Cork history

Digby Foulke of Youghal

Digby Foulke of Youghal

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

 

Colonel Digby Foulke was a long standing tenant of the Earl of Cork and Burlington at Youghal. He first entered the Earl’s service in the 1660s as a land agent. He continued to serve as an agent in the early decades of the eighteenth century. He fought in the Williamite wars in Ireland. He served as a justice of the peace from 1684 and was High Sheriff in 1695.[1]

Colonel Digby Foulke and Angell Maynard had a daughter in 1686 called Anne Digby Foulke. Mary Foulke, another daughter of Digby Foulke of Youghal, married Richard Davis of Cork City on 25th January 1709.[2] On 3rd February 1714 Digby Foulke granted to his daughter Mary Davis the lands of Moneybricky in the barony of Connelloe, County Limerick.[3] Angell Foulke, a third daughter of Digby Foulke of Youghal, married Edward Denny, son of Barry Denny and Catherine Maynard.

 

tour-temp-2

Youghal Clock tower (photographer unknown)

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[1] Stephen Ball (ed.), Lismore Castle Papers at the National Library (National Library of Ireland, 2007), p. 235

[2] http://members.pcug.org.au/~nickred/deeds/memorial_search.cgi?my_memorial=5902 accessed on 22 August 2013

[3] members.pcug.org.au/~nickred/deeds/memorial_extract.cgi?my_memorial=5902&my_indexer=Roz%20McC accessed on 22 August 2013

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Cork history, General History, Maritime History, Waterford history

Blackwater and Bride book: ten years on

Blackwater and Bride book: ten years on

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

 

In December 2008 (ten years ago this month) I published my history book (and to date, December 2018, my only history book) entitled Blackwater and Bride: Navigation and Trade, 7000 BC to 2007. The book ran to 562 pages including numerous illustrations and tables. The vast majority of historians first attend college, then write a few articles for various historical journals and then publish a book or two as the culmination of their gathered knowledge. I kind of did the sequence of stages in reverse – firstly publishing a book, then writing articles for various historical journals and then, in 2017-19, attending the University College Cork education course, entitled: Diploma in Local and Regional Studies.

As the preface of the book recounted (reprinted below) the book originally began as a project for an article in Decies: the journal of the Waterford Archaeological and Historical Society, in the summer of 2002. Having finished the article on navigation on the Rivers Blackwater and Bride, I asked Mike Hackett of Youghal was there anything else to know relating to the subject. Before I could say ‘Hop, skip and jump’, the word had travelled around the historian community of east Cork and west Waterford that I was writing a book about the two rivers. I tried repeatedly to tell them that I was just writing an article for a historical journal but eventually just gave up. In 2002 the Rivers Blackwater and Bride were just noted fishing rivers and the present of numerous quays marked on the Ordinance Survey maps was possibly just done in the hope of river traffic rather than responding to a substantial level of river traffic in former times. I was confident that the book would be 100 pages at most and, like the Great War, be finished by Christmas. It was to be six years later before the book was done – ah the foolishness of youth.

 

179786_499441156796443_949584805_n

 

The official launch of the book in the Walter Raleigh Hotel, Youghal, 9th December 2008, was a nervous affair as I was then an unknown historian. The dust jacket of the book said that I had ‘written a number of articles in various historical journals’. This was a stretch of the truth. Up until 2008 I had only published two articles – one in a historical journal and another in a school history book. But to help promote the book I wrote off two articles during 2008 for two journals – Niall O’Brien, ‘The Earl of Desmond’s Navy’, in the Journal of the Kerry Archaeological and Historical Society, Series 2, Vol. 8 (2008), pp. 87-96 and Niall O’Brien, ‘The Estate of Maurice Brown of Rathmoylan: Its Origins and Descent’, in Decies, No. 64 (2008), pp. 41-46. The choice of these two journals was that they include a biography of the author and thus I could write in these biographies that I published the Blackwater and Bride book. The article in Decies did result in a direct sale of a copy of the book but I am not sure did it do much more.

In total 1,000 copies of the Blackwater and Bride book was produced of which 127 copies were sold at the book launch. It then took another 4 years to sell most of the books mainly through shops in Fermoy, Dungarvan and Youghal. The slow rate of sales, the end of Heritage Council funding of book publication and other distractions for my funds has meant that the Blackwater and Bride is so far my only book although the number of articles published in historical journals has increased to over sixteen.

The Blackwater and Bride book not only recorded the navigation and river trade on the two rivers and the Lismore canal but helped generate an appreciation of the two rivers among the communities along its banks. The river boating services offered by Denis Murray and Tony Gallagher acquired more customers. The Gathering 2013 festival in Knockanore used the river to boat people between Youghal and Cappoquin as an important part of its programme. A number of people have explored the idea of a restaurant river boat service on the Blackwater and the Bride. In 2016 the Villierstown community has established a boating service that includes a special boat for wheelchair people. Recently, the various communities along the Blackwater between Clashmore and Lismore have come together to develop the economy of the region with the river as a central theme. Before 2008 people along the two rivers had mostly forgotten about the river as they drove their cars to destinations away from the rivers. Since 2008 the two rivers have once again become a linkage between the communities.

On a personal level, the Blackwater and Bride book generated invitations to give history talks about the rivers and trade in Youghal, Tallow and Waterford city, which would not previously happen. The book further generated an invitation to write an article on the history of the Irish timber trade for the journal, Irish Forestry, which was nice to do and also opened my eyes to other places to publish history rather than keeping it too local.[1]

A further development by the book was the establishment of a Facebook page, entitled, Sailing Merchant Vessels, which records the history of various sailing vessels and accounts of sailing history that is today long gone.[2] The page has (December 2018) over 2,300 followers and it is hoped to continue to develop the site with more maritime history.

Hopefully someday I will get a chance to publish another book if I don’t get too distracted with articles in historical journals, or by two history blogs[3] or by two history pages on Facebook[4] as well as the fun of life, work and family. Should be good fun as the Blackwater book was even with all the work involved.

 

 

 

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Contents

 

Preface

 

Acknowledgements

 

Chapters

 

  1. Early years of travel, 8,000 B.C. – 1600                               1
  2. The Rivers 1580 – 1700                                                          17
  3. Tidal river traffic 1700 – 1800                                              37
  4. Opening the river 1700 – 1850                                             53
  5. The ferries                                                                                67
  6. Lismore canal                                                                          81
  7. Tidal river traffic 1800 – 1900                                              98
  8. Shipbuilding by the river                                                     128
  9. Passenger traffic and steamboats                                       135
  10. The Bride River 1902 – 1922                                                145
  11. Blackwater dredging and river improvements              159
  12. River quays and bridges                                                      165
  13. Rowing, coting and yachting                                               187
  14. Tidal river traffic 1936 – 1958                                             196
  15. Bride and Blackwater vessels                                              213
  16. Conclusion                                                                              272

 

Bibliography                                                                                     274

 

Appendices

 

Appendix I

Partial returns of trade on the Lismore canal                      283

Appendix II

Local corn and flour mills from Griffith’s Valuation           284

Appendix III

Personalities of the river in the nineteenth century           285

Appendix IV

Types of vessels on the river                                                   286

Appendix V

Time table of the Blackwater Steamer Company                287

Appendix VI

Coastal trade at Youghal 1866 to 1879                                  288

Appendix VII

Some mallow canal accounts for 1761                                   289

Appendix VIII

Figures by Musgrave to get £10,000 savings on river traffic 291

Appendix IX

Notes on the Youghal Harbour records                                  292

Appendix X

Notes on the Lismore Canal Lockage accounts                     293

Appendix XI

Miscellaneous trade on the two rivers 1879 to 1898           294

Appendix XII

Line drawings of a Blackwater market boat                          296

 

Index of people and places                                           200

 

Index of ships                                                                317

 

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Preface

 

 

Today when we think of travel, we mention cars, buses, trains and planes. But for an island nation we often fail to mention ships. Yet to people in the past, ships would be their first choice. The Blackwater and Bride are today noted all over the world as rivers for good fishing. For our forefathers, they were the super highways of their time. If we want to go to England, France or Australia, many hours in a car and at an airport would have to be endured. Our grandparents just had to go down to the bottom of the garden and board a ship which would take them there direct.

The first river navigators came to do shopping and find accommodation. The Irish of the early medieval period used the rivers to export their agriculture surplus as did the later Normans while importing luxury items from across the globe.  The seventeenth century saw a great expansion in river traffic with the influence of the new English and the happy survival of more documents than the medieval period. After such activity, the first haft of the eighteenth century was one of rest until 1750 when the Mallow Canal and the growth of the corn trade brought an increase in traffic. From this time until the 1950’s, the corn trade provided varied levels of river activity, along with imports of coal and exports of timber. Such trade was carried on the river lighters and after1884 principally on the merchant schooners. Facilities such as the many river quays and warehouses were constructed while many of the fishing weirs were removed to aid navigation. The two rivers saw some of the first navigators to Ireland and had visits from some of the last merchant schooners at the end of sail.

The origin of this book was a request by Patrick Grogan that I write an article on west Waterford for the Waterford Archaeological and Historical Society journal, Decies. Navigation on the Suir had been well written about in Decies and I felt a little balance to marine affairs in Waterford would do no harm. Therefore I wrote a piece on the opening of the Blackwater River above Lismore from 1700 to 1850 (which now forms chapter four).

Having finished the proposed article in just a few months, I felt really happy with myself. This article encompassed the whole picture of Blackwater navigation, as I supposed it to be. But just to make sure that I had covered all the aspects of the subject, I wrote a letter to Mike Hackett of Youghal, asking was there anything else to be learnt on the subject. Mike had written so many books on Youghal and the Blackwater that he seemed like a good fellow to ask (he also happen to be the only marine person I knew at the time). Mike replied that Frank Mills of Knockanore was the person to ask. He wisely never let on that only the tip of the iceberg had been touched. So I rang Frank in February 2003 and five years later, this book is the bigger picture. Even Frank was amazed at the amount of information available.

But despite the bigger picture, this book does not tell the full story. People may find the use of notes to be excessive. I apologize if the notes break the flow of your reading and enjoyment. The subject of navigation on the Blackwater and Bride Rivers has never been written in book form before. Some aspects like the Mallow Canal and the passenger steam boats of the nineteenth century have appeared in articles of historical journals or in a chapter of a book, but not the full story. Therefore this book not just corrects this lacking but also forms an information source for future research and publications. Hence the excessive notes are I hope an aid to the next voyage of discovery.

I could even have spent more time on further research. We didn’t consult old newspapers. What! Didn’t consult newspapers; what scandal. Yea well some people are full of scandal. To do so would postpone publication for two or three more years. As the living memory of navigation is fast leaving us with the last vessel having left the Blackwater in 1958, it was felt that further postponement would deprive of us all of giving acknowledgement to the men (they were mostly men), who sailed the Blackwater and Bride where now only fish and ducks travel.

In such a work there have been high and low points. Meeting Frank Mills and the legendary Dick Scott was a joy and pleasure which long years will never diminish. Johnny McGrath looking into a skip full of papers in Dungarvan, from where he pulled out the bridge log books of Camphire (for 1902 to 1956), and of Youghal (from 1936 to 1958) was an invaluable piece of salvage. Some would express disappointment that he didn’t pull out more papers, but without those log books the navigation story would certainly be the poorer. Finding the log books for the Lismore Canal in Dublin and, in greater number, at Dungarvan was great. The disappointment came with only one book for before for the fifty four years before 1851 (and that book only covering three years).[5] Further sorrow arrived with the Youghal harbour books only surviving for the period after 1878, made establishing the level of trade on the two rivers extremely hard. Thankfully the harbour books after 1878 gave us wonderful information. Chapter seven and fifteen are based heavily upon these books.

Dr. Johnson once wrote to Charles O’Connor on his “Dissertations on the History of Ireland” that “I hope you will continue to cultivate this kind of learning, which has too long lain neglected, and which if it be suffered to remain in oblivion for another century, may, perhaps, never be retrieved.” This book is slightly late in time to retrieve much of the living folklore, but I trust, not too late to tell this remarkable story, and keep it from oblivion.

If there any errors or omissions, I hope they are few and that if readers note any, we can correct same in a further edition. With this proviso, hopefully you will find the result of this book to be worthwhile and enjoyable, fascinating and interesting.

 

 

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[1] O’Brien, N.C.E.J., ‘Timber exports in the south east’, in Irish Forestry, Vol. 74, Nos. 1 & 2 (2017), pp. 168-190

[2] https://www.facebook.com/sailingmerchantvessels/?ref=bookmarks [accessed 30 December 2018]

[3] http://celtic2realms-medievalnews.blogspot.com/ [accessed on 30 December 2018] covering medieval history and https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/ [accessed on 30 December 2018] covering modern history.

[4] https://www.facebook.com/MallowFermoyLismoreWaterfordRailwayBranchLines/?ref=bookmarks [accessed on 30 December 2018] and https://www.facebook.com/sailingmerchantvessels/?ref=bookmarks [accessed 30 December 2018]

[5] Since the writing of the preface in 2007 the National Library of Ireland completed a new catalogue of the Lismore Papers by Stephen Ball in which additional information on the Lismore canal before 1851 was discovered. MS 43,786/1 is an Account for the Lismore Canal with Samuel Kenah & Co. (1816-9), returns of lockage received (1828-49), and return of proceeds of lockage from the Lismore Canal (1855-7), 6 items; MS 43,786/2 is entitled Lockage account book for the years 1828 to 1840, 1 item

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Cork history, Maritime History

Youghal vessels in 1860

Youghal vessels in 1860

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

Introduction

The following article is just a brief biography of the vessels registered to the port of Youghal in 1860. The port of Youghal is situated at the mouth of the Munster Blackwater in east Cork in southern Ireland. Its seafaring tradition extends back to the thirteenth century and beyond. Peter de Paris, a merchant of the town, was appointed commander of the English fleet which took part in the war on Scotland around 1300.

