Biography, Cork history

Roger Brettridge of Duhallow and his descendants

Roger Brettridge of Duhallow and his descendants

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

Roger Brettridge came from the West Country in England and at first settled on the Brook estate in Co. Donegal in the early 1650s. Towards the end of the 1650s he became involved with the Munster army and in the 1660s received lands in the Barony of Duhallow in North West County Cork. These lands were centred on the manor of Castle Magner which Roger renamed as Castle Brettridge. Roger’s brother Samuel Brettridge received a smaller estate in Duhallow which he gave to Roger. In his will of 1683 Roger Brettridge left the townland of East Drumcummer (now called Drumcummer More), to found an alms house for ex-soldiers in the Shandon area of Cork City. In the parish re[1]gister of Whaddon, Gloucester, it is recorded that Roger Brettridge, gent, was buried there on 4th October 1683 having died at Tuffley.[2]

Roger Brettridge was the son of Francis Brettridge. Roger Brettridge married Joan Brettridge (maiden name Hawnby) and sister of William Hawnby of Rasheen. John Hall, rector of Ardstragh, Co. Tyrone was a nephew of William Hawnby. The said William Hawnby had two daughters, Mary (mother of Robert Longfield) and Elizabeth (mother of Bartholomew Purdon).[3] Roger and Joan had three daughters; Mary (wife of Francis Hartstonge), Elizabeth (wife of Robert Deane) and Jane (wife of Thomas Badham). In 1683 Roger’s estate consisted of Castle Brettridge, Cappabrack, Cappagh, Killebraher, Knocknesheling, Knockneineater, East Drumcummer, Rathmahiry, Rossendry, Knockballymartin, Ardagh, Ballyheene, Killballyheen, Clashbale, Kilrush (also called Kilbrash), West Drumcummer and Horse Island, plus a house in Millstreet town.

Roger Brettridge gave some property to his nephew Roger Brettridge, namely West Drumcummer and Horse Island which he had previously received from Samuel Brettridge. Roger Brettridge, the nephew, had a son also called Roger Brettridge the third.[4] In 1758 Roger Brettridge the third married Abigall Sandys.[5] But the couple had no children and his property reverted to Elizabeth Badham Deane.

The castle of Castlemagner = photographer unknown

Mary Brettridge Hartstonge

Mary Brettridge, the eldest daughter, received the lands of Castle Brettridge, with its manorial rights, along with Cappabrack. But these lands were first entrusted to Joan Brettridge for life. A third townland, Cappagh, was granted to Mary’s son, Arthur Hartstonge.[6] Mary married Francis Hartstonge and was the mother of Arthur and Standish. Arthur Hartstonge had no children and Cappagh passed to Price Hartstonge, son of Standish. Price Hartstonge had a son called Henry Hartstonge. In 1751, Henry Hartstonge married Lucy, daughter of Rev Stackpole Pery. She was a sister of Edmond Sexton Pery, speaker of the Irish House of Commons. The couple had no children and much of the Hartstonge estate including Castle Magner and Cappagh passed to the speaker’s son, Edmond Pery, 1st Earl of Limerick. The 1st Earl had married in January 1793 Mary Alice, only daughter and heir of Henry Ormsby by Mary, sister and heir of Sir Henry Hartstone.[7] His grandson, William Henry, 2nd Earl was the owner at Griffith’s Valuation (circa 1850) by which time Cappagh had become Kippagh and was divided into three parts. The 2nd Earl of Limerick died in 1866 and the property was sold to Sir Henry Wrixon-Beecher of Ballygiblin. The present (2021) holder of the title as 7th Earl of Limerick is Edmund Christopher Pery.

Jane Brettridge Badham

Jane Brettridge, the second daughter received as her inheritance the lands of Ballyheene, Killballyheen, Clashbale and Kilbrash. In addition Jane Brettridge also got the lands of Killebraher, Knocknesheling, Knockneineater and Rathmahiry with its mill which property had been grant to her mother Joan for life.[8] Joan married Thomas Badham and had two sons, one of whom was called Brettridge Badham, M.P. for Rathcormac. In 1744 Brettridge Badham was living at Rockfield, Co. Cork at the time of his death.[9] Rockfield was formerly known as Ballyheene and came from the Roger Brettridge inheritance. Brettridge Badham married Sophia, daughter of John King, 3rd Lord Kingston, and had two sons who died young and two daughters Sophia, born in 1720 and, Martha. Sophia Badham inherited Rockfield and her Brettridge lands which she passed to the family of her first husband.

Sophia Badham married Richard Thornhill (1707-1747), M.P., son of Edward Thornhill by Ann, daughter of Rev. Francis Quayle of Brigown, and grandson of William Thornhill (husband of Elizabeth Newenham), and great grandson of William Thornhill from Derbyshire who acquired Castle Kevin and other Irish property as reward for his service in the Parliamentary army of the 1640s civil war. Richard Thornhill took his wife’s surname for his children and the family became known as Badham-Thornhill. Sophia Badham-Thornhill had a number of children including Anne (died unmarried 1790), Sophia (wife of Major-General John Stratton), Major James Badham-Thornhill who died in 1796. Major James married Elizabeth and was the father of Anne (second wife of Richard Tonson-Rye of Rye Court) and Sophia (wife of Samuel Godsell, possible relation of Amos Godsell of Moorestown, Co. Limerick, whose will was, dated 1714).[10] Richard Tonson-Rye and Anne Badham-Thornhill were the parents of John Tonson-Rye (born 1797) who in 1818 married his cousin Mary Godsell, daughter of Samuel Godsell. John Tonson-Rye left one son and five daughters with many descendants as documented in Burke’s Irish Family Records, 1976 (reprinted 2007), page 1004.

The eldest son of Sophia Badham and Richard Thornhill was Edward Badham-Thornhill (1730-1798) who married Mary Marsh, daughter of Henry Marsh of Moyally, King’s County (Offaly), by his wife Barbarra, daughter of Jonathan Gerard of Dublin and Mary Mason. Edward Badham-Thornhill had three sons (Henry, Gerrard and Richard) and seven daughters (Mary, Charolette, Harriot, Barbarra, Alicia, Louisa and Juliet). Henry Badham-Thornhill (1771-1821) married Catherine Odell as her first husband (she later married Francis Roche and had a son), daughter of Thomas Odell and Sarah Westropp. Henry Badham-Thornhill had three daughters; Sarah, wife of William Beamish Ware; Mary who in 1820 married Rev. Benjamin Burton Johnson and they had three children with many descendants in Australia and Canada; and Catherine who married William Maitland. Henry Badham-Thornhill had five sons (Edward, John Thomas, John, James and Henry R.I.C. officer). The eldest son, Edward Badham-Thornhill (1808-1889) sold Castle Kevin in 1851 to Dorothea Reeves because of debts accrued during the Great Famine. Edward Badham-Thornhill married Elizabeth, daughter of Lawrence O’Donovan of Dublin and had two sons, Henry and Lawrence.[11]

Sophia Badham married secondly, on 2nd September 1752, to John Cuffe, 2nd Lord Desart. John Cuufe was the third but first surviving son of John Cuffe, 1st Baron of Desart by his second wife Dorothea Gorges, daughter of Lt. Gen. Richard Gorges of Kilbrew, Co. Meath. John Cuffe died on 25th November 1767 without any children when the barony passed to his brother Otway Cuffe, 3rd Lord Desart, who left issue. Sophia Badham died on 2nd August 1768 at Merrion Street in Dublin.[12]  

Martha Badham, second daughter of Brettridge Badham and Sophia King, married Rev. Thomas Ryder, rector of Brigown and great grandson of John Ryder, bishop of Killaloe. Some records say that Martha was the sister of Brettridge Badham.[13] I think she was the daughter of Brettridge. Thomas and Martha Ryder were the parents of four sons (Henry, Badham, St. George, and John) and one daughter Jane (wife of Rev. James Graves and grandparents of Rev. Richard Hastings Graves, rector of Brigown). Badham and John Ryder appear to have left no descendants. Henry Ryder was the father of Abraham St. George Ryder who married (1777) Frances, daughter of William Harrington. Abraham had a number of children including Captain William Ryder of Riverstown House, Co. Kildare (husband of Anne Dickson) who was the father of William Ryder, genealogist. Local folklore said the Ryder family tried to block up the nearby St. Brigid’s Holy Well but the well fought back and won. In the 20th century Riverstown House had a number of owners, and after empty for a number of years, it was sold again in 2016.

The other sons of Abraham Ryder were Harrington Ryder (husband of Elizabeth Gore, daughter of Arthur Gore) and St. George Ryder (husband of Annabella Pennicuick). Abraham Ryder was the father of Emma, wife of James Cassidy of Bray. Harrington Ryder of the Abbey, Co. Tipperary, was the father of Rev. Arthur Gore Ryder who was the headmaster of Carrickmacross School and later rector of Donnybrook, Co. Dublin. Rev. Arthur married twice (1st to Anne Gore (d.1863), daughter of William Gore of Tramore, and 2nd to Nina MacMahon, daughter of Sir Beresford MacMahon). His eldest son, Harrington Dudley Ryder died in 1858 and his second son, St. George Ryder died in 1859 and Arthur Gore Ryder of Riverstown House (husband of Caroline Grogan) died 1906 by his first marriage. The second marriage produced Nina Beryll Ryder, Ralph Ryder and Beresford Burton MacMahon Ryder (husband of Eleanor Curle).[14]  

Meanwhile St. George Ryder of Mitchelstown, Co. Cork, married Margaret, daughter of William Murphy of Mitchelstown, and was the father of Martha Ryder (d.1846 and wife of Charles Venters), St. George Ryder, barrister (husband of Abigail Rothwell) and John Ryder (d.1819 and chancellor of Cloyne). John Ryder married Margaret, daughter of Rev. Joshua Brown (husband of Margaret, daughter of Llewellyn Nash), and was the father of three sons (St. George, Rev. Joshua and Rev. William) and two daughters (Dorothy and Margaret). St. George Ryder left no issue while Rev. Joshua Ryder married his cousin Lucinda Wood, daughter of Michael Wood, merchant of Cork, by his wife Margaret, daughter of Rev. William Nash, son of Llewellyn Nash. Rev. Joshua Ryder, rector of Castlelyons, was the father of Michael wood Ryder (d.1847) and Lucinda Ryder (d.1875). Rev. William Ryder, archdeacon of Cloyne, married Ann, daughter of Rev. John Ross. Rev. William Ryder (d.1862) was the father of John Ross Ryder and William Ryder (1856). Rev. William Ryder was the father of a number of daughters including Margaret (wife of George Browne), Marianne (wife of John Hendley and later James Murray, leaving descendants presently living by Hendley), Eleanor (wife of Walter Fitzsimon), Isabella and Annie (wife of Walter Browne).

Elizabeth Brettridge Deane

Elizabeth Brettridge, the third daughter, received the lands of Rossanarny (owned by Pierce Purcell of Altamira by the 1840’s), Ardagh and Knockballymartin. After the death of her mother, Elizabeth also got a house in Millstreet.[15] Elizabeth married c.1679 to Robert Deane (d.1714) of Springfield Castle, Co. Limerick, 2nd Baronet, and son of Sir Matthew Deane created 1st Baronet in 1709 and died in 1710.[16] They were the parents of Sir Matthew Deane (c.1680-1747), 3rd Baronet and M.P. for Charleville and later for Co. Cork in the Irish parliament. Sir Mathew Deane married Jane Sharpe, only daughter of Rev. William Sharpe, and was the father of three sons and three daughters. In 1781 Sir Robert Deane, the 6th Baronet, was raised in the peerage to Baron Muskerry. The present (2021) 9th Baron Muskerry lives in South Africa. The Deane family did continue the Brettridge blood line but little of the estate as in 1883 the family held only 28 acres in Co. Cork.[17]

Conclusion

In 1683 Roger Brettridge, army officer and grantee of forfeited estates in north-west County Cork, died in Gloucestershire without any male heirs to continue his name. Yet his three daughters, Mary, Jane and Elizabeth, have continued his blood line over the next 250 years to the present-day.     

