 square yards in a statue acre. By using a multiplier of 1.62 one can compare the Civil Survey with later surveys such as the Ordnance Survey maps and Griffiths Valuation.[62]

Map

The accompanying map shows the Dromana estate in about 1640 in red colour. This map is of a rough kind as the boundaries of townlands given in the Civil Survey are in some cases different from that of later times for places of the same name. What the map does show is that not all of Decies formed part of the Dromana estate. There were large areas around Dungarvan and between that town and Cappoquin, in what was the Decies barony, were owned by others. Much of this land was formerly owned directly by the Earl of Desmond. Therefore when Decies was given to Garret More Fitzgerald (founder of the Dromana Fitzgeralds) in the first half of the fifteenth century not all of the Fitzgerald land in Decies was included.

IMG

The Dromana estate (in red) in 1640

Chief rents

As well as owning property directly, Sir Gerald Fitzgerald of Dromana also collected chief rents from property which the family once owned directly but which in various times before 1641 had been virtually sold to others. The source of these chief rents and the property owners concerned are mentioned and tabled below.

Decies without Drum

Kilgobinet parish

Killnefrechane: This townland of one ploughland and a third part of a ploughland was owned by Patrick Gough of Kilmainhan, value of £46 5s from which 3s 4d was paid yearly to Dromana in chief rents.[63]

Ballyknockie: This townland measured two parts of a ploughland (value of £25 10s) and owned by Derby O’Brien of Kilcomeragh and paid £1 6s 8d in chief rents to Dromana.[64]

Bohedoon: This townland with Curbehy and Coolenesmere was owned by Derby O’Brien (two ploughlands) was valued at £52 10s and paid £4 yearly chief rent to Dromana.[65]

Inchidrisly: This townland of two parts of a ploughland (value of £12 10s) was owned by John Fitz Matthew Hore of Dungarvan, a transplanted Irish papist. The premises paid £1 6s 8d in chief rents to Dromana but this figure is far from certain as original manuscript is difficult to decipher before the one.[66]

Kilrossanty parish

Barnakill and Curryheenedoty: These two townlands of one and a half ploughlands (valued £19) were owned by Derby O’Brien of Kilcomeragh and paid £3 annual chief rent to Dromana. The Civil Survey commissioners further noted that 40s chief rent on every ploughland was due out of the lands of Derby O’Brien. Court service was also due to Dromana for the lands of Derby O’Brien.[67] The exact location of these lands is not stated but is presumed to be the four ploughlands around Kilcomeragh in addition to the lands about Barnakill.

Buollyattin (half of): Brien O’Brien of Buollyattin owned half of this townland, being half a ploughland, while Turlough O’Brien of Cottin owned the other half. The lands of Brien O’Brien paid 40s chief rent to Dromana. But the Civil Survey commissioners noted 40s per ploughland as the rate of chief rent which would make all of Buollyattin liable for the 40s.[68]

Lemybrien: This townland of one ploughland paid 40s chief rent to Dromana which supports the notion that all of Buollyattin paid towards the 40s due there. Lemybrien was valued at £18 and was owned by Donogh O’Brien of Lemybrien.[69]

Glandallagan & Gortiviccary: These two places were owned by Sir Nicholas Walsh and paid £3 chief rent to Dromana. Glandallagan was of one ploughland and valued at £7 15s while Gortiviccary was half a ploughland and worth £5 5s.[70]

Stradbally parish

Monekirkie: This townland of one quarter of a ploughland (value of £3 10s) was owned by John Sherlock of Gracedieu and paid £2 6d yearly to Dromana in chief rent. About the time of the Civil Survey, Richard Power of Ballymollally, Protestant, claimed the inheritance of Monekirke by producing an old deed on parchment with several acquaintances for the payment of the chief rent.[71]

Whitechurch parish

Ballyhanebeg: This half ploughland was owned by Daniel Conery of Ballyhanebeg, an Irish papist who was transplanted after the war. The property was valued at £13 13s 6d and paid 5s yearly in chief rent to Sir Gerald Fitzgerald of Dromana house.[72]

Chief rents due to Dromana – table four

Barony/parish Place Owner Value of chief rent
Decies without Drum
Kilgobinet Killnefrechane Patrick Gough 3s 4d yearly
Ballyknockie Derby O’Brien £1 6s 8d yearly
Bohedoon Derby O’Brien £4 yearly
Inchidrishy John Hore £1 6s 8d
Kilrossanty Barnakill Derby O’Brien £3 yearly
Buollyattin Brien O’Brien & Turlough O’Brien 40s yearly
Lemybrien Donogh O’Brien 40s yearly
Glandallagan & Gortiviccary Sir Nicholas Walsh £3 yearly
Whitechurch Ballyhanebeg Daniel Conery 5 shillings yearly
Total £17 1s 8d

Chief rents payable out of the Dromana lands

Sir Gerald Fitzgerald also paid chief rents to other people, principally the Earl of Cork. The origin of these payments may be from medieval times where the Fitzgerald family of Dromana paid chief rents to the Earl of Desmond and the Earl of Cork had acquired much of the Desmond property in West Waterford from Sir Walter Ralegh in 1602. These chief rents are mentioned in the various entries of property listed above. The townlands concerned were Turner’s Land in Abbeyside (Dungarvan parish), Killcannon (Whitechurch parish), along with Moelleorny and Ballynecourty, both in Ringagonagh parish.