Albion: The Albion was built in 1834 in Nova Scotia with a barque rig. She had 313 net tons. In 1840 the Albion was owned by W. Delap of New Brunswick while Mr. Carpenter was her master.[1] In 1853 she had repairs and was partially rebuilt with iron bolts. In 1855 further repairs were carried out. By 1855 the Albion was owned by Pim & Co. of Youghal with S. Hanlan as master. She was involved in the Youghal/Mediterranean trade.[2] In 1860 she was still owned by Pim and Son of Youghal while S. Hanlan was her master.[3] The Albion does not appear in the 1865 Lloyd’s Register and her fate is unknown.

Caroline: The Caroline was built in 1856 on Prince Edward Island. She was a brigantine rig vessel with 115 net tons. The Caroline was constructed using black beech and oak with iron bolts. Also used were spruce, pine and juniper with maple. In 1858 she was owned by W. Parker of Youghal and E. Sheehan was her master.[4] In 1860 she was still owned by W. Parker of Youghal and was involved in the Youghal coasting trade.[5]

The Caroline does not appear in the 1865 Lloyd’s Register. Yet in 1865 she was owned by W. Parker of Youghal with a signal hoist of SMVF and having a registration number of 39094.[6] She was still owned by W. Parker in 1870.[7] By 1872 John Evans of Youghal was the owner of the Caroline.[8] The Caroline seems to disappear from the records in 1878.

Ceres: The Ceres was an old schooner in 1860 as she was built in 1826 at Youghal by Mr. McCarthy.[9] The Ceres was 27 gross ton (16 net tons) and in 1860 was owned by M. MacCarthy.[10] The Ceres does not appear in the 1865 Lloyd’s Register. Yet in 1865 she was owned by C. McCarthy of Youghal. In that year her signal hoist was JLMH and her registration number was 5871.[11] The Ceres is last seen in the records in 1868 and disappears after that.[12]

Countess of Durham: The Countess of Durham was a barque rig vessel built in 1838 at Truro in Nova Scotia. She was 324 net tons. In 1846 she had repairs at White’s shipyard in Waterford.[13] In 1848 she had some further repairs in which she was sheathed in yellow metal. In 1850 she was owned by Barns & Co. of Waterford and was involved in the Waterford to Quebec trade. Rowlands was her master.[14] In 1849-50 the Countess of Durham earned £149 on the Quebec sailings.[15] In 1850 and again in 1855 there were some repairs done to the vessel. By 1855 the Countess of Durham was owned by T. Strangman of Waterford and W. Dalton was her master. The vessel was then involved in the Waterford to Cadiz trade.[16]

In 1858 she was owned by J. Pim of Youghal and was involved in the Youghal to America trade.[17] In 1860 she was owned by J. Pim of Youghal and was involved in the Youghal coastal trade. Her master in 1860 was W. Dalton.[18] In 1865 she was still owned by Pim.[19] In 1868 the Countess of Durham was still owned by J.W. Pim of Myrtle Grove, Youghal.[20] Myrtle Grove was given that name by Sir Lawrence Parsons after 1616. Sir Walter Raleigh is said to have lived in the house in 1588 and in 1602 it is referred to as the Warden’s house of Youghal College but the exact age of the house is unknown.[21]

In 1868 the Countess of Durham’s signal hoist was RCJQ and her registration number was 32966 and her registered tonnage was 298 tons.[22] The Countess of Durham does not appear in the 1870 Lloyd’s Register but was still owned by J.W. Pim.[23] In 1878 she was still owned by J.W. Pim but disappears from the records after that.[24]

 

Youghal

Youghal Harbour (photo by Niall O Brien)

 

Eliza O’Keeffe: The Eliza O’Keeffe was built in 1856 at Youghal by P. Kidney using iron bolts. P. Kidney was a builder of several schooners and brigantines for the Mediterranean fruit trade. The Eliza O’Keeffe was his most famous vessel.[25] The Eliza O’Keeffe was rigged as a brigantine and had 120 net tons. In 1858 she was owned by O’Keeffe of Youghal and Eastaway was her master.[26] In 1860 she was still owned by O’Keeffe of Youghal and was involved in the Youghal/Mediterranean trade with Eastaway was her master.[27]

In 1865 the dimensions of the Eliza O’Keeffe were 85.6 feet X 22.1 X 11.1 feet and she was still owned by O’Keeffe.[28] In 1870 the Eliza O’Keeffe was sold to Clifford’s and Co. of Waterford. She then was involved in the Cork/France trade. S. Clifford took over as master from J. Walsh.[29] In 1898 she was still owned by Clifford’s. Her dimensions were given as 85.6 feet X 22.1 11.1 feet. Her official number was 14647 and her signal host was LPBK.[30] In March 1900 she was wrecked in Dungarvan Bay.[31]

Ellen: The Ellen was a schooner rigged vessel built in 1842 in Sackville, New Brunswick, using iron bolts. She 109 gross tons and 81 net tons. In 1845 the Ellen was owned by O’Keeffe of Youghal and was involved in the Youghal to London trade. R. Hanlon was her master.[32] In 1855 the Ellen was restored. By 1858 the Ellen was owned by D. O’Keeffe of Youghal and E. Kennedy was her master.[33] In 1860 she was still owned by D. O’Keeffe of Youghal and was involved in the Youghal coastal trade. E. Kennedy was still the master of the Ellen.[34]

The Ellen does not appear in the 1870 Lloyd’s Register yet she was still owned by David O’Keeffe of Youghal. In 1870 her registration number was 19031 and her signal hoist was MQGR and she had 87 registered tons.[35] In 1872 the Ellen was owned by Thomas Leonard Barber Edgecome of 24 Brunswick’s Square in London.[36] By 1874 the Ellen was back in Youghal ownership in the hands of John McCarthy and he still owned her in 1887 but the vessel disappeared from the records after that.[37]

Industry: The Industry was a schooner rigged vessel built in 1848 in Sackville, New Brunswick, using iron bolts like the Ellen. In 1850 the Industry was owned by John & Co. of Milford and was involved in the Milford coastal trade. She had 76 net tons and J. John was her master.[38] In 1855 she was still owned by John & Co.[39] By 1858 the Industry was owned by Walsh & Co. of Youghal and was involved in the Cork coastal trade.[40] In 1859 the Industry had some repairs. In 1860 she was owned by Walsh & Co. of Youghal and D. Llewellyn was her master. She had 69 net tons.[41] In 1865 she was still owned by Walsh & Co. and her dimensions were given as 68.4 feet X 17.1 X 9 feet.[42] In 1870 the Industry was owned by Thomas Curtin, junior, of Youghal. Her registration number was 11462 and her signal hoist was KSRC with 70 registered tons.[43] The Industry does not appear on the 1872 Lloyd’s Register. In 1874 Thomas Curtin still owned the Industry but the vessel disappeared from the records after that time.[44]

Jersey Tar: The Jersey Tar was built in 1837 in Jersey using some iron bolts. She had a Brigantine rig. The vessel was noted for its figurehead of a sailor with a naval cap and collar.[45] In 1845 the Jersey Tar was owned by J. du Caen of Jersey. She was involved in the Liverpool to Cadiz trade. J. de Caen was her master and she had 143 gross tons and 135 net tons.[46] The Jersey Tar does not appear in the 1850 Lloyd’s Register.

In 1853 and again in 1856 the Jersey Tar had some repairs. In 1858 the Jersey Tar had a new bottom installed.[47] In 1855 she was owned by McCarthy and J. McCarthy was her master. The port of registration was not given.[48] By 1858 she was owned by Walsh & Co. of Youghal with J. Sheppard as her master.[49] In 1860 the Jersey Tar was still owned by Walsh & Co. of Youghal while Donovan was her master. In 1860 she had 118 net tons.[50]

In 1865 the Jersey Tar was still owned by Walsh & Co. while Donovan was still her master. Her dimensions were given as 72.5 feet X 18.5 X 12.6 feet.[51] In 1872 the Jersey Tar was owned by J. Curtin of Youghal with Donovan as her master. She was then involved with the coastal trade.[52] In 1883 the vessel was owned by John McGrath of Youghal with Donovan as her master. She was involved in the coastal trade.[53] In 1885 the Jersey tar was still owned by John McGrath. Her registration number was 26767 and her signal hoist was PMLJ and she had 118 tons.[54] She disappeared in the records by 1887.

The Jersey Tar does not appear on the 1889 Lloyd’s register. It was possibly about that year that the Jersey Tar collided in fog with another vessel while on a passage from Cardiff to Youghal with coal. The Jersey Tar lost her job-boom and her bow was smashed to pieces but she managed to make it to Youghal. There the vessel was judged to be uneconomic to repair and local boat-builder, Dan Ahern, brought the spars and canvas. The Jersey Tar was towed to the ship’s graveyard by Green’s Quay.

A few years later the hulk of the Jersey Tar was towed out again into the harbour. The Blackwater Tourist Board operated a steamer service on the River Blackwater between Cappoquin and Youghal. But the Board had trouble berthing the steamer at Youghal at low tide. The Board had the idea of using the hulk of the Jersey Tar as a pontoon between the steamer and the quay wall but it was found unsuitable. To recover the cost of buying the Jersey Tar, the Board sold the hulk for scrap metal to Paddy Dunne, captain of the steamer. Paddy Dunne had expected to recover firewood and scrap-iron but instead got copper and brass all over. The holding bolts between the keel and the keelson were nearly three feet solid brass by one-and-a-half inch thick. Paddy Dunne made a small fortune and soon had his own fishing fleet and became a member of the Urban District Council.[55]

Later years: Youghal merchants, seamen and locals didn’t stop owning sailing vessels after 1860 but the records are more difficult to extract as Youghal lost its independent port of registration and came under the port of Cork instead. Later vessels owned by Youghal people include the B.I., Dart, Emily, Express, Nellie Fleming, and the Kathleen & May among a host of other vessels.

 

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[1] Lloyd’s Register, 1840, page 20

[2] Lloyd’s Register, 1855, page 21

[3] Lloyd’s Register, 1860, page 12

[4] Lloyd’s Register, 1858, page 75

[5] Lloyd’s Register, 1860, page 81

[6] Mercantile Navy List, 1865, p. 58

[7] Mercantile Navy List, 1870, p. 61

[8] Mercantile Navy List, 1872, p. 147

[9] O’Brien, N., Blackwater and Bride: Navigation and Trade, 7000 BC to 2007 (Ballyduff, 2008), p. 232

[10] Lloyd’s Register, 1860, page 86

[11] Mercantile Navy List, 1865, p. 63

[12] Mercantile Navy List, 1868, p. 67

[13] Irish, B., Shipbuilding in Waterford 1820-1882: A historical, technical and pictorial study (Bray, 2001), p. 102

[14] Lloyd’s Register, 1850, page 98

[15] Irish, Shipbuilding in Waterford 1820-1882: A historical, technical and pictorial study, p. 57

[16] Lloyd’s Register, 1855, page 105

[17] Lloyd’s Register, 1858, page 100

[18] Lloyd’s Register, 1860, page 108

[19] Lloyd’s Register, 1865, page 128

[20] Mercantile Navy List, 1868, p. 85

[21] Hayman, Rev. S., The hand-book of Youghal (Youghal, 1896, reprint Youghal, 1973), pp. xiv, xv

[22] Mercantile Navy List, 1868, p. 85

[23] Mercantile Navy List, 1870, p. 84

[24] Mercantile Navy List, 1878, p. 209

[25] O’Brien, Blackwater and Bride: Navigation and Trade, 7000 BC to 2007, p. 233

[26] Lloyd’s Register, 1858, page 131

[27] Lloyd’s Register, 1860, page 142

[28] Lloyd’s Register, 1865, page 161

[29] Lloyd’s Register, 1870, page 162

[30] Lloyd’s Register, 1898, page 129

[31] O’Brien, Blackwater and Bride: Navigation and Trade, 7000 BC to 2007, p. 233

[32] Lloyd’s Register, 1845, page 139

[33] Lloyd’s Register, 1858, page 138

[34] Lloyd’s Register, 1860, page 149

[35] Mercantile Navy List, 1870, p. 117

[36] Mercantile Navy List, 1872, p. 199

[37] Mercantile Navy List, 1874, p. 210; Mercantile Navy List, 1887, p. 307

[38] Lloyd’s Register, 1850, page 204

[39] Lloyd’s Register, 1855, page 215

[40] Lloyd’s Register, 1858, page 207

[41] Lloyd’s Register, 1860, page 220

[42] Lloyd’s Register, 1865, page 243

[43] Mercantile Navy List, 1870, p. 186

[44] Mercantile Navy List, 1874, p. 278

[45] Hackett, M., Sailors and Characters of Youghal (Youghal, 1996), p. 12

[46] Lloyd’s Register, 1845, page 224

[47] Lloyd’s Register, 1860, page 239

[48] Lloyd’s Register, 1855, page 234

[49] Lloyd’s Register, 1858, page 224

[50] Lloyd’s Register, 1860, page 239

[51] Lloyd’s Register, 1865, page 263

[52] Lloyd’s Register, 1872, page 269

[53] Lloyd’s Register, 1883, page 438

[54] Mercantile Navy List, 1885, p. 389

[55] Hackett, Sailors and Characters of Youghal, pp. 12, 13

Standard
Cork history, Maritime History

Captain George Farmer, RN: Life and family

Captain George Farmer, RN: Life and family

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

 

It is said that Captain George Farmer, Royal Navy (1732-1779), was the son of John Farmer from Northamptonshire who settled in Youghal at the start of the eighteenth century.[1] Records show that John Farmer was not the first person of that name to live in Youghal and his family may have lived there previous to John’s time.