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[1] Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 650

[2] Extracted from web site – www.glosgen.co.uk/whadreg.htm, in November 2005

[3] Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 650

[4] Niall O’Brien, ‘Roger Brettridge: and the 1662 Act of Settlement and Duhallow Affairs at the Court of Claims’, in Seanchas Dúthalla, Vol. XV (2011), pp. 11-17, p. 14

[5] Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 5, p. 112

[6] Niall O’Brien, ‘Roger Brettridge: and the 1662 Act of Settlement and Duhallow Affairs at the Court of Claims’, in Seanchas Dúthalla, Vol. XV (2011), pp. 11-17, p. 12

[7] George E. Cokaye, The Complete Peerage (Gloucester, 1987), vol. VII, p. 663

[8] Niall O’Brien, ‘Roger Brettridge: and the 1662 Act of Settlement and Duhallow Affairs at the Court of Claims’, in Seanchas Dúthalla, Vol. XV (2011), pp. 11-17, p. 12

[9] P. Beryl Eustace, ‘Index of Will Abstracts in the Genealogical Office, Dublin’, in The Genealogical Office, Dublin (Dublin, 1998), pp. 79-282, at p. 97

[10] P. Beryl Eustace, ‘Index of Will Abstracts in the Genealogical Office, Dublin’, in The Genealogical Office, Dublin (Dublin, 1998), pp. 79-282, at p. 186

[11] Jane Hills, ‘’, in the Mallow Field Club Journal, No. 20 (2002), pp. 144-153

[12] George E. Cokaye, The Complete Peerage (Gloucester, 1987), vol. IV, p. 228

[13] Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 641

[14] Alison-Stewart blogspot entitled DubStewartMania with the article title of ‘Rev. John Grogan and Lizzie Bourne, Balrothery and Clyde Road’, posted on 16th August 2013

[15] Niall O’Brien, ‘Roger Brettridge: and the 1662 Act of Settlement and Duhallow Affairs at the Court of Claims’, in Seanchas Dúthalla, Vol. XV (2011), pp. 11-17, p. 12

[16] Debrett’s Illustrated Peerage, 1901, p. 590

[17] George E. Cokaye, The Complete Peerage (Gloucester, 1987), vol. IX, p. 443

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Maritime History

Agnes, Lady Acland, Agnes & Constance: Biographies of Sailing Merchant Vessels

Agnes, Lady Acland, Agnes & Constance: Biographies of Sailing Merchant Vessels

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

In 1900 the waters around Britain and Ireland were full of sailing merchant vessels carrying coal, timber, grain, iron, china clay and all kinds of other bulk cargoes between the great and small ports. These vessels were of varied size and shape with different rigging such as ketch, barquentine and schooner. They were built in purpose designed ship yards around Britain and Ireland and some were built in North America and a few parts of Europe. Yet some of these vessels were built on the seashore or river banks between high and low tide in yards that have vanished just like their creations.

Yet by 1960 only a handful of these vast numbers of vessels continued to ply their trade commercially. A few of these vessels remain today as museum items or stuck in limbo waiting for a source of money to keep them afloat. Some professional schoonermen, such as Hugh Shaw, Richard England and William Slade, wrote about their lives aboard these sailing vessels and give us a feel of what it was like. Yet the vast majority of masters and sailors left little written accounts of those days. Many of these sailors have now (2018) passed on, their once proud vessels broken up or buried beneath the waves and commercial maritime trade is now done by motor vessels, great and small. Biographies of some of the vast number of sailing merchant vessels that once existed are given below to give some idea of the characters of these vessels and their sailors.

A model of a ketch

Agnes

The Agnes was a wooden ketch built in 1904 by Henry Stapleton of Bude. Her dimensions were 70.6 feet long by 18.5 feet wide at the beam by 8 feet. She had 67 tons gross and 54 tons net. The official number of the Agnes was 105246 and her signal hoist was MLGV.

In 1904 the Agnes was created as an enlargement of the smack called the Lady Acland built in 1835. The Agnes was a collection of other vessels. Her mizzen mast came from the wrecked Italian barque, the Capricorno and her mainmast came from the wrecked ketch, the Wild Pigeon. Having completed her career as a sailing merchant vessel the Agnes was purchased for use as a yacht in 1957. Unfortunately her new life didn’t last long and she was wrecked in the West Indies in 1958 at the good age of 123 years old![1]

In 1906 the Agnes was owned and mastered by Nicholas H. Tregaskes of Bude in Cornwall while the vessel was registered to the port of Bideford in Devon.[2] The stern of the Agnes had written “Agnes, Port of Bideford”.[3] Yet she was not the only vessel of that name registered to Bideford. In 1907 another Agnes of Bideford (official number 62955) was a schooner built in 1869 and owned/managed by John Kelly of Appledore.[4] By 1913 there was only one Agnes registered at Bideford, that of 105246.[5]

In 1914/5 the Agnes acquired a new owner/manager in the form of John P. Tregaskes of Bramble Hill in Bude.[6] In 1915 the crew of the Agnes consisted of John James Hallett, master, born 1859 at Bude; Archie Hallett, mate, born 1888 at St. Mawes; and Fred Jeffrey, able seaman, born 1895/6.[7] In 1918/9 the Agnes was sold to the Cookson Barytes Company of Milburn House, Newcastle-upon-Tyne with Frank Reid as her new master.[8] She was not registered in 1920 or in later years.[9] In 1923 the Agnes reappears in the registers with a new owner/manager, Frederick R.E. Wright of Braunton in Devon and having a reduced net tonnage of 45 tons.[10] The reduction was due to the installation of an auxiliary engine. In 1924 her signal hoist was KNJR.[11] In 1934 her signal hoist changed to MLGV.[12]

The 1935 owner of the Agnes was F. Wright of Braunton. That same year a photograph was taken of the Agnes off Bude.[13] In 1957 the Agnes was sold by Peter Herbert of Bude to Alastair Barr of Oban for a voyage to the West Indies. After a successful crossing to Barbados the vessel was wrecked in 1958.[14]

Lady Acland

The Lady Acland was built at Bude in 1835 with an official number of 13418. The early history of the vessel is obscure. She does not appear on Lloyd’s List in the 1840s or 1850s. In 1851 she was registered to the port of Bideford in Devon. In 1863 Oliver Davey of Bude, Cornwall was the owner of the Lady Acland and John Elliott of Bude was her master. She then measured 47 net tons. Her crew consisted of Elliott (aged 51, born Kilhampton) with John Marshall, aged 32 as mate (born Bude) and Richard Heard, aged 20, as boy (born Poughill). All three had previously served on the Lady Acland.[15] In 1865 the Lady Acland was owned by Oliver Davey.[16] In 1878/9 the tonnage of the Lady Acland was reduced from 47 tons to 44 net tons.[17] In 1882/3 Oliver Davey changed the rigging of the Lady Acland from that of a schooner to a ketch without any change in her tonnage.[18] In 1890 the Lady Acland was still owned by Oliver Davey and was registered to Bideford in Devon. She measured 44 net tons and had a ketch rigging.[19] In 1893/4 the tonnage of the Lady Acland was reduced to 32 net tons.[20] In 1898 Oliver Davey was described as the owner/manager of the Lady Acland.[21] In 1898/9 the Lady Acland was sold to Edward Rudland of Holsworthy in Devon as owner/manager.[22] In 1901 the register was closed on the Lady Acland until she was reborn in 1904 as the Agnes of Bideford.[23]

Agnes & Constance

The Agnes & Constance was a wooden ketch that was built in 1889 by Curel of Frindsbury, Kent. She measured 63 tons net, with an official number of 97711 and having a signal hoist showing MJCP.[24] The first owner of the Agnes & Constance was James Little of Strood in Kent. He was both her owner and master and registered the vessel at Rochester. She then measured 66 net tons.[25] In 1892/3 the vessel received modifications that reduced her net tonnage to 63 tons.[26] James Little was the owner of a number of vessels which were generally known as Thames Barges.[27] In 1915 the crew of the Agnes & Constance was E.R. Jackson, master, born 1880 in Kent; Hanley Payne, mate, born 1892 in Kent; and John Stankey, mate, born 1888 in Kent.[28]

In 1916/7 the Agnes & Constance was sold to John T. Rayfield of 16 Milton Place in Gravesend who became the owner and manager.[29] In 1919 she had the signal hoist of JTHG.[30] In 1924 the Agnes & Constance was owned by John Rayfield junior of Dock Row in Newfleet.[31] In 1924/5 the Agnes & Constance was sold to William A. Ellis of Runnymeade Road, Stanford-le-Hope in Essex.[32] In 1925/6 she was sold again with Joshua Francis of New Town Road in Colchester as her new owner.[33] In 1934 her signal hoist was changed to MJCP.[34] In 1935 the Agnes & Constance was owned by Francis & Gilders of Hythe Quay in Colchester with Joshua Francis as her master.[35] Between 1940 and 1947 the Agnes & Constance disappears from the register.[36]

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[1] Douglas Bennett (edited by David Clement), Schooner Sunset (Rochester, 2001), page 171

[2] Mercantile Navy List, 1906, p. 494

[3] Basil Greenhill, The Merchant Schooners (2 vols. Percival Marshall, London, 1951), Vol. 1, page 71

[4] Mercantile Navy List, 1907, p. 514

[5] Mercantile Navy List, 1913, p. 617

[6] Mercantile Navy List, 1915, p. 659

[7] Royal Museums Greenwich, RSS/CL/1915/3517

[8] Mercantile Navy List, 1919, p. 642

[9] Mercantile Navy List, 1920, p. 671

[10] Mercantile Navy List, 1923, p. 731

[11] Mercantile Navy List, 1924, p. 743

[12] Mercantile Navy List, 1934, p. 817

[13] Richard J. Scott, Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The Last Years of the Western Seas Traders (Black Dwarf Publications, Lydney, 2012), page 101

[14] Richard J. Scott, Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The Last Years of the Western Seas Traders (Black Dwarf Publications, Lydney, 2012), page 115

[15] Devon Archives and Local Studies, 1976/Lady Acland/13418

[16] Mercantile Navy List, 1865, p. 207

[17] Mercantile Navy List, 1879, p. 359

[18] Mercantile Navy List, 1883, p. 383

[19] Mercantile Navy List, 1890, p. 468

[20] Mercantile Navy List, 1894, p. 526

[21] Mercantile Navy List, 1898, p. 568

[22] Mercantile Navy List, 1899, p. 584

[23] Mercantile Navy List, 1902, p. 607; National Archives, UK, Kew, BT 110/160/38

[24] Douglas Bennett (edited by David Clement), Schooner Sunset (Rochester, 2001), page 171

[25] Mercantile Navy List, 1890, p. 276

[26] Mercantile Navy List, 1890, p. 326

[27] http://www.thamesbarge.org.uk/barges/Willmott/owners/FWJames%20Little.html [accessed on 22nd May 2018]

[28] Royal Museums Greenwich, RSS/CL/1915/3447

[29] Mercantile Navy List, 1917, p. 665

[30] Mercantile Navy List, 1919, p. 643

[31] Mercantile Navy List, 1924, p. 744

[32] Mercantile Navy List, 1925, p. 758

[33] Mercantile Navy List, 1926, p. 770

[34] Mercantile Navy List, 1934, p. 817

[35] Mercantile Navy List, 1935, p. 839

[36] Mercantile Navy List, 1947, p. 987

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Maritime History

Adelaide, Advance and Aeolus: Biographies of Sailing Merchant Vessels

Adelaide, Advance and Aeolus:

Biographies of Sailing Merchant Vessels

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

In 1900 the waters around Britain and Ireland were full of sailing merchant vessels carrying coal, timber, grain, iron, china clay and all kinds of other bulk cargoes between the great and small ports. These vessels were of varied size and shape with different rigging such as ketch, barquentine and schooner. They were built in purpose designed ship yards around Britain and Ireland and some were built in North America and a few parts of Europe. Yet some of these vessels were built on the seashore or river banks between high and low tide in yards that have vanished just like their creations.

Yet by 1960 only a handful of these vast numbers of vessels continued to ply their trade commercially. A few of these vessels remain today as museum items or stuck in limbo waiting for a source of money to keep them afloat. Some professional schoonermen, such as Hugh Shaw, Richard England and William Slade, wrote about their lives aboard these sailing vessels and give us a feel of what it was like. Yet the vast majority of masters and sailors left little written accounts of those days. Many of these sailors have now (2021) passed on, their once proud vessels broken up or buried beneath the waves and commercial maritime trade is now done by motor vessels, great and small. Biographies of some of the vast number of sailing merchant vessels that once existed are given below to give some idea of the characters of these vessels and their sailors.