Conclusion

This article, based on the Civil Survey of 1655, gives the earliest full picture of the Dromana estate in Co. Waterford. The base year of the survey was 1640 and hence the date in the title of this article. But the survey also allows us to plot the Dromana lands before 1640 and back into the medieval time for which surviving documents are few. Yet not all of the medieval lands held by the Fitzgerald family of Desmond and Decies survived in family ownership until 1640. For example the land of Rossmire, containing 6 ploughlands, was owned by Thomas Fitz Maurice Fitzgerald in 1298 but by 1640 the land was owned by James Walsh of Islandbeg with no mention of any connection with Dromana.[73]

In addition to the above lands, there were other lands connected with Sir Gerald Fitzgerald which do not appear among the Dromana estate in 1640. For example, in May 1634 Sir Gerald Fitzgerald leased the townland of Ballynemultnaugh to his third brother, John Óge Fitzgerald (called second brother in Burke’s Irish Family Records) for 999 years, at a fine of £220 and the rent of a grain of wheat. Sir Gerald had Ballynemultnaugh as mortgagee of Walter Mansfield of same. In the Civil Survey, Walter Mansfield held the two ploughlands of Ballynemultnaugh.[74]

We can further see the different farming activity in each part of the estate. For example, Aderguall in Lisgenan parish had no arable ground while Knockanedun and Kilnefarny, both in Whitechurch parish, had no meadow land. Land values of the different land types can also be of interest. For example, the 40 acres of pasture in Knockanedun (Sir Gerald Fitzgerald land) was worth £3 while 40 acres of pasture belonging to Daniel Conery at Ballyhane, in the same parish of Whitchurch was worth £2 and 85 acres of pasture at Mogehye (same parish) owned by Walter Mansfield was only worth £1 15s.[75]

The Barony of Decies gave the Dromana family their title of Lord of the Decies and having all their land, except one, within Decies confirms why that name was chosen. With this base line survey of the Dromana estate it is hoped to explore a detailed history of its individual parts in some future article or articles.

Dromana 800 crest

This article is part of the Dromana 800 celebrations (1215-2015). For more information see their website at http://www.dromana800.com/

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End of post

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[1] Burke’s Irish Family Records, 1976, p. 1065

[2] Burke’s Irish Family Records, 1976, p. 1066

[3] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford volume VI with appendices: Muskerry Barony, Co. Cork: Kilkenny City and Liberties (part) also valuations, circa 1663-64 for Waterford and Cork Cities (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1942), p. iii

[4] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 21

[5] Kenneth Nicholls, ‘The development of Lordship in County Cork, 1300-1600’, in Patrick O’Flanagan & Cornelius G. Buttimer (ed.), Cork History and Society (Geography Publications, Dublin, 1993), p. 188, 209, note 228; P.R.O.N.I., Villiers-Stuart papers, T.3131/B/20/8, c.1750 Account of the purchase price for Templemichael

[6] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 21

[7] The Civil Survey surveyed the Barony of Decies as one unit but later surveyors made two Baronies out of the one, namely, Decies within Drum and Decies without Drum. This article follows the later division for Decies so as to aid people to find the land divisions in later surveys such as Griffith’s Valuation.

[8] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 61

[9] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 61

[10] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 62

[11] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 63

[12] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 63

[13] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 62

[14] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 62

[15] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 58

[16] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 58

[17] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 58

[18] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 59

[19] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 67; H.S. Sweetman (ed.), Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland, Vol. 4 (1293-1301), p. 261

[20] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 67

[21] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 67

[22] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 67; H.S. Sweetman (ed.), Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland (Kraus reprint, 1974), Vol. 4 (1293-1301), p. 261

[23] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 67

[24] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 56

[25] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 31

[26] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, pp. 27-29

[27] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 28; H.S. Sweetman (ed.), Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland, Vol. 4 (1293-1301), p. 262

[28] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 28

[29] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 28

[30] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 28

[31] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 28

[32] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 28; H.S. Sweetman (ed.), Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland, Vol. 4 (1293-1301), p. 262

[33] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 29; H.S. Sweetman (ed.), Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland, Vol. 4 (1293-1301), p. 262

[34] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 29; H.S. Sweetman (ed.), Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland, Vol. 4 (1293-1301), p. 262

[35] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 29; H.S. Sweetman (ed.), Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland, Vol. 4 (1293-1301), p. 262

[36] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 48

[37] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 49

[38] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 49

[39] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 47

[40] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, pp. 45, 46

[41] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 33

[42] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 33

[43] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 33

[44] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 34

[45] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 34

[46] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 34

[47] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 37

[48] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 75

[49] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 63

[50] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 64; H.S. Sweetman (ed.), Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland, Vol. 4 (1293-1301), p. 262

[51] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 64

[52] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 64

[53] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 79

[54] Robert Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 60; John F. Ainsworth (ed.), “Survey of documents in private keeping: Mansfield papers”, in Analecta Hibernica, No. 20 (1958), pp. 93, 95

[55] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 61

[56] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 54

[57] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 70

[58] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 74

[59] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 52

[60] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 52

[61] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 52

[62] Catherine Ketch, ‘Landownership in County Waterford c.1640: the evidence from the Civil Survey’, in Waterford History and Society, edited by William Nolan and Thomas P. Power (Geography Publications, Dublin, 1992), p. 199

[63] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 64

[64] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 66

[65] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 66

[66] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 66

[67] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 78

[68] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 78

[69] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 79

[70] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, pp. 80, 81

[71] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 70

[72] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 53

[73] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 75; H.S. Sweetman (ed.), Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland, Vol. 4 (1293-1301), p. 262

[74] John F. Ainsworth (ed.), “Survey of documents in private keeping: Mansfield papers”, in Analecta Hibernica, No. 20 (1958), p. 94; Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, p. 68; Burke’s Irish Family Records, 1976, p. 1066

[75] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, pp. 52, 53

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