Farmer in Ireland

In 1655 another person called John Farmer was named as a witness to a conveyance by Cornet Robert Gough of land at Waseshayes, Co. Kilkenny, to Lieutenant Allen Trench of the same county.[2] In 1656 Thomas Farmer was named among the disbanded soldiers that were owed money by the Commonwealth government. Thomas was owed £45 15s 3d to be paid for out of confiscated lands in Limerick and Kerry.[3] Thomas Farmer may possibly be the Thomas Farmer and his wife Elizabeth who in 1666 were executors to the will of Captain Thomas Carrick and were challenged over property in Dublin by Sir Richard Gethin and others.[4] In 1686 the will of Major Jasper Farmer was proved in which was named his sons in America; Edward, John, Robert and Charles along with his sons in Ireland; Richard and Samuel.[5] Jasper Farmer is said to have died at sea coming from Pennsylvania to Ireland.[6] In 1691 Richard Farmer of Ardra in the Barony of Imokilly, Co. Cork (will proved 1691) was the brother of Samuel Farmer and the nephew of Captain John Wakeham. Richard Farmer was also the brother-in-law of Onesipherus Phair.[7] Richard’s wife was Elizabeth Phair (daughter of Colonel Robert Phair, died 1682) who was still alive in 1707.[8]

Colonel Robert Phair was born c.1619 at Kilshannig, Co. Cork, the son of the local vicar. At first he fought for the English in Munster in the 1640s before he was sent to England as part of a prisoner exchange. There he befriended Oliver Cromwell and was one of the three officers who were named in the warrant of execution of King Charles the First. In 1649-50 Robert Phair led the Cromwellian attack on Youghal which captured the town.[9]

Richard Farmer of Ardra was the father of Jasper Farmer of Ardevolane, Co. Tipperary (who died in 1707, will proved in 1715). This Jasper Farmer was the father of Richard Farmer (died 1739).[10] Jasper Farmer also had a daughter called Anne Farmer. Jasper Farmer was also the brother of Robert Farmer of Inch, Co. Cork (to whom Jasper left his share in the Enniscorthy iron works) and John Farmer and a relation of Samuel Farmer of Ballymacoda, near Youghal. Jasper Farmer left £20 to his mother Elizabeth Farmer.[11] Robert Farmer was possibly the father of Hovel Farmer who entered Trinity College Dublin in 1733.[12]

Farmer in Youghal

In 1685 Samuel Farmer was one of the two bailiffs of Youghal and in August 1711 Samuel Farmer was sworn as a member of the Common Council of Youghal and was a member also in 1716.[13] In 1693 Thomas Farmer was a member of the Common Council of Youghal and in 1711 he was bailiff of Youghal.[14] In 1724, Mary Farmer, a widow from Youghal, died leaving three sons; Thomas, Anthony and John.[15]

John Farmer

John Farmer was described as a descendent of a Northamptonshire family that settled in Youghal, Co. Cork.[16] In 1704 John Farmer was a bailiff of Youghal. In 1712 John Farmer was named among the freemen of Youghal and a member of the Common Council in 1712 and 1718. He was possibly the John Fennell Farmer named as a merchant of Youghal in 1720-23. In 1722 John Farmer (town bailiff) participated in a second gathering of town voters that elected Edward Lawndy as mayor after the majority of the Common Council had elected Henry Ball as mayor. The Lord Justices ordered a fresh election at which Henry Ball became mayor.[17] In 1734 John Farmer junior became one of the two wardens elected to the revived Company of Merchants and Mercers of Youghal.[18] John Farmer, mariner of Youghal, died in 1735 with his will proved in October of 1735. In the will he named his son John junior. Also mentioned were the sisters of John senior, Anne, Mary and Mrs. Pratt and his nephew Jeremiah Pratt and niece Mary Pratt.[19] Another of John Farmer’s sons, George Farmer, [B1] became a celebrated captain in the Royal Navy.[20]

Captain George Farmer

Captain George Farmer was born in 1732. At an early age he went to sea in the merchant navy. Later George Farmer entered the Royal Navy, serving as a midshipman on HMS Dreadnought aboard which he saw service in the West Indies. He later returned to England to serve on the home station aboard HMS Achilles. In May 1759 he was promoted to be lieutenant of the frigate HMS Aurora, in which he served until January 1761 on the home station.[21]

In 1761 George Farmer was placed on half-pay, and settled for the time in Norwich, where he had been previously employed on the impress service. The Royal Navy was a vital institution to defend Britain’s growing overseas empire and important trade routes. Between 1739 and 1815 the navy grew from 23,000 to 145,000 sailors. The French had adopted conscription (where 18 year olds around her coast served one year in every three) to fill her navy. The British saw this as too centralised and government controlled. Instead the Royal Navy adopted the impress system where seaworthy people were picked up from merchant ships, quayside pubs and seaport prisons. Men were often offered a bounty, paid up-front, to serve in the navy which allowed the seaman’s family to live on something while the breadwinner was absent overseas. It is estimated that about 44% of sailors employed during the American War of Independence were impressed sailors.[22]

 

800px-George_Farmer_by_Charles_Grignion

George Farmer by Charles Grignion

Captain Farmer and family

Shortly after settling in Norwich, George Farmer got married to Rebecca, daughter of Captain William Fleming of the Royal Navy. The couple had at least eight children. In 1766 he is said to have given assistance in suppressing a riot in Norwich, and to have been promoted to the rank of commander in May 1768, in consequence of the representations of the local magistrates.[23]

Captain Farmer and the Falklands Crisis, 1770

George Farmer had no active employment till September 1769, when he was appointed to command the 14-gun sloop HMS Swift. The Spanish had been attempting settlements on the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic and threatening the small English settlement there. Captain Farmer was sent to the Falkland Islands, where, on his arrival in the following March, he found that the Spanish had established themselves at Puerto Soledad.[24] The Falkland Islands were noted by English seafarers in the 1590s and by the French in the early eighteenth century. In 1764 the French established a settlement on East Falkland called St. Louis. This was followed in 1766 by an English settlement on West Falkland called Port Egmont.[25] Shortly after the Spanish ordered the English to quit the settlement, precipitating the Falklands Crisis. As there was no English force to resist any aggression, the senior officer, Captain Hunt, decided to go to England with the news, leaving Farmer in command.[26]

A few days after arriving at the Falkland Islands, the Swift sailed for a cruise round the islands; but in a gale was blown over to the coast of Patagonia, and in attempting to go into Port Desire struck on a rock, and was lost. The crew escaped to the shore, but being entirely destitute Farmer despatched the cutter to Port Egmont with orders to the only remaining ship, HMS Favourite, to come to their relief. On 16 April 1770 they arrived safely back at Port Egmont. The Spanish saw that the English were in trouble decided to put on the pressure.

On 4 June 1770 a Spanish frigate anchored in Port Egmont and was shortly followed by four other vessels, and the Spanish commandant wrote to Farmer to quit his position. Captain George Farmer replied that he would defend his position. With this the Spanish landed on the island at which George Farmer gave a few volleys of his guns. But seeing that the odds of victory were too much he capitulated on terms, The English were permitted to return home on the Favourite.[27]

This withdrawal from the Falkland Islands was not a good start for the new administration of Lord North. The prime minister already had a crisis in the American colonies after soldiers fired on a threatening mod in March 1770, killing five people, began a wave of protest with the people demanding the withdrawal of British troops from American.[28] By the autumn of 1770 the Royal Navy was impressing seamen for an expedition to the Falkland Islands. At Bristol 92 people volunteered for service by the 15th December 1770 before the press gangs began operations and increased recruitment to about 200 per week. During the crisis about 29% of all sailors recruited at Bristol for the Falkland Islands were impressed. By January 1771 HMS Aldborough and HMS Folkstone were ready to sail with 240 sailors to the Falklands with the support ship the Andrew hired for six months service.[29] Although France had being allied to Spain at the start of the Falkland crisis, the sight of the Royal Navy preparing to send a task force to the South Atlantic gave them cold feet and King Louis XVI told Spain he was not going to war over a faraway place of which he knew little about. Spain then approached Britain for a deal which was accepted. Spain returned Port Egmont to England and retained Puerto Soledad. Spain later claimed that Britain agreed to permanently leave the Falklands but this was denied. In 1774, due to the escalating cost of the American war, Britain evacuated the garrison at Port Egmont while leaving behind a plague to assert British sovereignty.[30]

Meanwhile the French gave up their settlement to the Spanish and the British didn’t reinvade the Falklands. The developing crisis in the American colonies diverted attention and resources. In 1820 the Republic of Buenos Ayres took possession of the Falkland Islands. Britain now saw the value of the Falkland Islands for southern whalers and as a strategic point around South America and in 1829 lodged an objection. In 1837 the Republic of Buenos Ayres gave up the islands to Britain and in 1844 Port Stanley was built.[31]

George Farmer back in England

After arriving home in September 1770, George Farmer, on being acquitted of all blame for the loss of the Swift, and was appointed commander of the sloop HMS Tamar. In August 1773 he was appointed to the HMS Seahorse, and sailed for the East Indies, having among his company Horatio Nelson, a midshipman.[32]

George Farmer and HMS Quebec

On returning to England after an uneventful commission, George Farmer was appointed in March 1778 to the HMS Quebec, doing service in the North Sea. In 1779 he was stationed chiefly at Guernsey as a guard for the Channel Islands. While there on 18 June 1779 George Farmer sent word that the French fleet had sailed from Brest and the Spanish fleet had sailed from Cadiz with the purpose of invasion.[33] France and Spain were at time aiding the American colonies in their War of Independence. In 1778 France recognised the independence of the American colonies and formed an military alliance with same.[34]

On 6 July 1779 George Farmer engaged a convoy of forty-nine foreign small vessels, with a 20-gun frigate and several armed vessels. After beginning action the Quebec got struck heavily on the rocks, and had to throw her guns overboard to make good an escape. On reaching Portsmouth it was found that there were no 12-pounders to replace the lost guns and George Farmer had to use 9-pounders taken from another frigate which was not ready for sea.[35]

With this reduced armament the Quebec met the French frigate Surveillante on 6 October 1779 off Ushant. After a sharp action of about three and a half hours both ships were dismasted; but the Quebec’s sails fell over the guns and the vessel was soon ablaze. There was little wind and a great swell other vessels nearby found it impossible to help the burning frigate, which after five hours blew up. Later sixty-six crew members (out of 195 on board) were picked up by the Surveillante, the HMS Rambler, and by a Russian vessel that came on the scene.[36]

The baronetcy created

Captain George Farmer went down with his ship. Later reports said that his conduct both in the action and during the fire was admired. At the special request of the Board of Admiralty, a baronetcy was conferred on his eldest son, then 17 years of age; also a pension of £200 a year to his widow, Rebecca, and of £25 per annum to each of eight children, and a ninth not yet born.[37]

George Farmer, 1st Baronet

Sir George Farmer, 1st Baronet (c. 1762-1814) lived at Mount Pleasant in Sussex and served in the navy like his father. In October 1786 he married Sophia, 3rd daughter of Richard Kenrick. They had one son and three daughters.[38] The 1st Baronet died in 1814 after a fall from his gig. For a while it was thought that the baronet was extinct.[39] But later George’s only son, George Richard Farmer, was allowed to succeed.[40]

George Farmer, 2nd Baronet

Sir George Richard Farmer, 2nd Baronet was born in 1788.[41] The 2nd Baronet lived for much of his life at Bideford in Devon.[42] In 1825 George Richard Farmer married Irene, daughter of George Farmer Ellis, esquire, of Youghal, Co. Cork.[43] He was possibly as relation of Francis Ellis, treasurer of Youghal from 1787 to 1795.[44] George Farmer Ellis was a relation of the Farmer family. Martha Farmer of Cork, a spinster, described George Ellis as her nephew in her will of 1807. Martha also mentioned her deceased sister Elizabeth Farmer of Youghal and her brother Jeremiah Farmer, late surgeon in the East India Company.[45] The 2nd Baronet died in 1855 and was succeeded by his eldest son, George Farmer.

George Farmer, 3rd Baronet

Sir George Farmer, 3rd Baronet was born in 1829. He lived at Hobart in Tasmania and later lived at Soho Villa in Reading.[46] The 3rd Baronet died in 1883.

George Farmer, 4th Baronet

Sir George Richard Hugh Farmer, 4th Baronet (1873-1891)

Richard Farmer, 5th Baronet

Sir Richard Henry Kenrick Farmer, 5th Baronet was born in 1841. He was a son of George Richard Farmer, 2nd Baronet.[47] The 5th and last Baronet died in 1913.