The Le Yaudet in the absense of any photo of the named vessels

Adelaide

The Adelaide was a wooden two-masted schooner in the 1930s that began life as a brigantine in 1869 in the shipyard of Tredwen in Padstow.[1] In the mid-nineteenth century Padstow, with its great but shallow Camel River, its creeks, stretching into the broad floor valley, and its Doom Bar, was the site of five shipyards, those of Cowl, Stribley, Rawle, Willmett and Tredwen. Of these Tredwen alone built at least twenty-nine vessels between the Fawn of 1858 and the Flower of the Fal of 1870.[2] The Adelaide measured 106 feet long by 24.3 feet wide and 12.7 feet in height. She was 180 tons gross and 138 tons net. Her official number was 58295 and her signal hoist in 1935 was MDLX.[3] In 1870 the Adelaide was registered at Fowey, Cornwall with William Warren Dingle of Fowey as her owner. The Adelaide had a signal hoist of HSGQ and her registered tonnage was then 165 tons.[4] In the 1870s and 1880s she was rigged as a brigantine.[5]

By 1878 the Adelaide had acquired a new owner in the person of Richard P. Toms of Fowey.[6] In 1884 John Merrifield of Gascoyne Place in Plymouth was the new owner of the Adelaide while the vessel was still registered at Fowey.[7] In 1890/1 Charles Morris of Gascoyne House, Plymouth became the owner and master of the Adelaide.[8] In 1895/6 the registered tonnage of the Adelaide was reduced from 165 tons to 136 tons while still retaining her brigantine rigging.[9] In 1896/7 Inkerman Tregaskes of Par in Cornwall became the new owner/master with Fowey as her port of registration.[10] In 1915 the crew of the Adelaide were: William Trembeth, master, aged 68 from Par; John Stephens, mate, aged 50, from Devoran; H. Williams, able seaman, aged 37 from Southampton and A. Murphy. Later in 1915 Thomas Twyford replaced H. Williams as able seaman. Twyford was aged 48 and was born in Cork, Ireland.[11]

In 1916/7 Albert E. Benney of 12 Frobisher Terrace in Falmouth became in the new owner/master of the Adelaide.[12] In 1918 Albert Benney changed her rigging to that of a schooner while retaining her registered tonnage of 136 tons.[13] The National Archives at Kew have ship logs books relating to the Adelaide covering the years 1914 to 1917.[14] In 1924 the Adelaide’s port of registration was changed from Fowey to Falmouth.[15] In 1927 Albert Benney appears to have moved next door to number 13 Frobisher Terrace.[16] In 1934 the Adelaide acquired the new signal hoist of MDLX.[17] But the changed appears to have signalled the end of the Adelaide rather than a new beginning as her registration was closed in 1934/5.

Advance

The Advance was a steel hulled vessel that was built in 1898 by T. Turnbull & Son of Whitby. The firm of Thomas Turnball was originally founded in Whitby in 1817 and built and owned a large fleet of sailing ships. Their first steamship was built in 1871 and traded with coal to the Black Sea, returning with grain. Trade later expanded to cover coal from the Tyne, Wear and Tees to Scandinavia, Spain, Portugal and the Black Sea and homewards with timber, cork, wine and grain. By 1902 the River Plate had been added to the routes, but by 1914 the fleet consisted of only six ships, of which three were lost to enemy action. The rest of the fleet had been sold by 1918 and the company liquidated in 1920.[18]

The dimensions of the Advance were 125 feet long by 25 feet wide and 9.7 feet in height. She measured 278 tons gross and 232 tons net. Her official number was 108364.[19] In 1899 the Advance was registered at London with a lugger rigging and 232 net tons. Harry Keep of 90 Lower Thames Street in the City of London was her owner/master.[20] In 1906 the Advance was owned by Alfred H. Keep of 40 Trinity Square, London while Harry Keep remained as her master with the same Trinity Square address.[21] In 1909 the new master of the Advance was George H. From of 40 Trinity Square, with Alfred Keep as owner.[22] In 1912/3 the Advance was sold to R. & W. Paul of Ipswich with Peter Reed of 47 Key Street in Ipswich as her new master. She still retained her London registration for a number of years afterward.[23]

In 1917/8 the Advance was sold to the Advance Lighterage Company of 3 Nelson Street in Hull. William Miller of 3 Nelson Street and Robert Williams of The Willows, Holderness acted at various times as her master.[24] In 1925 the Advance was laid up and not on the register.[25] In 1926 her new owner and master was Robert Gray of 2 Frithside Street in Fraserburgh.[26] In 1930/1 the Advance was sold to Duncan MacIver of the Fish Market in Stornaway, Ross-shire with Norman MacIver as her new master. Duncan changed her port of registration from London to Stornaway.[27] The Advance was on the Lloyd’s Register of shipping in 1935 and in 1945 registered at Stornaway. Douglas Bennett described the Advance in the 1930s as having a schooner rig but the official records always give her a lugger rigging.[28] In 1953 the life of the Advance ended and her registration was closed.[29]

Aeolus

The Aeolus was a wooden two-masted schooner that was built in 1896 at Brixham. The chief ship builders at Brixham were Mr. Furneaux, S. Dewdney and Sons and J.W.A. Upham.[30] She measured 66 tons gross. Her official number was 108001.[31] Dartmouth and Brixham were essentially ports of the earlier days of the merchant schooners involved with fruit schooners and the early general deep water traders. By the 1870s the ports of deep sea schooners had moved west but Brixham remained a home for many vessels until the twentieth century. The small ships that launched at Brixham were to remain well known to the last days of sail.[32]

In 1898 the Aeolus was owned by John Cranefield Scholey of 85 Fenchurch Street, London while the vessel was registered at Portsmouth.[33] In 1899 John Cranefield Scholey of 24 St. James Street, London was both owner and master of the Aeolus while he also continued to use the Fenchurch Street address in other documents. The Aeolus measured 66 gross tons and 43 net tons. The crew in 1899 were Richard Peacock, mate, aged 41; Charles Smart, able seaman, aged 23; Albert Andrews, able seaman, aged 23; John Hills, able seaman, aged 24; Ted Sharman, boy, aged 23 and Fred Bowles, boy, aged 19. All the crew except the captain had come from different vessels.[34] In 1904 the crew of the Aeolus were a mixture of British and Swedish sailors. J.C. Scholey of 7 Albemarle Street, London was still the owner/master. G. Jeffrey, mate, aged 30 and H. Moore, cook, aged 26 were both from Southwick while P. Soderfrome, carpenter, aged 33, John Anderson, able seaman, aged 24, Otto Petterson, able seaman, aged 29 and Throdar Olsin, able seaman, aged 33 were all from Sweden.[35]

In 1909/10 the Aeolus was transferred to Joshua W.C. Scholey of 85 Fenchurch Street, London.[36] In 1918/9 the Aeolus was sold to William H. Webber of 25a Greatham Street, Portsmouth who also became her new master.[37] By 1930 William Webber had moved to 9 Mayhall Road in the district of Copnor in Portsmouth.[38] In 1935 the Aeolus was on the Lloyd’s Register of shipping as registered at Portsmouth.[39] But by 1937 the Aeolus had disappeared from the records.[40]

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[1] Douglas Bennett (edited by David Clement), Schooner Sunset (Rochester, 2001), p. 171

[2] Basil Greenhill, The Merchant Schooners (2 vols. Percival Marshall, London, 1951), Vol. 1, p. 151

[3] Douglas Bennett (edited by David Clement), Schooner Sunset (Rochester, 2001), p. 171

[4] Mercantile Navy List, 1870, p. 4

[5] Mercantile Navy List, 1872, p. 93; Mercantile Navy List, 1890, p. 273

[6] Mercantile Navy List, 1878, p. 129

[7] Mercantile Navy List, 1884, p. 183

[8] Mercantile Navy List, 1891, p. 291

[9] Mercantile Navy List, 1896, p. 354

[10] Mercantile Navy List, 1897, p. 370

[11] Royal Museum Greenwich, RSS/CL/1915/3368

[12] Mercantile Navy List, 1917, p. 663

[13] Mercantile Navy List, 1918, p. 635

[14] National Archives, UK, Kew, BT 165/615

[15] Mercantile Navy List, 1925, p. 756

[16] Mercantile Navy List, 1927, p. 784

[17] Mercantile Navy List, 1934, p. 816

[18] Marine-list.com web site [accessed 14th July 2018]

[19] Douglas Bennett (edited by David Clement), Schooner Sunset (Rochester, 2001), p. 171

[20] Mercantile Navy List, 1899, p. 401

[21] Mercantile Navy List, 1906, p. 493

[22] Mercantile Navy List, 1909, p. 553

[23] Mercantile Navy List, 1913, p. 616

[24] Mercantile Navy List, 1918, p. 636

[25] Mercantile Navy List, 1925, p. 756

[26] Mercantile Navy List, 1926, p. 769

[27] Mercantile Navy List, 1931, p. 912

[28] Douglas Bennett (edited by David Clement), Schooner Sunset (Rochester, 2001), p. 171

[29] National Archives, UK, Kew, BT 110/1307/20

[30] Basil Greenhill, The Merchant Schooners (2 vols. Percival Marshall, London, 1951), Vol. 1, p. 144

[31] Douglas Bennett (edited by David Clement), Schooner Sunset (Rochester, 2001), p. 171

[32] Basil Greenhill, The Merchant Schooners (2 vols. Percival Marshall, London, 1951), Vol. 1, p. 143

[33] Mercantile Navy List, 1898, p. 385

[34] Portsmouth History Centre, Aeolus, 1899

[35] Portsmouth History Centre, Aeolus, 1904

[36] Mercantile Navy List, 1910, p. 568

[37] Mercantile Navy List, 1919, p. 642

[38] Mercantile Navy List, 1930, p. 872

[39] Douglas Bennett (edited by David Clement), Schooner Sunset (Rochester, 2001), p. 171

[40] Mercantile Navy List, 1937, p. 849

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Biography, Dublin History

De Valera in the Irish Census Records, 1901 & 1911

De Valera in the Irish Census Records, 1901 & 1911

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

Éamon de Valera recorded his name into the history of twentieth century Ireland. But how did history record him in the years before 1916. History before 1916 didn’t know anybody called Éamon de Valera. Instead the documents knew him as Edward de Valera from County Limerick. On 1st April 1901 Edward de Valera was a boarder at a school in Williamstown Avenue in Blackrock, Co. Dublin. There were twenty-eight students in the school as recorded by headmaster, John Murphy. Edward de Valera was 18 years old and gave his place of birth as Co. Limerick. He could read and write but didn’t say what languages he could speak. 

Eamon and Jane (Sinead) de Valera

In 1901 Jane O’Flanagan (aged 22) was a national teacher who could speak Irish and English. Jane’s first teaching position was in Edenderry but by 1901 she was teaching in Dorset Street in Dublin. Her sister Brigid (aged 16) was also a national teacher at moniterse class. Brigid could also speak Irish and English as could their father, Laurence O’Flanagan, (aged 62) a carpenter from Co. Kildare. Laurence’s eldest daughter, Mary (aged 30), was born in New York and was a dress maker. His son, Laurence junior was a tailor. Laurence’s wife was Margaret O’Flanagan, nee Byrne (aged 58), was from County Dublin. In 1901 they lived at number 6 Richmond Cottages in the Mountjoy area of Dublin. Laurence and Margaret moved to New York before 1871 but returned to Ireland and Balbiggin, Co. Dublin in 1873.   

By 1911 Jane O’Flanagan had changed her name to the Irish form and thus became known as Sinéad O’Flanagan. On 8th January 1910 she married Edward de Valera of County Limerick and formerly of New York. Edward was then a math professor in Dublin. It would be awhile before Edward de Valera adopted the Irish form of his name and become the Éamon de Valera of fact and legend. On Sunday, 2nd April 1911 Sinéad de Valera filled up the census form and signed her name in the place reserved for the signature of the enumerator. Subsequently Patrick Lynch, the said enumerator, crossed out Sinéad’s name and wrote his own name above hers and filled in Edward de Valera in the place reserved for the signature of the head of the household. In 1911 the de Valera family were living at number 33 Morehampton Terrace, in the West Pembroke area of Dublin. Sinéad said that Edward de Valera was 28 years old, a Catholic, could read and write. Edward de Valera’s occupation was BA Dip in Education, Math Professor. Sinéad said that Edward could speak English and Irish while she wrote that she could speak Irish and English. They were married one year (8th January 1910) and had one son called Vivian de Valera, aged 3 months, who couldn’t read. Sinéad de Valera was 32 years old in 1911 and a Catholic and born in County Dublin. Sinéad said that Edward was born in New York. They had a female general domestic servant named Mary Coffey, aged 25 from County Dublin who couldn’t read. The house had nine rooms and three windows in the front elevation with no outbuildings.   

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Biography, Cork history

Stephen Mills of Cork, merchant and banker

Stephen Mills of Cork, merchant and banker

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

In 1892 C.M. Tenison, writing about the private banks of Cork and the south of Ireland mentioned Stephen Mills as a partner in the baking firm of Falkiner and Mills but that Tenison didn’t know much about Stephen Mills.[1] This article seeks to put some fresh on the life of Stephen Mills, merchant and banker in Cork City in the mid decades of the eighteenth century. It is not known when Stephen Mills was born or who were his parents?