 

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End of post

 

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[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Farmer_(Royal_Navy_officer) accessed on 31 August 2013

[2] Ainsworth, J. & MacLysaght, E. (eds.), ‘Survey of documents in private keeping’, in Analecta Hibernica, No. 20 (1958), p. 239

[3] Ainsworth, J. (ed.), ‘Survey of documents in private keeping’, in Analecta Hibernica, No. 25 (1967), no. 514

[4] Refausse, R., ‘Welply’s Abstracts of Chancery Bills 1601-1801’, in The Irish Genealogist, Vol. 7, No. 2 (1987), pp. 166-185, at p. 167, no. 15

[5] Casey, A.E., & O’Dowling, T. (eds.), OKief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 631

[6] Refausse, R., ‘Welply’s Abstracts of Chancery Bills 1601-1801’, pp. 166-185, at p. 173, no. 78

[7] Casey, A.E., & O’Dowling, T. (eds.), OKief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 631

[8] Casey & O’Dowling (eds.), OKief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater, vol. 14, p. 659

[9] Cadogan, T., & Falvey, J., A biographical dictionary of Cork (Dublin, 2006), p. 181

[10] Refausse, R., ‘Welply’s Abstracts of Chancery Bills 1601-1801’, pp. 166-185, at p. 178, no. 125

[11] Casey & O’Dowling (eds.), OKief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater, vol. 14, p. 631

[12] Burtchaell, G.D., & Sadleir, T.U. (ed.), Alumni Dublinenses (Bristol, 2001), p. 273

[13] Caulfield, R. (ed.), The Council Book of the Corporation of Youghal (Guildford, 1878), pp. 401, 408, 620

[14] Caulfield (ed.), The Council Book of the Corporation of Youghal, pp. 391, 401

[15] Casey & O’Dowling (eds.), OKief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater, vol. 14, p. 640

[16] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Farmer_(Royal_Navy_officer) accessed on 31 August 2013

[17] Caulfield (ed.), The Council Book of the Corporation of Youghal, pp. lx, 402, 404, 412, 419, 621

[18] Caulfield (ed.), The Council Book of the Corporation of Youghal, p. 435

[19] Casey & O’Dowling (eds.), OKief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater, vol. 14, p. 640

[20] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Farmer_(Royal_Navy_officer) accessed on 31 August 2013

[21] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Farmer_(Royal_Navy_officer) accessed on 31 August 2013

[22] Rogers, N. (ed.), Manning the Royal Navy in Bristol: liberty, impressment and the state, 1739-1815 (Bristol Record Society, Vol. 66, 2014), pp. xi, xii

[23] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Farmer_(Royal_Navy_officer) accessed on 31 August 2013

[24] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Farmer_(Royal_Navy_officer) accessed on 31 August 2013

[25] Anon, ‘Falkland Islands’, in The National Encyclopaedia (London, 1870), pp. 118-120, at p. 120

[26] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Farmer_(Royal_Navy_officer) accessed on 31 August 2013

[27] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Farmer_(Royal_Navy_officer) accessed on 31 August 2013

[28] Ransome, C., History of England, 1603-1910 (London, 1910), p. 820

[29] Rogers (ed.), Manning the Royal Navy in Bristol: liberty, impressment and the state, 1739-1815, pp. xii, 85, 87

[30]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falklands_Crisis_(1770) accessed on 17th December 2018

[31] Anon, ‘Falkland Islands’, in The National Encyclopaedia (London, 1870), pp. 118-120, at p. 120

[32] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Farmer_(Royal_Navy_officer) accessed on 31 August 2013

[33] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Farmer_(Royal_Navy_officer) accessed on 31 August 2013

[34] Gordon, I, Admiral of the Blue: The Life and Times of Admiral John Child Purvis, 1747-1825 (Barnsley, 2005), pp. 7, 8

[35] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Farmer_(Royal_Navy_officer) accessed on 31 August 2013

[36] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Farmer_(Royal_Navy_officer) accessed on 31 August 2013

[37] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Farmer_(Royal_Navy_officer) accessed on 31 August 2013

[38] Courthope, W. (ed.), Debrett’s Baronetage of England (London, 1835), p. 214

[39] Stockdale, W., The present baronetage of the United Kingdom (London, 1820), p. 58

[40] Lodge, E., The peerage of the British Empire (London, 1843), p. 596

[41] Lodge, The peerage of the British Empire, p. 596

[42] Walford, E., The County Families of the United Kingdom (London, 1860), p. 218

[43] Lodge, The peerage of the British Empire, p. 596

[44] Caulfield (ed.), The Council Book of the Corporation of Youghal, pp. 514, 531

[45] Casey & O’Dowling (eds.), OKief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater, vol. 14, p. 648

[46] Walford, The County Families of the United Kingdom, p. 218

[47] Walford, The County Families of the United Kingdom, p. 218

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General History

Index of modern history articles published on this Blog

Index of modern history articles published on this Blog

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

 

On 14th August 2013 the first article in the modern history blog was published. Since then a total of forty posts were published – thirty-nine history articles and one poem. The articles covered a wide range of subjects across a wide geographical area. Many articles cover the West Waterford – East Cork area where I live. Beyond that there are a number of articles relating to Counties Kilkenny and Carlow. After that there are a number of articles from different Counties across Ireland. Overseas Oxford has a number of articles relating to people and places. Many articles explored people I have met in old books and places I have went to or read about.

Some articles have generated good viewing figures such as 703 viewers for https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/06/06/some-tallow-people-who-died-in-the-great-war/ which article gathers a short biography on people from Tallow, Co. Waterford who died in the Great War (otherwise known as World War One). Other articles generated no viewers such as the one on https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2016/06/28/bromsgrove-apprentices-1540-1663/. The article followed the life and times of apprentices from Bromsgrove in Worcestershire who went to learn a trade in Bristol, Oxford or Gloucester.

But viewing figures are not the end result. Some articles may not have had great viewing figures but the reaction to the articles was the pleasure. A descendent of William Spotswood Green got in touch to say she was delighted with the article. = https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/03/08/william-spotswood-green-a-biography/

A relative of a former chaplain at Villierstown also got in touch to say thanks in response to another article. = https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2015/05/07/villierstown-chapel-and-chaplains/

Another article = https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/10/06/a-very-long-lease-ummeraboy-in-duhallow/ = helped a person doing some family history research to solve a problem in his research that had him perplexed for years.

Another article = https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/05/15/the-vicars-of-tallow-co-waterford-1639-1910/ = inspired another historian to do his own research into Protestant churches in his area. You can’t unsurpass those pleasures by just looking at viewing figures.

Not all the articles are of modern (post 1534) history. A few are about Prehistoric Ireland. The medieval period (400 to 1534) is covered in another blog site that I have = http://celtic2realms-medievalnews.blogspot.ie/

The name of the blog is Exploring history with Niall and that is it – the joy and wonder of discovering new things, of people and places long since forgotten brought back to life to live again. There are many more articles in various stages of production and hopefully will see the publishing date in the not too distant future. For the moment, below is an index and link to the published articles and hopefully you, the viewer, will find something of interest.

 

Compass map

 

Index and link to the published articles

 

Published 19th August 2016

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2016/08/19/john-burgess-an-evicted-carlow-tenant-reinstated/

25 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 11th August 2016

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2016/08/11/devonshire-arms-hotel-and-lawlors-hotel-dungarvan/

34 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 2nd August 2016

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2016/08/02/an-account-of-thomas-mallinson-of-oxford/

3 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 28th June 2016

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2016/06/28/bromsgrove-apprentices-1540-1663/

No views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 27th June 2016

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2016/06/27/bromsberrow-apprentices-in-seventeenth-century-gloucester/

2 views by 26th August 2016

Published 8th June 2016

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2016/06/08/in-search-of-a-cromlech-near-mocollop-co-waterford-part-one/

44 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 4th June 2016

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2016/06/04/margaret-ringrose-of-moynoe-and-her-mitochondrial-dna/

37 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 3rd June 2016

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2016/06/03/browneshill-dolmen-co-carlow/

19 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 30th May 2016

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2016/05/30/irish-general-elections-of-1832-1835-and-1837/

9 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 21st February 2016

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2016/02/21/exploring-layde-graveyard-darragh-mccurry/

24 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 17th February 2016

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2016/02/17/arrears-of-rent-act-1882-in-carlow/

73 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 8th February 2016

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2016/02/08/shanakill-townland-in-the-barony-of-kinnatalloon-county-cork-2/

86 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 20th October 2015

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2015/10/20/mill-island-mill-in-mallardstown-parish-co-kilkenny/

34 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 13th October 2015

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2015/10/13/a-callan-lease-of-1839-and-griffiths-valuation/

21 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 1st October 2015

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2015/10/01/kenneth-l-p-lely-in-castlehyde-graveyard/

22 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 9th September 2015

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2015/09/09/denis-murphy-of-the-royal-munster-fusiliers/

10 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 26th August 2015

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2015/08/26/lord-walter-bagenal-and-bagenalstown/

43 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 1st July 2015

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2015/07/01/observations-on-villierstown-in-1841-and-1851/

249 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 7th May 2015

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2015/05/07/villierstown-chapel-and-chaplains/

119 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 14th April 2015

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2015/04/14/this-day/

A poem = 15 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 24th March 2015

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2015/03/24/the-dromana-estate-in-1640/

43 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 9th March 2015

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2015/03/09/villierstown-and-the-linen-industry/

273 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 4th January 2015

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2015/01/04/shipping-news-on-this-day-4th-january-in-and-out-of-youghal-1938-1941/

72 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 24th December 2014

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/12/24/christmas-on-the-river-bride-for-merchant-sailing-vessels/

20 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 8th December 2014

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/12/08/thomas-harriot-and-molana-abbey/

69 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 6th October 2014

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/10/06/a-very-long-lease-ummeraboy-in-duhallow/

126 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 14th September 2014

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/09/14/colonel-matthew-appleyard-2/

44 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 27th August 2014

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/08/27/the-gilberts-and-the-calendar-of-ancient-records-of-dublin/

21 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 19th July 2014

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/07/19/leon-foucault-and-the-pendulum/

68 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 17th July 2014

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/07/17/some-notes-on-garbrand-harks-and-family-of-oxford/

226 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 4th July 2014

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/07/04/sapperton-where-cometh-a-name/

113 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 27th June 2014

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/06/27/no-garden-games-in-tudor-oxford-4/

31 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 6th June 2014

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/06/06/some-tallow-people-who-died-in-the-great-war/

703 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 15th May 2014

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/05/15/the-vicars-of-tallow-co-waterford-1639-1910/

88 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 23rd April 2014

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/04/23/grant-family-of-kilmurry-co-cork/

596 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 12th April 2014

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/04/12/youghal-harbour-arrivals-and-sailings-february-1936-3/

164 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 22nd March 2014

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/03/22/a-seventeenth-century-horse-troop-in-tallow-2/

256 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 8th March 2014

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/03/08/william-spotswood-green-a-biography/

234 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 1st September 2013

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2013/09/01/kilwatermoy-landlords-in-1851/

238 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 14th August 2013

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2013/08/14/kilwatermoy-people-and-townlands-in-the-subsidy-roll-1662-2/

121 views by 26th August 2016

 

Trinity-College-Library-Dublin1

 

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Maritime History

Shipping news on this day (4th January) in and out of Youghal, 1938-1941

Shipping news on this day (4th January)

in and out of Youghal, 1938-1941

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

On 4th January 2015 my Facebook site called Sailing Merchant Vessels of Ireland and Britain reached over 500 followers. This short article is by way of thanks to all those people who by making that first step of pressing the like button made it all possible. https://www.facebook.com/sailingmerchantvessels?fref=nf

On 4th January 1938 the Margaret Hobley (82 tons) under Captain William Slade sailed windbound into Youghal Harbour for which pleasure she was charged 3s 5d. The vessel stayed at Youghal for a number of weeks and didn’t leave port until 26th January 1938.[1]

The Margaret Hobley was a schooner built by J.D. Warlow of Pembroke in 1868. Her measurements were 86.6ft X 22.2 X 11.3ft. Her first owner was Thomas Hobley of Carnarvon with H. Thomas as master. The vessels original served on the Liverpool to South America trade route.[2] In 1893 the Margaret Hobley was owned by William Posthlethwaite of Millom and registered at London.[3] In 1921 an 80 horse power engine was installed. In 1922 she was purchased by William Quance of Appledore from the Hook Shipping Company. This William Quance was related to George Quance who was uncle-in-law of William J. Slade of Appledore. William Slade came from a long line of mariners and ship captains. His mother, Rosina Harding, was the daughter of a ship captain and an experienced sailor in her own right. The Margaret Hobley shortly after came into the ownership of the Slade family and remained so until 1948[4]

During the Second World War the Margaret Hobley was requisitioned by the Royal Navy and placed at barrage balloon work at Falmouth. This kind of job did not serve her well. When the Margaret Hobley returned to Appledore in 1946 she was deemed beyond repair and was broken up in 1948.[5]

On 4th January 1939 the Happy Harry under Captain James Hagan sailed out of Youghal Harbour with a cargo of timber. The Happy Harry had arrived at Youghal in ballast on 28th December 1938. She then proceeded up river to load and was charged £1 for passage right across Youghal Harbour.[6] The timber was loaded somewhere on the River Blackwater as the log book for the Bride Bridge at Camphire, near where the River Bride joins the Blackwater, does not record any passage by the Happy Harry.

The Youghal Bridge log book records that the Happy Harry passed up river on the 29th December 1938 and sailed down river on 5th January 1939.[7] This later date is at variance with the date in the Youghal Harbour record book but that is quiet common in such shipping records where the entry was not always made on the day the event happened. It could also be the case that the Happy Harry dropped anchor just upriver from Youghal Bridge on the 4th when the Harbour officer made his entry and went home. But because of tide was needed to pass through the Bridge it was on the 5th that the actual passage was made. The record of trade and sailings from up the Rivers Blackwater and Bride was of little interest to the Harbour officers as the only money to be got from such vessels was the one fee for sailing passage across Youghal Harbour between the open sea and Youghal Bridge which was paid only once. Thus for decades little attention was paid to accuracy in the Harbour books for upriver sailings.

Happy harry by Jean Gidman

The Happy Harry by Jean Gidman

The Happy Harry was a schooner of 142 tons (80 tons net) built at Duddon, Cumberland in 1894 for the Hodbarrow Mining Company. She measured 101ft X 23 X 10. In 1921 she was purchased by Arklow owners including Job Tyrrell and Captain James Hagan (her master). In 1922 he had a new keel fitted and in 1929 was refitting with an engine. On 16th September 1950 the Happy Harry was stranded at Southport, Lancashire and later destroyed by fire. Her managing owner at the time was Roy Kearon of Arklow.[8]

On 4th January 1941 the Kathleen & May, under Captain Tommy Jewell, sailed windbound into Youghal Harbour. For this action Tommy Jewell should have paid 4s to the Harbour Commissioners but the entry book records no such fee paid. Instance Tommy Jewell decided to take the opportunity of his stay at Youghal to seek business. The Kathleen & May had arrived light and so it was possible to pick up a cargo if such were available and it was. On 16th January 1941 the Kathleen & May got the job of collecting a load of timber from up the River Blackwater and for this she was charged £1 4s by the Harbour Commissioners. But it was not until 24th January at 5pm that the Kathleen & May sailed up through the open swing section of Youghal Bridge.

This eight day extra stay at Youghal may be because of insufficient tides to get up river or to give the merchant up river time to gather and prepare the timber for collection. The timber was possibly collected at Killahala Quay on the River Blackwater which was often used for that purpose. The two rivers of the Blackwater and its tributary, the River Bride, were good for the merchant vessels as coal came over from Britain (usually South Wales) and pit props were sent back to extend the coal mines and extract more coal. On 6th February 1941 the Kathleen & May sailed down the River Blackwater with the cargo of timber before waiting another thirteen days at Youghal. On 19th February 1941 the Kathleen & May left Youghal Harbour for the open sea.[9]

The Kathleen & May needs little introduction to anyone with a remote interest in the sailing merchant vessels of Ireland and Britain. She was built in 1900 at Connah’s Quay by Ferguson &Baird as the Lizzie May to the order of Captain Tom Coppack. Her two names were for the two daughters of Tom Coppack. When launched she measured 98.4ft X 23.2 X 10.1ft with a gross tonnage of 136 and 99 net tons and a cargo capacity of 226 tons. Between 1900 and 1908 the Lizzie May carried 24, 786 tons of cargo on 119 passages or about 249 tons per month. Captain Thomas Hughes was her master in those years.[10]

In September 1908 the Lizzie May was sold to M.J. Fleming of Youghal, Co. Cork who renamed the vessel as the Kathleen & May after his two daughters. The Kathleen & May traded about one loaded passage per month up until 1924 when the depression of the twenties really started to bite. After 1924 she only had about one loaded passage every two months. Between 1908 and 1931 the Kathleen & May carried 45,973 tons or 170 tons per month on 265 loaded passages.

K&MSailing(K&MTrust)

Kathleen & May

In April 1931 the Kathleen & May was sold to Tommy Jewell of Appledore for £700. Tommy Jewell spent another £800 refitting the vessel and installing an 80 horse power Beardmore engine. This refit changed the tonnage figures to 138 gross tons and 95 net tons. The 1930s were a depressed time for trade but the refitted Kathleen & May managed well, increasing her loaded passages per year to an average of 23 between 1931 and 1960.[11] The last trading passage of the Kathleen & May was made in September 1960 when she arrived at Bideford with 107 tons of coal. Tommy Jewell of Appledore owned the Kathleen & May until he sold her out of trade in 1961. After a number of changes in ownership she was acquired in 1998 by Steve Clarke of Bideford. Under his care she was restore as a fully serviceable sailing vessel.[12] The vessel is presently based at Liverpool as part of the national historic fleet.

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[1] Youghal Harbour Import and Export Book, 1936-1941, folios 48v, 50r

[2] Lloyd’s Register of British and Foreign Shipping, 1870

[3] Lloyd’s Register of British and Foreign Shipping, 1893

[4] W.J. Slade, Out of Appledore (Percival Marshall, London, 1959), pp. x, xi, 115

[5] Richard J. Scott, Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The Last Years of the Western Seas Traders (Black Dwarf, Lydney, 2012), p. 148

[6] Youghal Harbour Import and Export Book, 1936-1941, folios 71v, 72r

[7] Youghal Bridge Log Book, 1936-1958, folio 4v

[8] Frank Forde, Maritime Arklow (Glendine Press, Dun Laoghaire, 1988), p. 75; Richard J. Scott, Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The Last Years of the Western Seas Traders, p. 133

[9] Youghal Harbour Import and Export Book, 1936-1941, folios 115v, 117r; Youghal Bridge Log Book, 1936-1958, folio 7v

[10] Richard J. Scott, ‘Last of the Bideford Schooners’, in Ships Monthly, Vol. 2, No. 10 (October 1967), pp. 354, 355

[11] Richard J. Scott, ‘Last of the Bideford Schooners’, in Ships Monthly, Vol. 2, No. 10 (October 1967), pp. 356, 357

[12] Richard J. Scott, Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The Last Years of the Western Seas Traders, pp. 41, 144

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Confederate War

Colonel Matthew Appleyard

Colonel Matthew Appleyard

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

 

 

On 18th March 1642 Sir Richard Osborne wrote to Sir Richard Boyle, Earl of Cork, to recount that he had received ten musketeers from the garrison of Youghal by the appointment of Serjeant-Major Matthew Appleyard, who was, said Osborne, “a gentleman [of] whom I have no acquaintance”.[1] In outline Sir Mathew Appleyard was a military commander in the Civil Wars in England and Ireland in the 1640s. After the Restoration (1660) Sir Matthew Appleyard served for a number of years a Member of Parliament at London and Dublin but what more can be said of his life? This article will add some detail to the life of Matthew Appleyard and makes us all more acquainted with his life.

Background

In 1606 Matthew Appleyard was born as the son of Thomas Appleyard of Yorkshire. The family of Appleyard were for several generations residents at Burstwick Hall Garth in the East Riding of Yorkshire.[2] In 1652 a person called Thomas Appleyard lived at Burstwick Hall Garth.[3]

Although Matthew Appleyard was associated very much with Yorkshire, the family name of Appleyard and its associated name of Applegard can be found elsewhere in England. A family of Appleyard lived for a number of generations in medieval Norwich while John Appleyard lived in London in the 1530s.[4]

Ireland

In October 1641 rebellion broke out in Ireland as the Irish decided to take advantage of divisions in England to get a better measure of freedom in Ireland. The standing army in Ireland had previously been reduced as part of the fraction between King Charles and the English Parliament and was thus inadequate to deal with the rapidly deteriorating situation. Within a few weeks much of Ireland was in rebel hands. Troops had to be sent over from England before it was too late. It would appear that Matthew Appleyard was one of few soldiers already in Ireland before the rebellion or he arrived very shortly after.

The main relief force entered Munster in the spring of 1642 under Sir Charles Vavasour but Sergeant-Major Matthew Appleyard was a military officer in the defence of Youghal in December 1641 with Sir Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Cork.[5]

On 16th January 1642, William St. Leger, Lord President of Munster, wrote a letter to Richard Boyle, Earl of Cork, in response to the latter’s concerns about the lack of military forces in and around Youghal. The Lord President told the Earl that the present military force in the town was not there to defend the place against an attacking army but to “maintain it [the town] from any revolt or treachery within & to preserve a port open”. If such an attacking army did materialise the Lord President expected to be forewarned of such and would come to Youghal with extra forces. The Lord President couldn’t send extra forces to Youghal in January 1642 because he had very limited numbers of troops to defend the Province of Munster and certainly had none to spare. Instead the Lord President told the Earl to remove two pieces of canon from the quay side and place them in the Earl’s garden by St. Mary’s church as directed by Serjeant-Major Matthew Appleyard. These two canons could command and batter the whole town in an attack situation. The two companies and numerous English settlers would provide a sufficient military presence in the town.[6]

DSC03966

The Earl’s garden with the town walls in the background where the canons were placed

In the same January of 1642, William St. Leger, Lord President of Munster, appointed Richard Boyle, Lord Dungarvan, to be governor of Youghal, Co. Cork. Lord Dungarvan was to manage all military affairs in the town, like ensuring that proper defences were in place, appointing guards and soldiers of the watch with the additional authority to impose martial law if needed. Lord Dungarvan was also concerned with the broader defence of the English controlled areas of Munster and didn’t have time to manage the minute details of Youghal’s defence. Consequentially on 20th January 1642 he appointed a vice-governor or deputy-governor for Youghal and named Sergeant-Major Matthew Appleyard for the position. Sergeant-Major Matthew Appleyard was to have full powers on military matters and to execute martial law and punish offenders.[7] On 1st February 1642 the Lord President informed the Earl of Cork that he had given Serjeant-Major Appleyard a commission to impose martial law if needed.[8]

As part of his military assessment of the town’s defences, Sergeant-Major Appleyard decided that some houses within the town could help an attacking army. In May he ordered ten thatched cottages near the walls, belonging to Jasper Collins, to be pulled down. These cottages provided Jasper Collins with £20 per year income and were his chef source of income. For the rest of the summer of 1642 Jasper Collins and his family lived off the assistance of his father-in-law but this was insufficient for his upkeep. In November 1642 Jasper Collins got permission for him and his family to move to a small estate near Ballymaloe.[9] It doesn’t appear that Sergeant-Major Appleyard made any compensation to Jasper Collins for the ten cottages.

Serjeant-Major Matthew Appleyard did not always stay in garrison duties at Youghal. In May 1642 Appleyard and his troops were called out by Lord President St. Leger to form a mobile army force to defend the Province. The Earl of Cork complained that he was not informed that Serjeant-Major Appleyard had left Youghal and felt slighted. Lord President St. Leger counted that he had the right to redeploy the government forces in Munster whenever he felt the need without the obligation to inform local lords.[10] The absence from Youghal was felt not just by the Earl of Cork but also by the town’s people and this was shown to all by the indiscipline of the remaining garrison.

By June 1642 the town’s people of Youghal had become weary of war and some of the inhabitants didn’t always turn up to do watch duty on the town’s walls. On 29th June 1642 the mayor, James Gallwan and Sergeant-Major Appleyard issued a notice that all the inhabitants in each quarter were to give their personal attendance in the watch when their turn of duty came round. The inhabitants were to attend the watch with a good sword and an able musket or serviceable pike. The inhabitants were also not to send unfit men to take their place. The town constables were to enter the house of any offending person and take materials to pay for the town’s defence.[11]

By July 1642 Lord Dungarvan was completely consumed with military affairs in other parts of Munster that he had little time for Youghal. Therefore on 26th July 1642 the Lord President of Munster promoted Sergeant-Major Appleyard to become full governor of Youghal. In addition to managing the military affairs of the town and conducting martial law, Governor Appleyard was also in charge of any troops temporarally garrisoned in the town as they passed in and out of the port. At the September 1642 town council meeting Governor Appleyard was sworn a freeman of Youghal.[12]

In October 1642 Matthew Appleyard was a member of the Council of War in Munster. The Council included twenty three people such as Lord Inchiquin, Lord Dungarvan, Rowland St. Leger, William Jephson and Agmondisham Muschamp. On 15th October 1642 the Council wrote to the Speaker of the English House of Commons who acted as the political head of the Parliamentary side. The Council told the Speaker that the rebels were growing in number and were receiving military supplies from overseas, the want of which had heretofore restricted the rebel’s war effort.

The Council asked for supplies as bread and cheese were insufficient for fighting men and the men had nothing to drink but water from the river. The Council also asked for a regiment of dragoons to provide mobile defence and for military supplies. Without such help the rebels could attack all the English garrisons in Munster all at once and wipe out the Munster colony.[13]

View_Youghal

View of the waterfront at Youghal with St. Mary’s church in the centre

Provisions were also in short supply within Youghal. On 10th March 1643, Governor Matthew Appleyard directed that the rate-payers supply forty butts of secke at seventeen pounds per butt to supply the army for one month.[14]

By July 1643 the strain of war was hitting the ordinary people in Youghal. The town had small pre-war facilities for billeting soldiers but these were inadequate for the increased numbers of soldiers billeted in the town for garrison duty along with the many soldiers passing through the town. Added to this there were many refugees in the town. Most of County Waterford was in the hands of the Irish rebels and many English settlers had left or were forced from their homes. These settlers became refugees in English controlled Youghal.

The extra soldiers were accommodated in private houses at the charge of the occupant. Some inhabitants of Youghal had worked out that if they left the town they would be free of the charge of billeting soldiers. After the owners left the soldiers also had to move to another house placing more strain on decreasing resources and facilities. On 6th July 1643 Governor Matthew Appleyard issued an order that if the these inhabitants did not return in three days their goods and chattels would be found and sold to pay for the army.[15]

How successful was this order is difficult to establish. Within two months the situation had changed dramatically. On 15th September 1643 at Gigginstown a treaty of cessation of fighting was made between the Marquis of Ormond, Lieutenant-General of the King’s Army in Ireland and representatives of the Irish Confederate Council. All armies were to cease fighting for one year and existing battle lines were to stay as they were on 15th September.

Even though the English armies in Munster favoured the Parliament side in the English civil war they respected the Royalist army in Ireland as allies and both sides fought the common enemy of the Irish Confederates. The cessation of hostilities may have ended the fighting but the problems of billeting soldiers on a tax burdened population and of providing the army with wages and supplies continued to occupy the concerns of English army commanders in Munster.

To help the supply issue Lieutenant-Colonel Appleyard at some stage seized a gun on a ship belonging to Robert Smally. Following the truce Robert Smally petitioned Lord Inchiquin, the English commander in Munster, for the return of the gun and for the release of his ship which was impounded as a troop transporter/supply ship. On 30th September 1643 Lord Inchiquin ordered the return of the gun but kept the vessel as a troop transporter.[16]

The truce in Ireland allowed King Charles to bring over soldiers from Ireland to increase his own army in England. Robert Smally’s ship was possibly used to transport some of these soldiers. The English Parliament and a number of people on the King’s side were hostile to Irish soldiers coming over to England, even if many of these soldiers were English or Anglo-Irish. Matthew Appleyard was one of these soldiers who came over. He was replaced as deputy-governor of Youghal by Sir William Fenton.[17]

Marriage

Sir Matthew Appleyard married Frances, second daughter of the third Sir William Pelham (died 1st August 1644) of Brocklesby, Lincolnshire.[18] The father and grandfather of Sir William Pelham were firm Royalists and Sir William followed their example and was a military commander for the Royalist in the Civil War. William’s brother, Henry Pelham, broke ranks and supported Parliament in the Civil War.[19]

Sir Matthew Appleyard had a son called Matthew Appleyard, born about 1659.[20]

Battle of Cheriton, 29th March 1644

During the month of March 1644 the Royalist forces under Sir Ralph Hopton had tried to bring the Parliamentary army under Sir William Waller to battle without success. On the 28th March 1644 the Royalist forces occupied the north ridge overlooking Cheriton while the Parliamentarians occupied the ridge south of the village. General Hopton suspected that the Parliamentarians might withdraw overnight and move on again to threaten Winchester.[21]

But the Parliamentarians didn’t withdraw. Instead after a diverted discussion among his officers the Parliamentary commander, Sir William Waller decided to fight it out. On the morning of 29th March General Hopton realised that Cheriton Wood raised a potential threat to his left wing and the Royalist hold on the northern ridge. About 11 a.m. General Hopton sent foot soldiers to take the wood. But by then the Parliamentarians under Colonel Leighton had already occupied the wood and, with their musket shot, repelled the foot soldiers.