Crawford Art Gallery, Cork near Falkiner and Mills Bank

Possible ancestors of Stephen Mills

He could have been related to Stawell Mills who held property in Cork City and County in the early years of the eighteenth century. Sometime before September 1713 Stawell Mills held property in Cork City, houses in the north liberties of Cork City and land in the barony of Orrery and Kilmore. In September 1713 Joseph Damer of Dublin granted a mortgage of £1,200 to William Ford of Limerick City, subject to the properties once held by Stawell Mills who was then deceased.[2] Elsewhere it is said that Stawell Mills lived at Ballybeg House near Buttevant, later occupied by Hugh Lawton.[3] Thomas Mills (will January 1700), father of Stawell Mills, held Ballybeg House in the 1690s and a sister of Thomas married John Glover of Mount Glover (later called Mount Corbett), Co. Cork.[4] In 1657 Randel, son of Thomas and Elizabeth Mills of St. Peter’s Parish was baptised in Holy Trinity Cork.[5] In 1667 Thomas Mills was sheriff of the city with George Wright. In 1673 Thomas Mills was mayor of Cork while James Mills was one of the two city sheriffs.[6]

Stephen Mills early years

In about 1744 Stephen Mills began his apprenticeship under Riggs Falkiner to learn the trade of being a merchant allowing seven years for the apprenticeship as Stephen ended his term by 1751.[7] Over the next quarter century Stephen Mills would have many interactions with Riggs Falkiner via social activity, property investments and partners in their own bank. The first direct reference to Stephen Mills appears in 1747 when he was at least twenty years old as he was a witness to a marriage deed. In March 1747 Stephen Mills was a witnessed to the marriage settlement between John Lapp of Cork and Ann Falkiner, daughter of Caleb Falkiner, deceased. William Conner of Connerville and Riggs Falkiner, merchant, were trustees of the marriage settlement.[8] Stephen Mills continued his association with the Falkiner family over the following two decades becoming a partner in the 1760s in the banking firm established by Riggs Falkiner. On 4th May 1747, Robert Warren of Kilbarry, Cork, gave a lease to Catherine, wife of John Allen, clothier of Cork, of a house in Cove Lane, Cork City, for the life of Catherine, her husband John and Stephen Mills.[9]  

In 1751 Stephen Mills had completed his merchant apprenticeship with Riggs Falkiner, merchant.[10] On 18th May 1751 Stephen Mills was described as a merchant when he was admitted to the freedom at large of Cork.[11] It is not known what kind of merchant trade he was involved in but considering that he later became a senior partner in a banking firm, the trade must have been profitable. In December 1751 Stephen Mills, merchant of Cork City, married Mary Taylor of Dublin. Mary was the daughter of Francis Taylor, merchant of Dublin, deceased, and Phoebe Taylor, executor of her husband. Stephen Mills promised, as part of the marriage settlement, to give to Mary Taylor one third of his estate in his will or one half if he left no children by Mary. The settlement was witnessed by James North of Drumanhane, Co. Tipperary, along with Daniel Rogers and William Groon, both from Dublin City.[12] In 1723 Francis Taylor had married Phoebe Edwards through the Prerogative Court.[13] Francis Taylor, merchant of Dublin, died in 1751 shortly before the marriage of his daughter to Stephen Mills.[14]

In 1762, Stephen Mills, merchant, joined up with Abraham Devonshire, Riggs Falkiner, Christopher Carlton and Robert Gordon to fill in some 210 feet of the River Lee on its north bank to make a quay from French Quay eastward to a quay by a small house. The property was leased to the partners for 999 years at one shilling per year rent. The partnership was to make a public quay 36 feet wide along the length of the property.[15] On 4th January 1766 Stephen Mills, merchant of Cork City, was a witness, with Anthony Ivors of Waterford, to the lease by Viscount Mountmorris, Shapland Carew and Edward Woodcock of Ballygunner castle, Ballygunnermore, Elaghan, Kilbrickham and Little Island, Waterford to William Finch, merchant of Cork City.[16] In 1767 Stephen Mills, merchant, was mentioned among a host of city freemen who were allowed to benefit from the provision of piped water as part of a parliamentary grant.[17]

Falkiner and Mills bank

In about 1760 Riggs Falkiner, merchant of Cork and son of Caleb Falkiner by Ruth, daughter of Edward Riggs, merchant of Cork, established a bank in the city, possibly wishing to follow the example of his uncle, Daniel Falkiner who was a partner in the Dublin banking firm of Burton’s Bank. By 1767 Riggs Falkiner had acquired a new partner in Stephen Mills to become the firm of Falkiner & Mills.[18] On 28th July 1768 the bank of Falkiner and Mills placed an advertisement in the Cork Evening Post saying that a number of banknotes were lost on the road between Cork and Killcreaght. One of the notes was for £50 and dated 15th April 1765 with a serial number of 884 produced by Falkiner and Mills. A reward of five guineas was offered for the return of the banknotes but we don’t know if a successful recovery was made.[19]

The bank of Falkiner and Mills was situated near the Old Custom House in a street called Falkiner’s Lane, now called Opera Lane.[20] The bank was a friend and creditor of the Earl of Shannon and in 1769 Riggs Falkiner became an M.P. for one of Shannon’s borough constituencies, Clonakilty.[21] In 1778 Riggs Falkiner was made a baronet. After Stephen Mills died in 1770, Riggs Falkiner continued the business on his own until 1776 when he went into partnership with John Leslie and Richard Kellett.[22]

Banks established in Cork in the first half of the eighteenth century were partnered by merchants who used their surplus cash from overseas trade to provide bill discounting, remittance services and make short term loans. In 1756 an act of parliament prevented merchants involved in foreign trade to describe themselves as bankers. The firm of Falkiner & Mills kept their merchant associations but also acquired new partners in the landed gentry and professional sectors of Cork city and county.[23] Among the county gentry, Sir James Cotter, baronet, and Sir Richard Kellet became a partners in the 1780s and 1790s[24] In the 1780s, before his death on 20th January 1786, Doctor Bayly Rogers, doctor of physics, was a partner in the bank which was briefly renamed Falkiner, Rogers, Leslie & Kellet.[25] Bayly Rogers of Floraville came from a strong medical family as he was the eldest son of Joseph Rogers, M.D., of Cork by Margaret, daughter of John Bayly, and in turn Bayly was the father of Joseph Rogers, M.D., of Seaview in Cork.[26]

Falkiner’s bank survived the financial crisis of 1793 when other Cork banks closed their doors. After the death of Riggs Falkiner in 1799 the bank continued under the new name of Cotter & Kellets with some £131,630 banknotes in circulation.[27] Over the next ten years the bank increased its money supply to £447,000 which was £27,000 more than its assets and in June 1809 the bank closed its doors.[28] It would appear that the bank was struggling for a few years as it temporary closed in 1807.[29] The liquidation process continued until 1826 even with an act of parliament in 1820 with creditors only getting about ten shillings in the pound while the lawyers clocked up over £60,000 in fees.[30]   

The family of Stephen Mills

On 4th June 1770 Stephen Mills, a banker of Cork City, died.[31] In 1770 the will of Stephen Mills of Cork was registered.[32] In his marriage settlement with Mary Taylor, Stephen said he would give half his estate to Mary if he died without children.[33] In 1770 Mary received a third of the estate as Stephen had at least two children with Mary. In July 1788, Stephen Mills, aged 18, son of Stephen Mills of Cork, deceased, was admitted into Trinity College Dublin. He was previously taught by Mr. Cary.[34] In 1832 Stephen Mills married Elizabeth Murphy.[35] In 1849 a person called Stephen Mills was living in Lamb Street, Clonakilty.[36] In 1850 Stephen was renting the house and small garden from John Fitzpatrick worth just one pound.[37] No further details are yet available concerning Stephen Mills.

In 1779 Mary, daughter of Stephen Mills, banker of Cork, married William Sankey M.P., 3rd or 5th or 6th son of Matthew Sankey of Coolmore, Co. Tipperary by Elizabeth, daughter and co-heir of George Villiers of Waterford, of Harcourt Street, Dublin.[38] Elsewhere William Sankey’s mother was described as Elizabeth, daughter and co-heir of John Villiers of Hanbury Hall, Co. Stafford.[39] William Sankey (b.c.1745-7, d. 25th November 1813) was M.P. for Philipstown (1790-1797).[40] William Sankey and Mary Mills were the parents of Matthew Sankey, barrister, of Bawnmore, Co. Cork and Modeshill, Co. Tipperary.[41] On 23rd March 1832 Matthew Sankey died at Clydaville near Mallow and was the husband of Eleanor O’Hara by who he was the father of eight children.

Bawnmore in the parish of Kilbrin, barony of Duhallow, appears to have been part of the estate of Stephen Mills left to his family in 1770. During the 1780s Mary Mills and Falkiner’s bank had a number of property deeds with the townland. On 22nd/23rd May 1780 Sir Riggs Falkiner, baronet, of Ann Mount, Co. Cork, and Mary Mills, widow of Stephen Mills of Cork City, made a lease of the town and lands of Bawnmore (otherwise known as Rathanane) to Bayly Rogers of Cork City for £777 8s with the proceeds to benefit, Sir Riggs Falkiner, Bayly Rogers, Richard Kellett and Charles Leslie.[42] On 24th/25th February 1782, by an instrument of a deed of lease and release (registered 12th March 1784), Bayly Rogers sold a third part of Bawnmore to Francis Woodley of Cork city on the direction of William Sankey (husband of Mary Mills junior), barrister-at-law in Dublin city, which property formerly belonged to Mary Mills. This was witnessed by Michael Fulham and Jonas Lander, both from Cork city.[43] In 1817 a person called Mary Mills died in Dublin.[44] She could possibly have been the widow of Stephen Mills but as her will was destroyed in the destruction of the Public Record Office in 1922 we cannot be certain.

Conclusion

In 1892 C.M. Tension could add little information about Stephen Mills apart from the fact he was a partner in the bank of Falkiner and Mills and died before 1772. In this article we have added extra information about the life of Stephen Mills. He came from a successful merchant family who occasionally got involved in city politics. In the early 1740s he became apprentice to Riggs Falkiner, merchant, beginning a quarter century relationship. He was witness to the wedding of Riggs sister and was successful in his own merchant business to buy corporation property with Riggs Falkiner and in the mid-1760s become a senior partner in the bank of Falkiner and Mills. In 1751 Stephen Mills married into a Dublin merchant family and had at least two children before his death in June 1770. Through the Sankey family of south Tipperary the blood line of Stephen Mills continued on to the present day. It is possible that further information on Stephen Mills may be discovered but for the moment we shall leave him rest two hundred and fifty years after his passing.