General Hopton then ordered Colonel Matthew Appleyard to take the wood. Colonel Appleyard took about 1,000 musketeers, divided into four parties and assaulted the wood but was repulsed. General Hopton appraised the situation and sent Lieutenant-Colonel Edward Hopton, commander of one of Colonel Appleyard’s assault parties and sent him round the back side of the wood. Lt-Col Hopton was supported by the Royalist canon and screened by a cross hedge so that he got up close with the Parliamentarians and with the fire of one volley sent the enemy into disorder.

Colonel Appleyard renewed his assault with the other three parties and cleared the wood, even taking a colour from a cavalry unit of Leighton. The chief Royalist commander Lord Forth ordered General Hopton to hold his strong defensive position and let the Parliamentarians attack. But some junior officers on the Royalist right disobeyed orders and began to attack. Sir William Waller sent 300 Horse under Sir Arthur Hesilrige, to attack the Royalist Foot and they were totally successful. Sir William Balfour then took the Parliament right wing to attack the Royalist Foot on their left. The Royalist cavalry made one attack on Balfour and then retired.

The Royalist Horse on the right then attacked Hesilrige’s Horse and the Foot of both sides got involved. The fighting was most hot at the base of Cheriton Wood with the Royalists coming off the worst. Colonel Appleyard’s musketeers were by now on the ridge on the Royalist right. The Parliamentarians now advanced up the east and west sides of the ridge. Colonel Appleyard and the Royalist canon made stout resistance to the enemies attack but were under pressure. In the heat of the action Colonel Appleyard was shot and wounded. By the approach of evening the Royalist army was on the verge of collapse and a general retreat was ordered.

General Hopton and Lord Forth managed to extract their Horse to Basing House and onto Reading. The Royalist Foot made their retreat as best they could. Indiscipline and a failure to exploit Colonel Appleyard’s capture of Cheriton Wood against a strong and disciplined Parliamentary side were cited for the Royalist defeat. The defeat at Cheriton forced the Royalists to later abandon Reading and withdraw from the south coast. On 30th March 1644 the Parliamentarians took Winchester.[22]

Ireland again

After the battle of Cheriton, Colonel Matthew Appleyard retreated with the Royalist army to a safe place. There he spent some time recovering from his injuries. By the end of 1644 Matthew Appleyard was sufficiently recovered to return to active service. He was sent to Ireland to take up his old position as governor of Youghal but with the reduced rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. In January 1645 Lieutenant-Colonel Appleyard approved Dominick Trant for town constable instead of Nicholas Dalton.[23]

Leicester

Lieutenant-Colonel Appleyard did not stay long in Ireland. By May 1645 he was back in England in the Royalist army. In May 1645 Prince Rupert led a Royalist force to take the Parliamentary town of Leicester or at least to draw off some of the troops of Colonel Fairfax that were besieging the Royalist capital at Oxford. On 29th May Prince Rupert encircled the town but failed in two attempts to storm Leicester. On 31st May a party of horse under Colonel Page attacked the undefended side of the town and the town fell. The Royalists then ‘miserably sacked the place without distinction of person or place’.[24] After the taking of Leicester on 31st May 1645, King Charles ‘presently made Sir Matthew Appleyard, a soldier of known courage and experience, his lieutenant governor’.[25]

On 29th September 1645 the English House of Commons ordered that the estate of Sir Matthew Appleyard, lately seized by the Committee of the Yorkshire East Riding be restored to Sir Matthew less £180.[26]

Member of Parliament for Hedon

In 1661 Sir Matthew Appleyard was elected Member of Parliament for Hedon in the English House of Commons and held the seat until his death.[27] Sir Matthew Appleyard’s time in Parliament was of mixed fortune. On 14th May 1661 Sir Matthew Appleyard was appointed to a committee to examine a number of public bills and judge if they collated with existing legislation. Some of these bills concerned the Act of Pardon, the Act confirming Judicial Proceedings, the Act for taking away the Court of Wards and several acts touching the king’s revenue.[28] On 22nd June 1661 Sir Matthew Appleyard was placed on the committee to examine the bill containing limits to the level of anclone.[29]

On 27th June 1661 Sir Matthew Appleayrd was on a committee to examine the bill for the naturalization of Anne Ferrers. This committee failed to settle the issue and the committee was reassembled on 29th June 1661 with extra members joining the existing membership which included Sir Matthew.[30] On 29th June 1661 Sir Matthew Appleyard was on a committee to examine the bill to divide the church of Trinity Church in Kingston-Upon-Hull.[31] On 22nd July 1661 Sir Matthew Appleyard, M.P., was given leave of absence from the House of Commons to travel out into the country.[32]

On 10th January 1662 Sir Matthew Appleyard was appointed to a Parliamentary committee to examine the bill for the execution of the regicides. These regicides were accused of high treason for the murder of King Charles I in 1649 and the bill particularly cited any who were on the scaffold the day king was killed.[33]

Old London Reconstructed: The Palace of Westminster about 1530

Old Westminster Palace in Tudor times

On 19th February 1662 Sir Matthew Appleyard was appointed to a Parliamentary committee assembled to examine petitions relating to a duty on iron.[34] On 8th March 1662 Sir Matthew Appleyard was appointed to a large committee to examine the Parliamentary bill concerning the estate of Sir Thomas Lee, Baronet, who wanted to exchange lands settled on his wife and needed a Parliamentary bill to change the legal title to the land.[35] In May 1663 he was cited by Mr. Cooke on a matter of breach of privilege. Matthew Appleyard was committed to the custody of the serjeant at arms until examination at the next sitting. It appears that Appleyard took to trial a tenant of Mr. Cooke M.P. for payment of tithes after Cooke gave notice that he had claim to the tithes.[36]

On 31st March 1664 Sir Matthew Appleyard was appointed to a committee assembled to examine what amount of £60,000 was paid to loyal Commission Officers and what money was still unpaid.[37]

On 6th April 1664 Sir Matthew Appleyard was given leave of absence from the House of Commons to travel to Ireland.[38] This absence was because Sir Matthew Appleyard was now captain of a Foot Company in Ireland and his presence was needed. The activities of this Foot Company are more fully explored below.

By January 1667 Sir Matthew Appleyard had retired from the army in Ireland yet it appears he did not readily return to the London Parliament. On 17th February 1667 a number of Members of Parliament were cited for not attendance and fined forty pounds each. Nine of these Members attended the House and were discharged of the fines. Two others, one of whom was Sir Matthew Appleyard, were discharged in absence because they were too sick to attend in person.[39]

With the army in Ireland under Charles II

Sometime between August 1662 and September 1663 Sir Matthew Appleyard took command of a Foot Company in the King’s Army in Ireland. A Foot Company consisted of a captain, a lieutenant, an ensign, one or two sergeants, one or two corporals, two drummers and about 86 soldiers.[40]

On 23rd September 1663 a meeting of the Council of War in Ireland resolved to settle various army units to winter quarters. Three companies were assigned to Kilkenny under Captain Thomas Stewart, Captain Cecil and Sir Matthew Appleyard with one of the three officers acing as the local commander.[41]

It would seem that Sir Mathew Appleyard had difficulties managing his company. Sometime in October Thomas Wilson, late sergeant to Appleyard, petitioned the Duke of Ormond for arrears of pay. The Duke passed on the petition to the Muster-Master-General of the army. It is assumed that Thomas Wilson was not satisfied in his pay.[42] Sir Matthew Appleyard was not alone in his difficulties. Many other commanders had trouble paying their troops. The carry-over from the civil war between King and Parliament in the 1640s meant Charles II and his government were restricted in their ability to raise taxation and Parliament refused to give more taxation. The bulk of the army was sent to Ireland so as to be in the pay of the Irish Exchequer and so ease Parliament’s concerns about the King’s power in England. But the Irish economy was not able to help pay this increased burden and arrears of pay occurred.

By 1st June 1664 Sir Matthew Appleyard and his Foot Company had moved from Kilkenny to Youghal, Co. Cork. The company stayed at Youghal until the autumn when the company moved to Charlemont where they appeared on the army list on 26th November 1664. The Foot Company of Captain William Rosse were also quartered at Youghal and Charlemont with Appleyard’s company. The other six companies at Youghal in June 1664 were sent to winter quarters elsewhere by November 1664.[43] Sir Matthew Appleyard had previous connections with Charlemont which are outlined below.

In November 1664 a list of commissioned officers in Ireland provides some names in Appleyard’s company. Sir Matthew Appleyard was captain of the company, Sir John Hall was the lieutenant and Francis Hutton was the ensign.[44] Sir John Hall was appointed lieutenant to Sir Matthew Appleyard’s Foot Company on 20th August 1664.[45]

On 17th June 1665 Sir Mathew Appleyard wrote to the Duke of Ormond on the Charlemont garrison and the needs of the garrison.[46] The details of these needs are not known to this author but lack of equipment and regular pay would have figured highly. The army payroll was a big issue as the bill accounted for about 85 per cent of government expenditure. The faultering economy during the 1660s only increased the government budget deficit and the amount of arrears. Reductions in the number of soldiers were only partly affected due to threats of a French invasion and plots against the government by Presbyterians and Catholics alike.[47]

On 14th August 1666 Sir Matthew Appleyard was given leave of absence from the Charlemont garrison.[48] By January 1667 Sir Matthew Appleyard had retired from the Irish army. On 27th January 1667 Conway Hill was appointed captain of the Foot Company lately commanded by Appleyard.[49]

Member of Parliament for Charlemont

In March 1661 William, Lord Caulfield Brown of Charlemont, was constable of the castle of Charlemont (appointed January 1661) with a garrison of fifteen soldiers.[50] On 8th September 1662 Sir Matthew Appleyard was directed by James Butler, Duke of Ormond and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, to carry out a survey of the fort of Charlemont.[51]

In May 1664 Sir Matthew Appleyard was given four hundred pounds to be employed on construction of the fortifications of Charlemont fort and repair of existence facilities. Sir Matthew Appleyard was also allowed to buy timber from the king’s forests in Ulster. At that time Appleyard was Governor of Charlemont.[52] It is not known when he was so appointed. His Foot Company was based in Kilkenny and Youghal during the winter of 1663-4 and spring of 1664 and only appears at Charlemont in the autumn of 1664 as noted above.

In 1665 Sir Matthew Appleyard was elected Member of Parliament for Charlemont in the Irish House of Commons. He held the seat for only one year.[53] While at Charlemont on 28th April 1666 Sir Matthew Appleyard wrote a letter to James Butler, Duke of Ormond and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. Appleyard wrote that following a quiet period an Englishman and his family were robbed of money and clothes in the parish of Clogher. The attackers numbered thirteen men and were led by Neill McTurlough McShane Oge O’Neill who had killed a man at Caledon fair in 1665. Afterwards Neill’s father came to Mr. Golborne and asked for protection for six weeks and a pardon. Appleyard recommended the pardon to the Duke of Ormond because the O’Neill’s were so numerous in the area that no other option was possible without causing serious unrest.[54]

The port of Hull

Shortly after the Restoration, Sir Nicholas Appleyard was appointed customer of the port of Hull along with his son, Sir Matthew Appleyard.[55] On 4th July 1643 the House of Commons passed by resolution that Lieutenant-Colonel Appleyard should return to Hull and resume his former employment.[56] After Sir Matthew Appleyard died in 1670 his office of customer at Hull port passed to his son Matthew Appleyard. But as young Matthew was only eleven years old Thomas Meriton was appointed to hold the position until young Matthew came of age. Meriton got a salary of £100 and £30 for a clerk. When Meriton died his successor, Robert Mason, only got £30 for a clerk and no salary. When young Matthew Appleyard came of age he succeeded to the office of customer with Thomas Lysons. In June 1681 Robert Mason petitioned the Treasury for an increase in his fee from £30 to £50 as clerks in other ports usually received the higher amount.[57]

Death

Sir Mathew Appleyard died on 20th February 1669-70 after a lifetime as a firm supporter of church and state.[58]

Later people called Appleyard in Ireland

About the year 1820 a banker called John Appleyard lived in Ireland. He was the son of Thomas Appleyard and grandson of John Appleyard of Athlunkard, Co. Clare. It is claimed that John Appleyard was possibly a descendent of Sir Matthew Appleyard but I have yet to establish any solid link apart from having the same surname.[59]

Another reference to this Appleyard family comes from 1806 when Walter Joyce of Merview and Galway married as his second wife Helen Appleyard, daughter of Thomas Appleyard of Galway, merchant (died 20 August 1814). This Thomas Appleyard was son of John Appleyard of Athlunkard, Co. Clare and Helen Kelly.[60]

Elsewhere we find in 1830 that John Appleyard of Drogheda entered Trinity College, Dublin. This John was the son of James Appleyard of Drogheda.[61] While Henry Appleyard held a house and yard at number 9 Charleville Mall in the Mountjoy ward of Dublin. Henry also had a shop, parlour and basement at number 38 Sackville Street Lower, two doors south from the General Post Office.[62]

Postscript

It was my desire for many years to write a biography on Sir Matthew Appleyard. Although this article contains along of information on the life of Matthew Appleyard it is not beyond improvement. May be some day additional information will be found in new sources not available to me at this time. For the present this is Sir Matthew Appleyard.