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[1] Tenison, C.M., ‘The Private Bankers of Cork and the South of Ireland’, in the Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, Volume I (1892), pp. 221-224, at p. 224

[2] Registry of Deeds, Dublin, Volume 13, Page 38, Memorial 4811, dated 28th September 1713

[3] The Dublin Weekly Journal, 8th January 1726, p. 166

[4] Notes & Queries, 1930, vol. 158, issue 2, p. 23

[5] Hood, Susan (ed.), Register of the parish of Holy Trinity (Christ Church), Cork, 1643-1669 (Dublin, 1998), p. 69

[6] Caulfield, Richard, The Council Book of the Corporation of Cork (Guildford, 1876), p. 1174

[7] Caulfield, The Council Book of the Corporation of Cork, p. 661

[8] Registry of Deeds, Dublin, Volume 126, Page 430, Memorial 88201, dated 4th March 1747

[9] Registry of Deeds, Dublin, Volume 125, Page 525, Memorial 85994, dated 14th May 1747

[10] Caulfield, The Council Book of the Corporation of Cork, p. 661

[11] Cork City and County Archives, 2007, List of Freemen of Cork City, 1710-1841, p. 121

[12] Registry of Deeds, Dublin, Volume 153, Page 515, Memorial 103541, dated 19th December 1751

[13] National Archives of Ireland, Diocesan and Prerogative Marriage Licence Bonds, 1623-1866

[14] National Archives of Ireland, Index to Prerogative Wills, 1536-1810

[15] Caulfield, The Council Book of the Corporation of Cork, pp. 763, 764

[16] Registry of Deeds, Dublin, Volume 246, Page 465, Memorial 158766, dated 4th January 1766

[17] Caulfield, The Council Book of the Corporation of Cork, p. 817

[18] Tenison, ‘The Private Bankers of Cork and the South of Ireland’, in the J.C.H.A.S., Volume I (1892), pp. 221-224, at p. 224

[19] Lenihan, Michael, Hidden Cork: Charmers, Chancers & Cute Hoors (Cork, 2010), p. 165

[20] Lenihan, Hidden Cork: Charmers, Chancers & Cute Hoors, p. 165

[21] Dickson, David, Old World Colony: Cork and South Munster, 1630-1830 (Cork, 2005), p. 166

[22] Tenison, ‘The Private Bankers of Cork and the South of Ireland’, in the J.C.H.A.S., Volume I (1892), pp. 221-224, at p. 224

[23] Dickson, Old World Colony: Cork and South Munster, 1630-1830, pp. 163, 164

[24] Lenihan, Hidden Cork: Charmers, Chancers & Cute Hoors, p. 165

[25] Lenihan, Hidden Cork: Charmers, Chancers & Cute Hoors, p. 166

[26] Ffolliott, Rosemary, ‘Rogers of Lota and Ashgrove’, in the Journal of Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, Vol. LXXII (1967), pp. 75-80, at pp. 78, 79

[27] Lenihan, Hidden Cork: Charmers, Chancers & Cute Hoors, p. 166

[28] Lenihan, Hidden Cork: Charmers, Chancers & Cute Hoors, p. 167

[29] O’Sullivan, William, The economic history of Cork City from the earliest times to the Act of Union (Cork, 1937), p. 203

[30] Lenihan, Hidden Cork: Charmers, Chancers & Cute Hoors, pp. 167, 168

[31] The Gentleman’s and London Magazine or Monthly Chronologer, 1741-1794, 1770, p. 390

[32] Anon, ‘Original Documents: Index Testamentorium olim in Registro Corcagie (1600-1802)’, in the Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, Volume III, Second Series (1897), pp. 194-200, at p. 197

[33] Registry of Deeds, Dublin, Volume 153, Page 515, Memorial 103541, dated 19th December 1751

[34] Burtchaell, G.D., & Sadleir, T.U. (eds.), Alumni Dublinesses (Bristol, 2001), p. 579

[35] National Archives of Ireland, Diocesan and Prerogative Marriage Licence Bonds, 1623-1866, Cork & Ross marriage licence bonds

[36] National Archives of Ireland, Valuation Office books, 1824-1856, House Book, 1849

[37] Griffith’s Valuation, parish of Kilgarriff, townland of Youghals

[38] Burke’s Landed Gentry, 1912, p. 625; Burke’s Landed Gentry, 1846, p. 1189; National Archives of Ireland, Diocesan and Prerogative Marriage Licence Bonds, 1623-1866, Cork & Ross marriage licence bonds

[39] Burke’s Landed Gentry, 1846, p. 1189

[40] Johnston-Lik, Edith, MPs in Dublin: companion to the History of the Irish Parliament 1692-1800 (Belfast, 2006), p. 121

[41] Burke’s Landed Gentry, 1912, p. 625

[42] Casey, A.E., & O’Dowling, Th. (eds.), OKief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 11, p. 1284

[43] Casey & O’Dowling (eds.), OKief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater, vol. 11, p. 1284

[44] National Archives of Ireland, Diocesan and Prerogative Wills, 1595-1858

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Waterford history

Ballyduff Upper Railway Station Staff

Ballyduff Upper Railway Station Staff

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

On 17th May 1860 the Great Southern and Western Railway opened a 17 mile railway to Fermoy from Mallow at a cost of £109,000 or costing £6,411 per mile. [Bill Power, Fermoy on the Blackwater (Mitchelstown, 2009), page 194] In 1865 two railway companies were formed to connect Fermoy with Waterford city. The Waterford, Lismore and Fermoy Railway proposed to connect Waterford to Dungarvan and Fermoy to Lismore. The other company, the Clonmel, Lismore and Dungarvan Railway was to bridge the gap between Lismore and Dungarvan with a connecting line to Clonmel from Dungarvan. None of the two companies succeeded in attracting enough investment money. Late in the 1860s the Duke of Devonshire decided to build his own railway line between Fermoy and Lismore. In June 1869 The Fermoy and Lismore Railway Act was passed. On 26th July 1872 the Duke of Devonshire made the first private railway journey on the line from Fermoy to Lismore and it was officially opened for business on 1st October 1872. The local landlord, Basil Orpin, who was a solicitor acting for the Duke of Devonshire, got the station at Ballyduff erected on his land and near his own house. In 1878 the Waterford, Dungarvan and Lismore Railway built the line to connect Lismore to Waterford and so establish the through line from Mallow to Waterford. Ballyduff had the lowest goods traffic on the network before and after 1878 so that its most important facility was as a double track station which allowed trains to pass each other on what was otherwise a single track line. Every train had to stop at Ballyduff to receive a token which would allow them to proceed into the next section of railway track. Although processing a signal box to regulate traffic Ballyduff appears to have had no full time signalman employed. Instead the station master or one of the porters worked the signal box. In a report on railway rationalisation in 1950 C.I.E. proposed closing the Mallow to Waterford railway but the powers that be said no. In 1966 C.I.E. tried again to close the line and were successful. On 25th March 1967 the last passenger train stopped at Ballyduff and the line from Mallow to Waterford was closed. Demolition of the railway began almost immediately from Mallow towards Dungarvan. The fixture and fittings at Ballyduff station were removed and the station building was sold.

Ballyduff station 1961, photographer unknown, care of Waterford County Museum

James Jones, station master = in 1881 James Jones was station master at Ballyduff. [Slater’s Commercial Directory of Ireland, 1881, Munster, page 139] In 1886 James Jones was station master at Ballyduff [Guy’s Postal Directory, 1886] In 1901 a person called James Jones was station master at Milltown, County Kerry. He was 58 years old and was born in County Kerry. By 1901 James Jones was a widower. [Source = National archives of Ireland, census returns 1901] On 24th December 1903 James Jones, station master, died at Cork leaving effects worth £332 1s 9d. Administration of his estate was granted to Annie Maguire, widow. [Source = National Archives of Ireland, Calendar of Wills and Administrations 1858-1920]

Thomas O’Keeffe, station master = in 1893 Thomas O’Keeffe was the station master at Ballyduff [Guy’s Postal Directory, 1893, County Waterford, page 34] In 1901 a person called Thomas O’Keeffe (aged 34) was a railway goods agent at Tipperary town. He was born in County Cork and was married to Maria O’Keeffe (aged 34), born in County Waterford. [Source = National archives of Ireland, census returns 1901]

Denis A. O’Regan, station master = in 1901 Denis O’Regan (aged 36) lived in the station house at Ballyduff in Marshtown townland. Denis was born in Lismore, County Waterford. He declared on the census form that he could read and write as well as speak Irish and English. His wife, Mary E. O’Regan (aged 38) came from Kilcalf, near Tallow, Co. Waterford and her maiden name was Mary Connors. She could also read and write and speak both languages. They had a daughter, Mary Agnes (aged 4), and two sons, Maurice Joseph (2) and John Benedict (1). There was one visitor in the house on census night; Ellen Cunningham (aged 14). The station house had five rooms and five outbuildings, a shed and four store houses. [Source = National archives of Ireland, census returns 1901] In 1911 Denis O’Regan was station master at Ballyhooly railway station. He was then 48 years old. His wife of 15 years, Mary Regan was aged 40. By 1911 they had seven children of whom six were alive. Mary (aged 14) and Maurice (aged 13) were both born in County Waterford while their other children, John (aged 11), Hannah (aged 10), Denis (aged 8) and Bridget (aged 5) were born in County Cork. All the family were Roman Catholics. [Source = National archives of Ireland, census returns 1911]

Peter Carroll, station master = in 1911 Peter Carroll was the station master at Ballyduff and lived in the station house in the townland of Marshtown. Peter was 36 years old and was born in County Limerick. He could read and write and was a Roman Catholic. He was married to Anastasia Carroll (aged 35) for nine years and they had two children of whom one was living in 1911, Margaret (aged 4). Anastasia was born in County Limerick while Margaret was born in County Kildare. The station house had only one room for the family to live in and three outbuildings, a piggery, a fowl house and a store. [Source = National archives of Ireland, census returns 1911] In 1901 Peter Carroll was living in house number 3 in Power’s Court townland near Newbridge, County Kildare. He was unmarried and worked as a railway porter. Living with him was his brother, Denis Carroll (aged 24) who also worked as a railway porter and their uncle, Michael Carroll (aged 41), a farm labourer. [Source = National archives of Ireland, census returns 1901]

Christy Cusack, station master = by 1918 Christy Cusack was the station master at Ballyduff. In that year his young son, Dermot Cusack, was photographed standing on the station platform. in 1920 Christy Cusack was photographed at Ballyduff station in his railway uniform standing behind a bench upon which Jack O’Neill (in railway uniform) and Ned Higgins were sitting on. In 1924 Christy Cusack was photographed standing on the platform in suit, hat and dicky bow with a group of other Ballyduff waiting for the train to take them to the senior football county final. The game was played by Ballyduff against Rathgormuck and Ballyduff were victorious. Dermot Cusack was photographed in 1928 at Ballyduff in his confirmation suit suggesting that his father was still station master at Ballyduff. [Paddy John Feeney & Maurice Geary (eds.), Ballyduff Pictorial Past, volume one (Ballyduff, n.d.), pages 8, 11, 15, 18] It is not know where Christy Cusack came from or where he went after Ballyduff.

Hugh Collins, railway porter = in 1901 and 1911 Hugh Collins worked as a railway porter. In 1911 Hugh Collins lived in house number 3 in Ballyduff Upper townland. Hugh was then 40 years old and was born in County Waterford (in the 1901 census he was 28 years old). He could read and write as well as being able to speak Irish and English. He was married to Margaret Collins (aged 35) for six years. Margaret could also speak Irish and English along with reading and writing. She was born in County Cork. The couple had two children, John Joseph (aged 5) and Mary Catherine. Living in the house was Hugh’s father, John Collins (aged 78), a farm labourer born in County Waterford. In the 1901 census John Collins was described as a road contractor. John’s wife had died pre 1901 and his married daughter, Jane, did the house keeping. John Collins could read and write as well as speak Irish and English. The house had three rooms and four outbuildings, a stable, a piggery, a fowl house and a shed. [Source = National archives of Ireland, census returns 1901 and 1911]

John Corcoran, railway porter = in 1901 John Corcoran lived in house number two in Cloonbeg townland. John was aged 32 years and was born in County Cork. He could read and write and was married to Nora Corcoran (aged 27). Nora was born in County Waterford and could read and write. The couple had two sons, James (aged 2) and Thomas (aged 1). The house had three rooms and three outbuildings. The family rented the house from Basil Orpin. [Source = National archives of Ireland, census returns 1901]

Edward A. Coleman, railway milesman = in 1901 Edward Coleman (aged 26) lived in house number three in Glenagurteen townland. Edward was born in County Waterford as was his father and could read and write. In 1901 Edward was unmarried and lived with his father, Edmond Coleman (aged 74, farm labourer) and mother. Mary Coleman (aged 67, born county Cork). The house had three rooms and one outbuilding, a fowl house. The Coleman family rented the house from Hanora Maher [Source = National archives of Ireland, census returns 1901]

Richard Barry, railway labourer = in 1911 Richard Barry lived in house number four in Ballinaroone East townland. He was 22 years old and was born in County Waterford. Richard was unmarried and lived with his widower father, John Barry (aged 70), an agricultural labourer. Richard could read and write while his father could only read. The house had two rooms and three outbuildings, a piggery, a fowl house and a shed. [Source = National archives of Ireland, census returns 1911] In the 1901 census Richard’s mother, Anne (aged 46) was alive. She could only write and was described as deaf yet could speak Irish and English. Richard had a brother, William (aged 20) and two sisters, Mary (14) and Anne (aged 9). [Source = National archives of Ireland, census returns 1901]

Jeremiah Keane, railway labourer = in 1911 Jeremiah Keane lived in house number one in Glenagurteen townland. He described himself as a labourer for the Great Southern and Western Railway. Jeremiah was 45 years old and was born in County Cork. He could read and write and was a Roman Catholic. Jeremiah was married for seven years to Minnie Keane (aged 30) and they had five children, Annie (13), John (7), Lizzie (5), Michael (2) and Maggie (3 months). Minnie Keane was born in County Waterford. The house had two rooms and two outbuildings, a piggery and a fowl house. [Source = National archives of Ireland, census returns 1911]

William O’Keeffe, railway labourer = in 1911 William O’Keefe lived in house number four in Ballyduff Lower townland. He was then aged 42 years old and was married to Mary O’Keeffe (aged 33) for nine years. They had five children, Bridget (7), Mary (6), William (5), Maurice (3) and Michael (2). Also living with the family was a boarder, Kate Whelan (aged 14). William O’Keeffe could read and write as could his wife while she could speak Irish and English. The house had two rooms and two outbuildings, a piggery and a fowl house. [Source = National archives of Ireland, census returns 1911] In 1901 William O’Keeffe lived with his widowed mother, Bridget (aged 72) and gave his aged as 27 and his employment as workman on the railway line. William O’Keeffe said he could speak Irish and English. They then lived in house number three in Glenbeg townland. The house was owned by Thomas Barry of Glenbeg house. [Source = National archives of Ireland, census returns 1901]

Peter Ryan, railway labourer = in 1911 Peter Ryan lived in hose number three in Ballydorgan townland. He was 34 years old and unmarried. Peter was born in County Cork and could read and write. He lived with his parents, Peter (70) and Mary (64). Peter Ryan senior was an army pensioner and was born in County Tipperary. Peter could read and write but his wife didn’t have either skill. She was born in County Cork and was married for 36 years with only one child, Peter Ryan junior. The house had four rooms and three outbuildings, a piggery, a fowl house and a shed. It was owned by the Fermoy Rural District Council. [Source = National archives of Ireland, census returns 1911] In 1901 Peter Ryan junior lived in house number 13 in Waterpark townland where he worked as an agricultural labourer. Also in the house were his parents, Peter Ryan senior (aged 50) and Mary Ryan (aged 49). Mary couldn’t read yet could speak Irish and English. The house had two rooms and three outbuildings. The family rented the house from William Brien. [Source = National archives of Ireland, census returns 1901]

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Dublin History

Gresham Motor Hire Service

Gresham Motor Hire Service

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

The Gresham Motor Hire Service operated between 1924 and 1932, from premises at the back of the Gresham Hotel on Thomas Lane, off Upper O’Connell Street in Dublin. The proprietor was William Tobin, better known as Liam Tobin. Liam Tobin (1895-1963) was born at Cloughleafin near Mitchelstown, Co. Cork. In 1912 he got employment at the firm of Brook Thomas, Sackville Place, Dublin, in the hardware department. After the Howth gun running Tobin joined the Irish Volunteers and the Irish Republican Brotherhood. In 1916 he fought in the Four Courts garrison. After the Rising, Liam Tobin was sentenced to death but had his sentence commuted to ten years in prison. In June 1917 he was released as part of the general amnesty. In January 1918 he was one of the founding members of the New Ireland Assurance Company. In the War of Independence he worked as fund manager and intelligence officer for Michael Collins. After the 1921 Treaty, Liam Tobin briefly tried to form a detective unit for the new police force but the start of the civil war in June 1922 halted progress. Tobin served in the National Army council as a major general and was involved in the seaborne landings in Cork Harbour. Early in 1923 he was a founding member of the Irish Republican Army Organisation which wished to see the government adopt a more republican agenda and stop the demobilisation of the army. The government moved against Tobin and his associates and in March 1923 Tobin resigned from the army council. It was after that time, when a civilian for the first time in many years that Liam Tobin founded the Gresham Motor Hire Company. In 1929 Liam Tobin did return to public life when he helped establish the short lived political party called Clann na nGaedheal which sort to heal the civil war divisions. In 1930 he became involved with the Irish Hospital Sweepstakes and helped to do fund rising in the U.S.A. until he retired in 1939. Between November 1940 and December 1959 Liam Tobin was employed as the superintendent of the Oireachtas in Leinster house. In 1963 Liam Tobin died at his home called Cloliefin on Mount Merrion Avenue in Blackrock, Co. Dublin and was buried in Glasnevin cemetery.[1]

1925 Chrysler Landaulette

Gresham Motor Hire Company

In 1924 Liam Tobin established the Gresham Motor Hire Company. It is possible that in the early days Liam Tobin drove his own cars but as the business grew he employed chauffeurs to drive tourists around Dublin and around the country. Other motor hire companies such as that of Andrew Doyle of South King Street, Dublin, offered cars for hire with or without a chauffeur for any period of time from twelve hours to three months.[2] But in his advertisements Liam Tobin only offered a chauffeur driven service. In 1928 Liam Tobin advertised that the Gresham Motor Hire Service gives a ‘Service that Satisfies’. He informed the travelling public that his chauffeurs were most skilled at driving and courteous in manner to take people on tours of a mile or a thousand miles. Liam Tobin used advertising and the latest technology to reach his customers such as the telephone. In 1928 the company telephone number was Dublin 800.[3] The Gresham Motor Hire Company in Thomas Lane, off Upper O’Connell Street, was only a short distance from the new offices of the Irish Tourist Association.[4] Liam Tobin often advertised his business in the Association’s monthly publication, Irish Travel.

It is not known if Liam Tobin learnt to be a qualified mechanic for his vehicles but this wasn’t totally necessarily. Many chauffeurs seeking employment said they were ‘good’ mechanics while others said they could do running repairs.[5] In the 1920s and 1930s there were many different makes of cars on Irish roads such as Ford, Austin, Standard, Renault, Chrysler, Citroen, Rover, Hillman, Morris, Oxford, and Vauxhall. Some chauffeurs seeking employment said they preferred certain makes. In his 1931 advert seeking employment, A. Gilligan from Kildare said he preferred Ford cars while having knowledge of other makes.[6] 

Possibly due to his activities fighting for a free Ireland over many years Liam Tobin didn’t favour using English made cars. Instead he used American and German cars. In 1927 Liam Tobin offered for hire a Chrysler Landaulette with hydraulic brakes for safely and a livered driver. The car could be hired for a certain time or a given distance of a mile or a thousand miles.[7] In May 1928 Peter Kearney and a few friends hired a car from the Gresham Motor Hire Service for a tour of the south and west of Ireland. They first travelled from Dublin to Tramore and onto Glengarriff and Killarney. They then turned east to Adare and across the Shannon to Galway and north to Bundoran. After taking in the Atlantic sea air they returned to Dublin having completed 990 miles of motoring.[8] In 1931 Liam Tobin advertised that he had Dailmer cars for hire at his premises off Upper O’Connell Street. His 1931 phone number was Dublin 44800.[9]

By 1930 the Gresham Motor Hire Service was not the only hire company in Upper O’Connell Street with the Furey’s Motor Tours offering a service that was a leader where ‘others may follow’.[10] Yet the Gresham Motor Company was not distracted by such boasts by its competitors. Instead Liam Tobin was able to offer his customers experience drivers for his Chrysler and Daimler cars. It was providing a quality service that Liam Tobin and The Gresham Motor Hire Service were after. But after eight years in the business Liam Tobin wanted a chance of outlook. The economic war with Britain and the aftermath of the Great Depression had reduced the luxury tourist market. Shortly after 1932 Liam Tobin ceased trading and went to the U.S.A. to act as a fund raising agent for the newly established Irish Hospital Sweepstakes Company.

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[1] Long, Patrick, “Tobin, Liam”, in Dictionary of Irish Biography Online at dib.cambridge.org; Yeates, Pádraig, A City in Civil War – Dublin 1921–1924 (Dublin, 2915)

[2] Irish Travel, August 1931, Vol. 6, No. 12, p. 254

[3] Irish Travel, July 1928, Vol. 3, No. 11, p. 527

[4] Irish Travel, May 1932, Vol. 7, No. 9, pp. 191, 212

[5] The Irish Times, 15th July 1931, page 2

[6] The Irish Times, 15th July 1931, page 2

[7] Irish Travel, February 1927, Vol. 2, No. 6, p. 120

[8] Irish Travel, July 1928, Vol. 3, No. 11, pp. 512-514

[9] An Caman, October 1931, Vol. 1, Issue 5, page 4

[10] Irish Travel, August 1930, Vol. 5, No. 12, p. 281

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Cork history, Maritime History

Kinsale Shipping Company, 1881-1918

Kinsale Shipping Company, 1881-1918

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

The west Cork port of Kinsale conducted a good trade with the Continent in medieval times and was involved in the provisions trade for trans-Atlantic ships in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. But as the eighteenth century progressed so the port of Cork captured an increasing part of the provisions trade so that by the early nineteenth century Kinsale port was much reduced in activity. The second half of the nineteenth century saw a brief increase in trade with the cod fishing boats but when the cod shoals moved westwards as the century neared its closed so the fishing boats went to Baltimore with their catch as that port was nearer to the fish stocks and had a railway track at the pier head to allow the faster transit of the fish to market.[1] In the early 1870s a local coal and grain merchant, Thomas Crowley (his father-in-law, Joseph Hosford, was chairman of the Kinsale harbour board) commissioned William Westacott of Barnstaple to build a number of schooners for his own use.[2] The 1901 census records that Thomas Crowley was 59 years old and a member of the Church of Ireland living in Fisher Street. He was married to Eleanor Hosford Crowley and had one daughter, Marion, and a son, Gerald. Living in the house in 1901 was Thomas’s nephew, Joseph Garde.[3] By 1911 Joseph Garde was managing clerk to the company of Thomas Crowley & Son, corn merchant.[4]

 

Kinsale

Kinsale Harbour (photographer unknown)

In 1881 three families (Acton, Crowley and O’Neill) came together in Kinsale to form the Kinsale Shipping Company to revive the port and increase trade. The company took over ownership of most of the vessels belonging to Thomas Crowley and commissioned a number of its own vessels in the succeeding decades. The Company was mostly involved in the coastal trade between Ireland and Britain with occasional passages to France.[5] In February 1905 Thomas Crowley died and was succeeded as managing director of the Kinsale Shipping Company by his son Joseph Crowley.[6] Thomas Crowley made his son Joseph executor of his will along with Joseph Garde (accountant) and left effects worth £9,144 16s 4d.[7] In 1910 Thomas Crowley of Fisher Street in Kinsale was given as the manager of the Company and Fisher Street was given as the company’s address.[8] In 1915 Joseph Crowley was again the manager.[9] Joseph Hosford Crowley was a member of the Church of Ireland and married to Emma Hall Crowley. He was the father of Allan Crowley and Muriel Crowley.[10] In 1901 he was an estate agent living at Denis Quay in Kinsale.[11]

The Kinsale Shipping Company seems to have prospered well over the years. But the First World War saw a number of its vessels lost to enemy action while other vessels were lost to storms and sea accidents. In 1918 the Company went into liquidation and the Company’s surviving vessels (James O’Neill, Marion, Old Head, and Sidney) were purchased by the Sarnia Shipping Company of Guernsey.[12] The vessels belonging to the Company imported to Kinsale the usual coastal cargoes of coal, clay, iron, cement and salt while exporting pit props, fish and barley. In the good years each vessel visited Kinsale about fifteen to twenty times per year,[13]

List of vessels owned by the Kinsale Company

Colleen (80211): The Colleen was a schooner of 80 tons built at Barnstaple in 1880 by Westacott.[14] In 1882 she was owned by the Kinsale Shipping Company with 95 registered tons.[15] In 1894 she was reduced to 80 registered tons.[16] On 29th February 1904 the Colleen sailed up the River Bride, a tributary of the River Blackwater, to collect pit props and sailed down river on 18th March.[17] In 1913 she had an auxiliary engine installed of 26 horse power. In 1915 her measurements were 85.3ft X 23.9ft X 9ft with tonnage of 104 gross and 83 net tons.[18] In late 1917 the Colleen left Appledore following repairs but went straight into a storm which blew the vessel into Padstow where she remained for October and November 1917. On another passage the Colleen lost her foremast and was driven into Mounts Bay in Cornwall. The crew managed to extract the vessel but were driven onto the rocks near Mullion, north of the Lizard. All the crew were saved but the vessel became a total wreck.[19]

Harlequin (80209): The Harlequin was built at Barnstaple in 1879 with a schooner rig and having 85 registered tons. In 1880 she was owned by Robert Heard of Kinsale.[20] By 1882 she was owned by the Kinsale Shipping Company.[21] In 1892 the Harlequin was reduced in tonnage to 77 tons for some unknown reason.[22] On 26th October 1896 the Harlequin (under the command of William Parker of Braunton) was in collision with the steamer Ouse at Barry Roads in South Wales. The crew were saved but the vessel became a total wreck and was subsequently blown up to clear the channel.[23]

James O’Neill (115120): the James O’Neill was a built at Connah’s Quay in 1903 while another source says it was in 1905.[24] A third source gives 1905 as the year she was built.[25] The builder was that of Ferguson & Baird.[26] The three-masted schooner of 140 tons was described as a beautiful vessel. This vessel was under the command of Captain William O’Donovan until May 1908.[27] In 1906 the vessel was 98 registered tons and in subsequent years.[28] In April 1908 the James O’Neill went aground on Taylor’s Bank in the Mersey while on a passage between Cork and Garston. She was towed to Newferry for repairs and successful went on to Garston to discharge her cargo of timber. More permanent repairs were later conducted at Connah’s Quay.[29] In 1915 the signal hoist of the James O’Neill was JHBC and was registered at Cork like other vessels belonging to the Kinsale Shipping Company as Kinsale wasn’t a recognised port for registration.[30]