 

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End of post

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[1] Rev. Alexander Grosart (ed.), The Lismore Papers, second series, volume five (author, 1888), p. 62

[2] Augustus Samuel Bolton, ‘Appleyard, Sir Mathew’, in The Dictionary of National Biography, edited by Sir Leslie Stephen & Sir Sidney Lee (19 vols. Oxford University Press, 1917), Vol. 1, p. 522

[3] Mary Anne Everett Green (ed.), Calendar of the Committee of Compounding (1892), Vol. 4

[4] http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=78155&strquery=Appleyard accessed on 6 June 2014; http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=22621&strquery=Appleyard accessed on 6 June 2014

[5] Rev. Samuel Hayman, The hand-book for Youghal (Field, Youghal, 1973), p. 32

[6] Rev. Alexander Grosart (ed.), The Lismore Papers, second series, volume four (author, 1888), p. 249

[7] Richard Caulfield (ed.), Council Book of the Corporation of Youghal (Guildford, 1878), p. 217

[8] Rev. Alexander Grosart (ed.), The Lismore Papers, second series, volume four, p. 262

[9] Richard Caulfield (ed.), Council Book of the Corporation of Youghal, pp. 224-5

[10] Rev. Alexander Grosart (ed.), The Lismore Papers, second series, volume five, p. 73

[11] Richard Caulfield (ed.), Council Book of the Corporation of Youghal, p. 221

[12] Richard Caulfield (ed.), Council Book of the Corporation of Youghal, p. 222

[13] James Hogan (ed.), Letters and papers relating to the Irish Rebellion between 1642-46 (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1936), pp. 156-7

[14] Richard Caulfield (ed.), Council Book of the Corporation of Youghal, p. 227

[15] Richard Caulfield (ed.), Council Book of the Corporation of Youghal, p. 227

[16] Richard Caulfield (ed.), Council Book of the Corporation of Youghal, p. 308

[17] Richard Caulfield (ed.), Council Book of the Corporation of Youghal, p. 550

[18] Sir Egerton Brydges (ed.), Collin’s peerage of England (London, 1812), p. 391; Augustus S. Bolton, ‘Appleyard, Sir Mathew’, in The Dictionary of National Biography, Vol. 1, p. 522

[19] http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/Bios/WilliamPelhamofBrocklesby2.htm accessed 5 June 2014

[20] William Shaw (ed.), Calendar of Treasury Books (1916), Vol. 7 (1681-85), p. 172

[21] Peter Young & Richard Holmes, The English Civil War (Wordsworth, Ware, 2000), pp. 166, 167

[22] Charles Chadwyck Healey (ed.), Hopton’s narrative of his campaign in the West (1642-1644) and other papers (Somerset Record Society, Vol.18, 1902), pp. 81, 82, 101, 103; Peter Young & Richard Holmes, The English Civil War, pp. 169-71; Wilfrid Emberton, The English Civil War day by day (Sutton Publishing, Stroud, 1997), p. 103

[23] Richard Caulfield (ed.), Council Book of the Corporation of Youghal, p. 253

[24] Wilfrid Emberton, The English Civil War day by day, p. 153

[25] Augustus S. Bolton, ‘Appleyard, Sir Mathew’, in The Dictionary of National Biography, Vol. 1, p. 522

[26] Anon, Journal of the House of Commons (1802), Vol. 4 (1644-46), p. 389

[27] Augustus S. Bolton, ‘Appleyard, Sir Mathew’, in The Dictionary of National Biography, Vol. 1, p. 522

[28] Anon, Journal of the House of Commons (1802), Vol. 8 (1660-67), p. 249

[29] Anon, Journal of the House of Commons (1802), Vol. 8 (1660-67), p. 257

[30] Anon, Journal of the House of Commons (1802), Vol. 8 (1660-67), pp. 281, 284

[31] Anon, Journal of the House of Commons (1802), Vol. 8 (1660-67), p. 284

[32] Anon, Journal of the House of Commons (1802), Vol. 8 (1660-67), p. 307

[33] Anon, Journal of the House of Commons (1802), Vol. 8 (1660-67), p. 343

[34] Anon, Journal of the House of Commons (1802), Vol. 8 (1660-67), p. 369

[35] Anon, Journal of the House of Commons (1802), Vol. 8 (1660-67), p. 381

[36] Anon, Journal of the House of Commons (1802), Vol. 8 (1660-67), pp. 477, 478

[37] Anon, Journal of the House of Commons (1802), Vol. 8 (1660-67), p. 540

[38] Anon, Journal of the House of Commons (1802), Vol. 8 (1660-67), p. 545

[39] Anon, Journal of the House of Commons (1802), Vol. 9 (1667-87), p. 52

[40] John T. Gilbert and Rosa Gilbert (eds.), Calendar of the Manuscripts of the Marquis of Ormond at Kilkenny Castle (Historical Manuscripts Commission, Vol. 2, 1899), p. 178

[41] John and Rosa Gilbert (eds.), Calendar of the Manuscripts of the Marquis of Ormond, p. 185

[42] Bodleian Library, Oxford, MS. Carte 159, folio 92v, Petition of Thomas Wilson to the Duke of Ormond, c. 18 October 1663; Ibid, MS. Carte 159, folio 92v, Reference of this petition to the Muster-Master-General, 21 October 1663

[43] John and Rosa Gilbert (eds.), Calendar of the Manuscripts of the Marquis of Ormond, p. 188

[44] John and Rosa Gilbert (eds.), Calendar of the Manuscripts of the Marquis of Ormond, pp. 190-2; In April 167 Francis Hutton was made a lieutenant in Colonel Humphrey Sydenham’s Regiment of Foot = Bodleian Library, Oxford, MS. Carte 163, folio 29, commission to Francis Hutton to be lieutenant, 3 April 1667

[45]Bodleian Library, Oxford, MS. Carte 145, folio 31v, commission to Sir John Hall to be lieutenant, 20 August 1664; By October 1666 John Hall was with the king’s Regiment of Guards = Bodleian Library, Oxford, MS. Carte 154, folio 100, petition of Francis Vangamon to Duke of Ormond, October 1666

[46] Bodleian Library, Oxford, MS. Carte 34, folio 259, Sir Matthew Appleyard to Duke of Ormond, 17 June 1665

[47] David Dickson, New Foundations: Ireland 1600-1800 (Irish Academic Press, Dublin, 2000), pp. 9, 10

[48] Bodleian Library, Oxford, MS. Carte 163, folio 7, leave of absence to Sir Matthew Appleyard, 14 August 1666

[49] Bodleian Library, Oxford, MS. Carte 163, folio 27v, commission by the Duke of Ormond to Conway Hill to become captain of Appleyard’s Foot Company, 27 January 1667

[50] Bodleian Library, Oxford, Bodleian Library, Oxford, MS. Carte 41, folio 701, The King to the Lords Justices of Ireland, 29 January 1661; Ibid, MS. Carte 158, p. 65, warrant by the Lords Justices of Ireland, 26 March 1661

[51] Bodleian Library, Oxford, MS. Carte 165, folio 20v, commission to Sir Matthew Appleyard issued by the Duke of Ormond, 8 September 1662

[52] Bodleian Library, Oxford, MS. Carte 165, folio 192v, warrant by the Duke of Ormond to Sir Matthew Appleyard, 26 May 1664

[53] Augustus S. Bolton, ‘Appleyard, Sir Mathew’, in The Dictionary of National Biography, Vol. 1, p. 522

[54] C. Litton Falkiner (ed.), Calendar of the Manuscripts of the Marquis of Ormond at Kilkenny Castle (Historical Manuscripts Commission, New Series, Vol. 3, 1904), p. 219

[55] William Shaw (ed.), Calendar of Treasury Books (1916), Vol. 7 (1681-85), p. 172

[56] Anon, Journal of the House of Commons (1802), Vol. 3 (1643-44), p. 154

[57] William Shaw (ed.), Calendar of Treasury Books (1916), Vol. 7 (1681-85), p. 172

[58] Augustus S. Bolton, ‘Appleyard, Sir Mathew’, in The Dictionary of National Biography, Vol. 1, p. 522

[59] C.M. Tenison, M.R.I.A., ‘The Private Bankers of Ireland’, in Journal Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, vol. II (1893), p. 206

[60] Gordon St. George Mark, ‘The Joyces of Merview’, in The Irish Genealogist, Vol. 8, No. 3 (1992), p. 385

[61] George Dames Burtchaell & Thomas Ulick Sadleir (eds.), Alumni Dublinenses (Thoemmes Press, Bristol, 2001), Vol. 1, p. 16

[62] http://www.askaboutireland.ie/griffith-valuation/index.xml?action=doNameSearch&Submit.x=26&Submit.y=15&Submit=Submit&familyname=Appleyard = accessed 5 September 2014

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Maritime History

Youghal Harbour arrivals and sailings February 1936

            

Youghal Harbour arrivals and sailings February 1936

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

Introduction

This article recounts the arrivals and sailings at Youghal, Co. Cork in February 1936 with some biographical details on the vessels involved. The first entry in the Youghal Harbour book of arrivals and sailings, 1936-1941, records the sailing of the Nellie Fleming on 2nd February 1936. She sailed light under Captain Michael Duggan.[1] This vessel was owned by the Youghal firm of M.J. Fleming. When she left Youghal on that February day it would be for the last time. Following her arrival at Lydney on 5th February the Nellie Fleming sailed for Youghal with a full cargo of coal on 8th February 1936.

Her crew on that last sailing were Captain Michael Duggan, Bart Glavin (aged 58) mate, Dan Kenneally (aged 54) AB, Declan Doyle (aged 24) AB and Edward Sullivan (aged 18) on his first trip. Shortly after leaving Lydney a strong wind came up and the Nellie Fleming sheltered at Milford Haven where at least five other schooners were sheltering. Towards evening on the 8th the wind eased and the Nellie Fleming left Milford with the Camborne and the Kathleen & May while the others stayed in port.

By about 11pm the lull had changed into a dramatic and powerful east south east gale. The gale lasted for three whole days, reaching storm force 12 on 9th February. The Camborne was driven out into the Atlantic for five days while the Kathleen & May battled all Saturday night to get back to Milford by 5am Sunday. The Nellie Fleming was last seen west of St. Ann’s Head with her rigging partially dismantled.[2] All hands were lost. Her owner, Martin Fleming was devastated by the loss.

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Buttimer’s Quay at Youghal – often used by the merchant vessels and scene location of the Moby Dick film

Nellie Fleming

The Nellie Fleming was built at Carrickfergus by Paul Rodgers in 1884 and was originally named the Emily. Her official number was 83510.[3] This was the second vessel Nellie Fleming. The first Nellie Fleming was lost on 18th December 1913 on the Black Rocks in Ardmore Bay, Co. Waterford. Her master, Captain David Donovan (later owner of the B.I. of London), and her crew were saved.[4] This first Nellie Fleming had 120 registered tons.[5]

SS Nora

On 15th February 1936 the SS (steamship) Nora arrived in Youghal Harbour under the command of Captain Hollins. This vessel was of 89 registered tons and thus paid a harbour fee of £1 2s (shillings) 3d (pence). She brought 227 tons of coal for the Youghal firm of Murray & Son. The harbour fees for discharging this cargo was £2 16s 9d.[6] On 18th February 1936 the SS Nora sailed light from Youghal.

I don’t have much more information on the SS Nora. She first appears at Youghal in May 1923 when she came from Birkenhead with flour and bran under Captain Maston.[7] Unfortunately the port of registration is not given in the import book. In March 1936 the SS Nora returned to Youghal under Captain James.[8]

Margaret Hobley

On 19th February 1936 the Margaret Hobley arrived in Youghal under Captain Tommy Slade. She had 82 registered tons and her harbour fee was £1 6 pence. She brought 183 tons of coal for the firm of M.J. Fleming (cargo fee £2 5s 9d).[9] The Margaret Hobley had left Lydney on 1st February but contrary winds and the big storm of 8th-11th February slowed her passage.[10] Her cargo of coal for Martin Fleming also brought sad news that his own vessel was missing, presumed lost. The Margaret Hobley left Youghal on 26th February without any cargo.[11]

The Margaret Hobley was built at Pembroke in 1868 with dimensions of 86.6 X 22.2 X 10.8 feet. Her official number was 55674. The Margaret Hobley was registered at London while Thomas Hobley of Caernarvon was her first owner. She was later owned by William Postlethwaite of Milton. An 80hp engine was fitted in 1921 before she was sold by the Hook Shipping Company in 1922 to William Quance. He held the vessel for only a short time before she was purchased by the Slade family of Appledore.[12]

The Margaret Hobley served the Slade family well during the 1920s and 1930s. In 1940 the Margaret Hobley had her three tall masts removed and was employed as a balloon barge. The war did not serve her well and she returned to Appledore as a battered hulk. She died on the beach at Appledore where she was broken up.[13]

Kathleen & May

On the same day of 19th February 1936 the Kathleen & May arrived with another 198 tons of coal for M.J. Fleming (cargo fee £2 9s 6d).[14] This vessel was purchased in 1908 by Martin Fleming of Youghal to replace his brigantine, the Dei Gratia and join his other vessel, the first Nellie Fleming. Tom Browne of Youghal was her master for much of the 1920s.[15] The Dei Gratia was the vessel which found the famous ghost ship, the Marie Celeste. The Dei Gratia had her own run of troubles. She sank twice and was refloated twice but she had gained an unlucky name among mariners and ended her days as a coal hulk at Cobh. Today she lies buried under one of the piers at Haulbowline Island.[16]

The Kathleen & May was sold by M.J. Fleming in the summer of 1931 to 36 year old Tommy Jewell of Appledore and his father, William Jewell. The installation of an 80bhp Beardmore diesel engine in 1931 altered her tonnage and so the vessel arrived at Youghal with 92 net registered tons (fee £1 3s) but Tommy Jewell retained her full fore and aft rig.[17]

It was this retention of sail and application of engine power that saved the Kathleen & May in that February of 1936. She had started her voyage to Youghal on 22nd January from Lydney but was forced to seek shelter on route. On 8th February she was at Milford Haven when a lull in the wind encouraged some to leave the shelter of port. By 11pm the wind increased to gale force east south east and the Kathleen & May needed all her power to get back, against the wind, to Milford.[18]  

In this article weather and war took their toll on many merchant sailing vessels while the lack of return cargo made some vessels uneconomical to continue operations. Through all of this challenge and change the Kathleen & May still sails. She was built in 1900 by Ferguson & Baird of Connah’s Quay as the Lizzy May. She was named for the two daughters of her first owner, John Coppack and Tom Hughes was her first master. Her dimensions were 98.4 X 23.2 X 10.1 feet with 139 gross tons and 95 net tons.[19]

The Kathleen & May retired from trade in 1961. After a number of ownership changes, including for a time with the Maritime Trust in London, she was purchased in 1998 by Steve Clark of Bideford and restored to seagoing conditions. 