In 1918 the James O’Neill was purchased by the Sarnia Shipping Company of Guernsey and in 1920 was sold to W.A. Munn of St. John’s, Newfoundland for use in the cod trade. On 2nd March 1923 the James O’Neill was crushed by ice off St. Pierre and was abandoned by her crew before she went under.[31]

Marion (96108): The Marion was a schooner of 79 tons built at Appledore in 1891 by John Westacott, son of William Westacott of Barnstaple who had built a number of vessels for the Kinsale Shipping Company.[32] In 1900 her signal hoist was MJHN.[33] Captain James Cummins was the master of the Marion before he moved to the James O’Neill in 1908. In May 1897 the Marion was caught in a severe storm in the Bristol Channel and lost her sails. Yet she managed to make it to Newport in South Wales where she stayed for twelve days under-going repairs. After returning to Kinsale the Marion collided with a French vessel on a subsequent passage requiring the Kinsale Shipping Company to pay damages to the French.[34] In 1918 the Marion was sold with other Kinsale Company vessels to the Sarnia Shipping Company of Guernsey and re-registered to there.[35] In January 1921 the Marion disappeared while on a passage from Runcorn to Fowey with no survivors.[36] It was claimed that the Marion was in collision with the SS Rose some distance off Little Mouse in North Wales at the time of her disappearance.[37]

Old Head (76863): the Old Head was a schooner of 97 tons (105 gross tons) that was built at Barnstaple in 1878. She was commanded by Tim Cummins of Kinsale.[38] She was initially owned by Thomas Crowley of Kinsale.[39] By 1882 she was transferred to the newly former Kinsale Shipping Company.[40] In 1910 she was still owned by the Kinsale Shipping Company.[41] In April 1917 the Old Head was attacked by a U-boat off Coningbeg Lightship but was saved by the arrival of the Dusty Miller and towed to Rosslare. In October 1917 the Old Head developed a leak while on a passage from Swansea to St. Brieuc but made it into Padstow where she remained for four months. While at Padstow she had a small engine installed. But her career as an auxiliary schooner was short lived as in February 1918 the Old Head went ashore onto rocks near Gunwalloe, east of Penzance and broke up. Thankfully her crew were all saved.[42] Another account says that the Old Head had a further two years of trading. In 1920 she was owned by the Sarnia Shipping Company of Guernsey.[43] In March or May 1920 (sources differ on which month) the Old Head struck a rock in Shoreham harbour in March or May 1920 while brining stones from Cherbourg and sank.[44]

Sidney (106278): the Sidney was a schooner of 112 gross tons (93 net) built at Appledore in 1897 by R. Cook & Son. In 1914 a new 26hp Bergius engine was installed which reduced her tonnage to 89 tons.[45] She was built for the Kinsale Shipping Company and remained in their ownership until 1918. Captain Sheat was the master of the Sidney. In April 1917 the Sidney was leased to the Royal Navy for eight months at a rate of £1 12s 6d per day.[46] In May 1917 the Sidney (renamed the Glen) engaged the German submarine UB39 with her 12 pounder and 3 pounder guns and succeeded in sinking the U-boat south of the Needles. Other sources say the U-boat sank after hitting a mine. The Sidney went on to later attack four more U-boats.[47] In 1918 the Sidney was sold to the Sarnia Shipping Company of Guernsey along with other vessels belonging to the Kinsale Shipping Company and registered to Guernsey. In 1920 the Sidney was recorded as measuring 89.8ft X 22.6ft X 9.9ft and having 112 gross tons and 85 net tons. Her signal code was JNBD.[48] The Sidney was still registered in 1930 to the Sarnia Company measuring 92 tons but disappeared from the records after that time.[49]

T. Crowley (76857): The T. Crowley was a schooner of 78 tons that was built by William Westacott of Barnstaple in 1877. The two-masted schooner measured 89.5ft X 21.3ft X 9.5ft. Her first passage out of Kinsale was under Captain Robert Fowler.[50] Later the T. Crowley was under the command of Captain Parker. In July 1877 the T. Crowley imported iron to Kinsale from Gloucester to build the new Brandon River Bridge.[51] In 1880 the T. Crowley was still owned by Thomas Crowley of Kinsale.[52] By 1882 ownership of the vessel had passed to the newly established Kinsale Shipping Company.[53] In January 1882 the T. Crowley got stuck fast on Puffin Island near Beaumaris and her damaged looked so severe that she was removed from Lloyd’s Registered. But a few months later the vessel was refloated and repaired and in January 1883 returned to Lloyd’s Register.[54]

On 10th March 1917, while about fifteen miles south of Hook Head, the T. Crowley was torpedoed by a German submarine. The vessel was lost but thankfully all the crews were saved. The Germans claimed the vessel was working for the British navy at the time. It would seem that the Germans had good intelligence but hit the wrong vessel. In April 1917 the Sidney (also owned by the Kinsale Shipping Company) was requisitioned by the Royal Navy for a number of months.[55]

 

kinsale_marina9

Kinsale Marina (photographer unknown)

Vessels claimed as owned by the Kinsale Company

Ellen Dawson (20897): The Ellen Dawson was a schooner built at Kinsale in 1857. She was of 78 registered tons and her signal code was NDCF.[56] It is said that she was once owned by the Kinsale Shipping Company.[57] In 1870 and 1880 she was owned by Joseph Hosford of Mann Street, Kinsale.[58] Hosford was the father-in-law of Thomas Crowley, manager of the Kinsale Shipping Company.[59] The Ellen Dawson doesn’t appear in the records after 1880.

Esmeralda: The Esmeralda was said to be once owned by the Kinsale Shipping Company and was under the command of Captain Greenway.[60] As yet shipping records fail to support this suggested ownership.

George Brown (8456): The George Brown of Cork had a signal code of KCGR and was registered at 88 tons.[61] In 1870 the George Brown was owned by Joseph Hosford of Kinsale.[62] In 1873 the George Brown made a profit of £147 15s on eleven passages carrying coal, corn and wood.[63] As the George Brown was declared a wreck in 1879, two years before the Kinsale Shipping Company was formed, she couldn’t have been owned by the Company but instead was associated through her owner Joseph Hosford with Thomas Crowley of the Kinsale Company like the Ellen Dawson.

Hannah (8354): this vessel was said to have been once owned by the Kinsale Shipping Company.[64] She was of 96 registered tons and her signal code was KBSV. In 1870 the Hannah was owned by Joseph Hosford of Mann Street, Kinsale.[65] Crew lists for the Hannah in the years 1863 to 1877 exist in the national Archives of Ireland.

 

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[1] Thuiller, J., Kinsale Harbour: A History (Cork, 2014), p. 70

[2] Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), p. 91

[3] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai000540259/ accessed on 13 June 2020

[4] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai001960365/ accessed on 13 June 2020

[5] Thuillier, J., Kinsale Harbour: A History (Cork, 2014), p. 70

[6] Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), p. 92

[7] http://www.willcalendars.nationalarchives.ie/reels/cwa/005014914/005014914_00057.pdf accessed on 13 June 2020

[8] Mercantile Navy List, 1910, pp. 735, 891

[9] Mercantile Navy List, 1915, p. 539

[10] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai001960365/ accessed on 13 June 2020

[11] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai000540237/ accessed on 13 June 2020

[12] Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), p. 92

[13] Thuillier, J., Kinsale Harbour: A History (Cork, 2014), p. 70

[14] Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), p. 174

[15] Mercantile Navy List, 1882, p. 234

[16] Mercantile Navy List, 1894, p. 397

[17] Camphire Bridge Log Book, p. f4 (manuscript in private keeping)

[18] Mercantile Navy List, 1915, p. 124

[19] Thuillier, J., Kinsale Harbour: A History (Cork, 2014), p. 71

[20] Mercantile Navy List, 1880, p. 315

[21] Mercantile navy List, 1882, p. 325

[22] Mercantile Navy List, 1892, p. 456

[23] Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), p. 91

[24] Thuillier, J., Kinsale Harbour: A History (Cork, 2014), p. 70 for 1903; Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), p. 174 for 1905

[25] Mercantile Navy List, 1910, p. 736

[26] Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), p. 92

[27] Thuillier, J., Kinsale Harbour: A History (Cork, 2014), p. 70

[28] Mercantile navy List, 1906, p. 658

[29] Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), p. 92

[30] Mercantile Navy List, 1915, p. 826

[31] Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), p. 92

[32] Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), p. 91

[33] Mercantile Navy List, 1900, p. 599

[34] Thuillier, J., Kinsale Harbour: A History (Cork, 2014), pp. 70, 71

[35] Mercantile Navy List, 1920, p. 878

[36] Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), p. 92

[37] Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), p. 103

[38] Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), p. 91

[39] Mercantile Navy List, 1880, p. 449

[40] Mercantile Navy List, 1882, p. 457

[41] Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), p. 174

[42] Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), p. 92

[43] Mercantile navy List, 1920, p. 916

[44] Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), pp. 92, 106

[45] Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), p. 91

[46] Thuillier, J., Kinsale Harbour: A History (Cork, 2014), p. 70

[47] Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), p. 92; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SM_UB-39 accessed on 13 June 2020

[48] Mercantile Navy List, 1920, p. 544

[49] Mercantile Navy List, 1930, p. 1192

[50] Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), p. 91

[51] Thuiller, J., Kinsale Harbour: A History (Cork, 2014), p. 70

[52] Mercantile Navy List, 1880, p. 539

[53] Mercantile Navy List, 1882, p. 545

[54] Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), p. 91

[55] Thuillier, J., Kinsale Harbour: A History (Cork, 2014), p. 70

[56] Mercantile Navy List, 1880, p. 262

[57] Thuiller, J., Kinsale Harbour: A History (Cork, 2014), p. 70

[58] Mercantile Navy List, 1870, p. 117; Mercantile Navy List, 1880, p. 262

[59] Thuiller, J., Kinsale Harbour: A History (Cork, 2014), p. 70

[60] Thuillier, J., Kinsale Harbour: A History (Cork, 2014), p. 70

[61] Mercantile Navy List, 1860, p. 320

[62] Mercantile Navy List, 1870, p. 154

[63] Thuillier, J., Kinsale Harbour: A History (Cork, 2014), p. 70

[64] Thuiller, J., Kinsale Harbour: A History (Cork, 2014), p. 70

[65] Mercantile Navy List, 1870, p. 166

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General History, Kildare History

The Archbold family of Davidstown, County Kildare

The Archbold family of Davidstown, County Kildare

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

 

 

In 1518 the Earl of Kildare was subject to royal service for his property at Davidstown in County Kildare. At Davidstown (which was part of the manor of Castledermot) the Earl had a number of messuages and 115 arable acres but the Earl gained no income from the place as it was unoccupied and the land uncultivated.[1]

William Archbold

In 1663 William Archbold of Timolin claimed that his grandfather, William Archbold, was seized of all the family property in October 1641 at the start of the Rebellion.[2] The Civil Survey gave title to Christopher Archbold, son of the latter and father of the former. During the 1640s William Archbold was sheriff of Kildare and signed indentures for electing burgesses from Athy and Naas to serve on the Supreme Council of the Confederate government. For this and the activities of his son Christopher, the family lands were declared forfeit after the war.[3]

As well as a son Christopher, William Archbold was the father of Margaret Donnell, wife of James Donnell of Tenekilly in Queen’s County, son of Captain Fergus Donnelly. In 1628 Captain Donnell mortgaged some of his property to Edward Jacob for £235. Later William Archbold took the mortgage and demised the property to Margaret’s second son, William Donnell (died March 1650). After William Donnell died Margaret Archbold as administrator entered the property. But James Donnell (who died in London in 1661) and William Archbold were both indicted and outlawed for taking the Irish side in the Rebellion and lost all their property.[4]

In June 1619 Peter Walsh of Kilgobban, Co. Dublin, gave William Archbold of Crookstown, Co. Kildare, three messuages and 75 acres at Jamestown, Co. Dublin, for 1,000 years with a clause of redemption.[5] In the Civil Survey Sir Adam Loftus was proprietor of Jamestown.[6]

Christopher Archbold

Christopher Archbold married Jane Dungan, daughter and heir of the late Edward Dungan. As part of the marriage articles William Archbold entered into the family property and held it for his natural life after which it would pass to Christopher and in turn to the first and second sons of Christopher.[7] During the 1640s Christopher Archbold was said to have arrange voters to elect representatives to the Supreme Council from the counties of Dublin, Wicklow and Kildare.[8]

Davidstown in the Civil Survey 1640

In the Civil Survey of 1640 (made in 1654-6) George Fitzgerald, Earl of Kildare held Davidstown (then known as Ballydavid) as part of the manor of Castledermot. The manor, containing 1,000 acres, comprised the townlands of Castledermot with Davidstown, Finoge and Knockneiry. In the notes to the Civil Survey it was reported that Christopher Archbold of Timolin, Irish papist, had a stone house on the lands of Castledermot.[9] This stone house could have been at Davidstown which in later times was the residence of the Archbold family.

Elsewhere in the Civil Survey it was reported that Christopher Archbold held the townlands of Collins, Davidstown, Hughstown, Killelan, Comminstown, Knockbrath and Bonack in the parish of Killelan in the Barony of Kilkae and Moone. The total of these lands measured 925 acres (worth £120) and was divided into arable (445 acres), meadow (20 acres) and pasture (460 acres). Christopher Archbold also held the townland of Graingefore in Killelan parish. This measured 72 acres (worth £15) of which 60 acres was arable and 12 acres in meadow.[10]

Other lands of Christopher Archbold

In 1640 Christopher Archbold held two townlands (Timolin and Porterseize) in the parish of Timolin in the Barony of Narragh and Reban in Kildare. The parish of Timloin bordered the parish of Castledermot on the north. In Timolin townland Christopher held 519 acres, worth £120 in which was situated a castle and two mills and a stone quarry. This castle was the main residence of Christopher Archbold. The land was divided into arable (400 acres), meadow (31 acres), pasture (80 acres) and bog (8 acres). The townland of Porterseize contained 178 acres (worth £10) made up of arable (130 acres), meadow (8 acres), pasture (30 acres), and bog (10 acres).[11]

Elsewhere Christopher Archbold held the townlands of Moyle Abbey and Sprostown in the parish of Narraghmore. These townlands measured 336 acres (worth £37) made up of arable (111 acres), meadow (20 acres), pasture (205 acres). Christopher Archbold also held half of the townland of Crookestown in the same parish. This measured 140 acres (worth £20) and was divided into arable (110 acres), meadow (10 acres), pasture (15 acres) and bog (5 acres). The value of these lands may have declined by the 1650s as the surveyor’s reported that many inhabitants of the parish died in the Confederate War or were transplanted to Connacht.[12]

In 1640 Christopher Archbold held the townlands of St. John and Skeyghnegone in the parish of Castledermot in the Barony of Kilkae and Moone. These townlands measured 282 acres (worth £40) made up of 200 acres arable, 12 acres meadow and 70 acres of common pasture. There was a castle on the lands of St. Johns worth five pounds. Christopher Archbold also held Gurtin Vacon in the same parish with a ruined castle. Gurtin Vacon measured 73 acres of which 60 acres was arable, 3 acres in meadow and 10 acres in pasture.[13] Christopher Archbold also held 25 acres of arable land (worth £6 5s) in the parish of Moone in the Barony of Kilkae and Moone.[14]

William Archbold

In 1663 William Archbold claimed the lands of his father which he said included the above and other property like at Kilrush and Tyredoyne, a tenement in Castledermot, a mill at Johnstown with the lands of Corristown, Spinant and Rathcool in Wicklow along with a mortgage on the town of Clonfert in King’s County and a lease on Ardery in Kildare.[15]

 

Davidstown House001

Davidstown House [photographer unknown]

Davidstown in 1660

In the census of Ireland dated 1659 but with a more correct year of 1660 mentions Davidstown. In that year there were eight Irish taxpayers in the townland.[16] Captain William Archbold fought for King James in 1690 and had his estate confiscated.[17]

Robert Archbold

Even with all the upheaval of the seventeenth century, the Archbold family managed to hold onto to their property at Davidstown. It is not known when William’s son Robert Archbold recovered Davidstown but he was there in the 1720s. Robert Archbold of Davidstown had at least two sons called William and Thomas Archbold. In 1727 Robert Archbold was made a tenant for life at Davidstown by his son William Archbold on the latter’s conversion to the Protestant faith.[18]

William Archbold

William Archbold of Davidstown was the eldest son of Robert Archbold. On 7th October 1727 William Archbold converted to the Protestant faith and was enrolled on 12th October 1727. After his conversion William Archbold made his father Robert Archbold a tenant for life at Davidstown. William Archbold made his will on 9th October 1752 (proved 17th August 1753) and named is wife Anne as executor. Also mentioned in the will was his brother Thomas Archbold.[19]

Thomas Archbold

Thomas Archbold of Davidstown was a younger brother of Robert Archbold.[20]

James Archbold

In the early nineteenth century James Archbold lived at Davidstown house. James Archbold married Miss Copeland (she died 1842).[21] Other sources say he married Eleanor; daughter of T. Kavanagh.[22] James Archbold had at least two sons called Robert and James Archbold.[23]

Robert Archbold

Robert Archbold of Davidstown house was a magistrate and Deputy Lieutenant for County Kildare. In 1837 Robert Archbold was elected one M.P. for County Kildare and served until 1847.[24] In the 1837 poll Richard More O’Ferrall (Liberal) got 762 votes and Robert Archbold (Liberal) got 728 votes. Both candidates were elected and were re-elected unopposed in the 1841 general election.[25] In 1855 Robert Archbold died and was succeeded by his brother James Archbold.[26]

James Archbold

In 1855 James Archbold succeeded his brother Robert Archbold to the estate at Davidstown house. By 1860 James Archbold was the eldest surviving son of James Archbold of Davidstown house. James Archbold was born in the 1780s. In 1842 he married Mary, daughter of Nicholas Mahon Power of Faithlegg, Co. Waterford.[27]

Robert Archbold

James Archbold was succeeded by Robert Archbold, a child of twelve. On 9th December 1876 Robert Archbold of Davidstown house died. He left effects valued at under £5,000 and on 2nd August 1877 administration was given to his sister, Eleanor Frances Archbold.[28]

Eleanor Archbold

In 1901 Eleanor Frances Archbold was the landlady of Davidstown. She was 48 years old, single and a Roman Catholic. On census night she was living in Davidstown house with five servants.[29] In 1901 Davidstown house had 27 rooms with 14 windows in the front elevation and 24 outbuildings.[30] In 1911 Eleanor Archbold was still the landlady of Davidstown. She was 54 years old and single and a Roman Catholic. On census night she was living in Davidstown house with five servants.[31] In 1911 Davidstown house had 28 rooms and 15 windows at the front elevation. There were 13 outbuildings near the house.[32] This was nearly half the number of outbuildings that were there just ten years before.

Over the years Eleanor Archbold sold much of the estate under the various land acts. Eleanor Archbold died in 1927 and the Land Commission took over the estate and sold the house.[33] So ended many centuries of association between the Archbold family and Davidstown.

 

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[1] Mac Niocaill, G. (ed.), Crown Surveys of Lands 1540-41 with the Kildare rental begun in 1518 (Dublin, 1992), p. 286

[2] Tallon, G. (ed.), Court of Claims: Submissions and Evidence, 1663 (Dublin, 2006), no. 897

[3] Tallon, G. (ed.), Court of Claims: Submissions and Evidence, 1663 (Dublin, 2006), no. 897

[4] Tallon, G. (ed.), Court of Claims: Submissions and Evidence, 1663 (Dublin, 2006), no. 395

[5] Griffith, M. (ed.), Calendar of inquisitions formerly in the Office of the Chief Remembrancer of the Exchequer prepared from the MSS of the Irish Record Commission (Dublin, 1991), no. JI 146

[6] Simington, R. (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 Vol. VII County of Dublin (Dublin, 1945), p. 274

[7] Tallon, G. (ed.), Court of Claims: Submissions and Evidence, 1663 (Dublin, 2006), no. 897

[8] Tallon, G. (ed.), Court of Claims: Submissions and Evidence, 1663 (Dublin, 2006), no. 897

[9] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 Vol. VIII County of Kildare (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1952), p. 106

[10] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 Vol. VIII County of Kildare (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1952), p. 115

[11] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 Vol. VIII County of Kildare (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1952), p. 96

[12] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 Vol. VIII County of Kildare (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1952), p. 95

[13] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 Vol. VIII County of Kildare (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1952), p. 107

[14] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 Vol. VIII County of Kildare (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1952), p. 117

[15] Tallon, G. (ed.), Court of Claims: Submissions and Evidence, 1663 (Dublin, 2006), no. 897

[16][16] Seamus Pender (ed.), A Census of Ireland circa 1659 (Irish Manuscripts Commission, Dublin, 2002), p. 404

[17] http://landedfamilies.blogspot.com/2015/04/163-archbold-of-davidstown-house.html [accessed on 5th September 2019]

[18] Eileen O’Byrne (ed.) with additional material edited by Anne Chamney, The Convert Rolls (Irish Manuscripts Commission, Dublin, 2005), p. 290

[19] Eileen O’Byrne (ed.), The Convert Rolls, pp. 2, 290

[20] Eileen O’Byrne (ed.), The Convert Rolls, p. 290

[21] Edward Walford, The County Families of the United Kingdom (Robert Hardwick, London, 1860), p. 15

[22] Edward Walford, The County Families of the United Kingdom (Robert Hardwick, London, 1860), p. 717

[23] Edward Walford, The County Families of the United Kingdom (Robert Hardwick, London, 1860), p. 15

[24] Edward Walford, The County Families of the United Kingdom (Robert Hardwick, London, 1860), p. 15

[25] B.M. Walker, Parliamentary Election Results in Ireland, 1801-1922 (Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, 1978), pp. 65, 70

[26] Edward Walford, The County Families of the United Kingdom (Robert Hardwick, London, 1860), pp. 717, 849

[27] Edward Walford, The County Families of the United Kingdom (Robert Hardwick, London, 1860), p. 717

[28] http://www.willcalendars.nationalarchives.ie/reels/cwa/005014893/005014893_00017.pdf [accessed on 26th April 2016]

[29] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai000901487/ [26th April 2016]

[30] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai000901485/ [accessed on 26th April 2016]

[31] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai002560760/ [23rd April 2016]

[32] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai002560756/ [23rd April 2016]

[33] http://landedfamilies.blogspot.com/2015/04/163-archbold-of-davidstown-house.html [accessed on 5th September 2019]

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General History, India History, Uncategorized

Causes of the War of Independence 1857 or the Sepoy Mutiny

Causes of the War of Independence 1857 or the Sepoy Mutiny

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

 

Introduction by Aleeza Javed

The War of Independence of 1857 was a very critical event towards independence for the Indian sub-continent. The rebellion began on 10th May 1857 in the town of Meerut. It ended on 1st November 1858 with a general amnesty after a bloody conflict on both sides, although the fighting didn’t totally end until 8th July 1859. The mutiny or rebellion came close to ending British power in India and the British had to gather troops and ships from across the Empire to first hold the Indians and then push them back. Many causes led to the rebellion and these are listed below.

 

Political causes by Sarah Fatima

1 = Lord Dalhousie applied the Doctrine of Lapse

2 = Nana Sahib was denied a pension after his father’s death

3 = Bahadur Shan’s son was not allowed to live in the Red Fort

4 = The British denied all treaties and agreements of the government

 

Sepoy_Mutiny_1857

The Bengal army by Granger

Economic causes by Wanda Khan

1 = The policy of economic exploitation by the British and extensive destruction of the traditional economic structure caused widespread resentment among Indian society

2 = people were hanged or tortured if they failed to pay taxes

3 = the traditional industries collapsed under the pressure of the industrial fields

 

Military causes by Rameesha Pervaiz

1 = the Sepoys had helped the British established their empire in India but were not awarded or promoted at all

2 = the was discrimination between the Indian and British soldiers

3 = an Indian soldier got much less salary as compared to a Western soldier

4 = the Indian soldiers were much more numerous than the British soldiers and this encouraged the Sepoys to rise against the British

5 = the senior British officers did not pay any respect to the Indian soldier at all

 

Social causes by Mahroosh Fatima

1 = Lord Wellesley described the Indians as vulgar, ignorant, rude, familiar and stupid

2 = the efforts of missionaries to convert people to Christianity also angered the Indians

 

The immediate cause by Afsah Shahzad

1 = there was an issue of the grease cartridges that had a grease cover that had to be bitten off before loading the Enfield Rifle = the rumour was that this grease was made from cow fat or pig lard – not permitted to Hindus and Muslims. The soldiers took it as a challenge to their religion and were extremely angry with the British.

 

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29th April 2014 to 5th September 2019

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