M.A. James

The third vessel to come into Youghal on that same day of 19th February 1936 was the M.A. James under Captain George Slade. But this vessel did not come for trade as she was windbound. Her harbour fee of 3s 8d, based on 87 net tons, reflected this action.[20] The M.A. James was making her way slowly to Courtmacsherry from Lydney after been caught in the February storm which claimed the Nellie Fleming and many other vessels.[21] The M.A. James only stayed briefly at Youghal as she sailed the following day (20th February).[22]

The M.A. James was originally built as a two mated schooner but was later converted to a three masted auxiliary schooner of 125 gross tons. She was built in 1900 by D. Williams of Portmadoc and measured 89.6 X 22.7 X 10.6 feet. She was built for the Labrador salt fish trade but later became a coaster.[23] Her shallow draft allowed her to load in the small creeks along the Labrador coast.

The M.A. James was owned by John Jones of Portmadoc until 1917. During her time at Portmadoc the M.A. James did a passage from Portmadoc to Cuxhaven (780 miles) in eighty-two hours.[24] She was purchased in 1919 by the Plymouth Co-operative Society and sold 1930 when brought by W.J. Slade of Appledore. It was he who installed a 70hp engine in 1930 which was later upgraded to a 100hp engine.[25] During the Second World War her masts were removed as she went into employment as a balloon barge. After the war the M.A. James was deemed uneconomic to repair and in 1948 was broken up.[26] Other sources say that the M.A. James was still afloat in 1950 and used as a hulk by Harris Shipyard at Appledore.[27] Richard Scott published a photo of the decaying hulk of the M.A. James at Boathyde, Appledore in August 1952.[28]

As the M.A. James lay in the mud of the Torridge River in 1948 the lettering of three ports of registry could be made out; Bideford, Plymouth and Caernarvon. Basil Greenhill remarked that sometimes if a vessel came from a port that had no custom house and therefore not acceptable as a port of registration, an owner would inscribed two names onto his vessel. An example of this would be “Portmadoc, Port of Caernarvon”.[29]

Image

SS Lonsdale

As the M.A. James left Youghal two trading vessels arrived in port. The first vessel was the SS Lonsdale (85 tons) under Captain Stubbs. She brought 205 tons of coal for the Gortroe Co-op.[30] I have no further information on the SS Lonsdale.

Ketch

The second arrival on 20th February was the Ketch of Ayr under Captain John Bowden. She brought 125 tons of coal for the Dungarvan Co-op.[31] The cargo was taken by road from Youghal to the two local branches of the Dungarvan Co-op at Clashmore and Grange.

The Ketch was built in 1894 by W. Fife & Son at Fairlie, North Ayrshire with 60 net tons. This was by 1936 reduced to 56 net tons. Her official number was 99732.[32] In the 1930s she was owned by William Jewell of Appledore and later sold to Arthur Hamlyn of Bristol. Like other vessels that came to Youghal that February of 1936 the Ketch was employed as a balloon barge at Falmouth during the Second World War. After the war she returned to Appledore but was soon after broken up.[33]

The Ketch had left Lydney on 9th February and ran right into the infamous big storm. She first sheltered at Barry and later at Milford before crossing the Irish Sea to shelter in the Waterford River. Eventually she made it to Youghal.[34]

Earl Cairns

The next arrival in Youghal was by the Earl Cairns on 26th February.[35] She had left Lydney for Kinsale in early February but was caught up in the great storm. Her master, Captain Philip White, had to take a rest after the ordeal and so it was Captain Eastman, possibly George Eastman of Appledore, who brought the Earl Cairns into Youghal on her windbound journey.[36] She left early on 27th February.[37] Within the month the Earl Cairns was back in Youghal on another windbound call and did not sail until 2nd April 1936.[38]

The Earl Cairns was the last vessel owned by Alexander Watkin of Saul. Alexander Watkin began his seafaring life on the Severn trows and rose to command two trows. When he retired from active seafaring he purchased a number of vessels for coastal trade including the Earl Cairns. Alexander Watkin died in 1935.[39]

The Earl Cairns was built at Connah’s Quay by Ferguson & Baird in 1884 for George Raynes of Liverpool. The three-masted schooner measured 93.2 X 23.8 X 10.4 feet and was 131 gross tons and 82 net tons. Her official number was 87826.[40] In 1935 she was owned by F. Harris of Appledore. Like other vessels in this article the Earl Cairns was used as a balloon barge during the Second World War and suffered badly. She was broken up at Appledore after the war.[41]

Image

Cooneen Quay on the River Blackwater — often used by the merchant sailing vessels

Harvest King

The next vessel to arrive in Youghal came not with cargo but came light to collect cargo. This was the Harvest King, under Captain Hagan, on 27th February 1936. The vessel had 81 registered tons and was charged £1 and 3 pence in harbour fees.[42] At that time she was owned by George Kearon of Arklow.[43] From Youghal Harbour the Harvest King went up the River Blackwater and onto the River Bride to load timber, possibly pit props. She passed up through Camphire Bridge at 11am on the 27th before returning down river in March.[44] The bridges at Youghal Harbour and at Camphire had a central section that swivelled open to let vessels pass through. The Harvest King sailed from Youghal on 11th March.[45]

The Harvest King was built at Runcorn in 1879 with a schooner rig. She measured 91 X 22 X 10 feet. She was brought by Arklow owners in 1901 and fitted with a motor in 1924. In 1942 the Arklow Pottery Company the vessel but they held it for only a few years before purchased by Captain James Hagan in 1949. The Harvest King ceased trading in 1952. In 1954 she travelled to Youghal to take part in the filming of Moby Dick. After returning to Arklow she was beached at Porter’s Rock and later broken up.[46]

As the Harvest King made its way up the Rivers Blackwater and Bride the Kathleen & May along with the Ketch left Youghal Harbour without cargo. The vast majority of the sailings from Youghal in the period 1936-1941 were light (without cargo). The only significant export cargoes came not from the quay side at Youghal but from river side quays on the Blackwater and Bride, such as those visited by the Harvest King.

Image

The Harvest King under sail

Gaelic

The last vessel to arrive at Youghal in February 1936 was the Gaelic under Captain William O’Toole. This vessel had 144 registered tons (harbour fee £1 16s) and brought 300 tons of coal (cargo fee £3 15s) for the firm of R. Farrell.[47] Captain William O’Toole of Ballinacurra, Co. Cork (and later of Arklow) had purchased the Gaelic in 1924.[48] The vessel remained registered to Beaumaris until 1932.[49] The Gaelic was an iron barquentine (later changed to a schooner rig) built in 1898 by William Thomas & Sons of Amlwch.[50] She measured 126.8 X 24 X 10 feet and her official number was 101760.[51] The Gaelic left Youghal light on 9th March 1936.[52]

During the First World War the Gaelic had served as a Q-ship to fight U-boats. Known as Q22 she was based in Gibraltar and cruised in the Bay of Biscay. She had four engagements with submarines. The Gaelic sank twice in her lifetime. She first went down in the Mersey on 17th February 1939 after a collision with the dredger Burbo and was refloated on 26th February 1939.[53] Her second and final sinking occurred while on a passage from Ards to Garston in February 1952 the Gaelic struck the Frenchman Rock off Mulroy, Co. Donegal and sank. Her crew survived.[54]

On this bright note we conclude this article on the trading vessels that arrived and departed from Youghal Harbour in the February of 1936.

 

[1] Youghal Harbour arrivals and sailings book, 1936-1941, MSS folio 2 recto

[2] Richard J. Scott, Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: the last years of the Western Seas traders (Black Dwarf Publications, Lydney, 2012), pp. 37-8

[3] Richard J. Scott, Irish Sea Schooner Twilight, p. 157

[4] Brendan O’Driscoll, On a Wave and a Prayer: a history of the Youghal Lifeboat Station (R.N.L.I. Youghal, 1999), p. 50

[5] Youghal Harbour Import Book, 1902-1912, various folios

[6] Youghal Harbour arrivals and sailings book, 1936-1941, MSS folio 1 verso

[7] Youghal Harbour Import Book, 1917-1927, MSS folio 55 verso

[8] Youghal Harbour arrivals and sailings book, 1936-1941, MSS folio 4 verso

[9] Youghal Harbour arrivals and sailings book, 1936-1941, MSS folio 1 verso

[10] Richard J. Scott, Irish Sea Schooner Twilight, p. 37

[11] Youghal Harbour arrivals and sailings book, 1936-1941, MSS folio 3 recto

[12] W.J. Slade, Out of Appledore (Percival Marshall, London, 1959), p. 115

[13] John Anderson, Coastwise Sail (Percival Marshall, London, 1948), pp. 47-8

[14] Youghal Harbour arrivals and sailings book, 1936-1941, MSS folio 1 verso

[15] Richard J. Scott, Irish Sea Schooner Twilight, pp. 41, 43

[16] Niall O’Brien, Blackwater and Bride: Navigation and Trade, 7000 BC to 2007 (Niall O’Brien Publishing, Ballyduff, 2008), p. 451

[17] Richard J. Scott, Irish Sea Schooner Twilight, pp. 46-7

[18] Richard J. Scott, Irish Sea Schooner Twilight, pp. 37-8

[19] Niall O’Brien, Blackwater and Bride: Navigation and Trade, pp. 419, 420

[20] Youghal Harbour arrivals and sailings book, 1936-1941, MSS folio 1 verso

[21] Richard J. Scott, Irish Sea Schooner Twilight, p. 37

[22] Youghal Harbour arrivals and sailings book, 1936-1941, MSS folio 2 recto

[23] John Anderson, Coastwise Sail, p. 46

[24] Basil Greenhill, The Merchant Schooners (2 vols. Percival Marshall, London, 1957), Vol. 2, p. 61

[25] W.J. Slade, Out of Appledore, p. 116

[26] Richard J. Scott, Irish Sea Schooner Twilight, p. 148

[27] Basil Greenhill, The Merchant Schooners, Vol. 2, p. 173

[28] Richard J. Scott, Irish Sea Schooner Twilight, p. 148

[29] Basil Greenhill, The Merchant Schooners (2 vols. Percival Marshall, London, 1951), Vol. 1, p. 71

[30] Youghal Harbour arrivals and sailings book, 1936-1941, MSS folio 1 verso

[31] Youghal Harbour arrivals and sailings book, 1936-1941, MSS folio 1 verso

[32] Douglas Bennett (edited by David Clement), Schooner Sunset (Rochester, 2001), p. 196

[33] Richard J. Scott, Irish Sea Schooner Twilight, p. 146

[34] Richard J. Scott, Irish Sea Schooner Twilight, pp. 37-8

[35] Youghal Harbour arrivals and sailings book, 1936-1941, MSS folio 2 verso

[36] Richard J. Scott, Irish Sea Schooner Twilight, pp. 37, 98

[37] Youghal Harbour arrivals and sailings book, 1936-1941, MSS folio 3 recto

[38] Youghal Harbour arrivals and sailings book, 1936-1941, MSS folio 4 verso & folio 5 recto

[39] Basil Greenhill, The Merchant Schooners, Vol. 1, pp. 173, 175

[40] Douglas Bennett (edited by David Clement), Schooner Sunset, p. 181

[41] Richard J. Scott, Irish Sea Schooner Twilight, p. 123

[42] Youghal Harbour arrivals and sailings book, 1936-1941, MSS folio 2 verso

[43] Richard J. Scott, Irish Sea Schooner Twilight, p. 134

[44] Typescript copy of the Camphire Bridge log book, 1929-1956, February 1936

[45] Youghal Harbour arrivals and sailings book, 1936-1941, MSS folio 4 recto

[46] Frank Forde, Maritime Arklow (Glendine Press, Dun Laoghaire, 1988), p. 75

[47] Youghal Harbour arrivals and sailings book, 1936-1941, MSS folio 2 verso

[48] Richard J. Scott, Irish Sea Schooner Twilight, pp. 73

[49] Frank Forde, Maritime Arklow, p. 73

[50] Jim Rees & Liam Charlton, Arklow: Last Stronghold of Sail (authors, Arklow, 1986), p. 40

[51] Douglas Bennett (edited by David Clement), Schooner Sunset, p. 186

[52] Youghal Harbour arrivals and sailings book, 1936-1941, MSS folio 4 recto

[53] Frank Forde, Maritime Arklow, p. 73

[54] Richard J. Scott, Irish Sea Schooner Twilight, pp. 128, 130

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