Waterford history

Tallow Church of Ireland church

Tallow Church of Ireland church

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien


Tallow Church of Ireland church is variously dedicated to St. Paul and St. Catherine. The most common dedication is to St. Catherine. Sometime between 1177 and 1199 Richard de Carreu gave Tallow church to the abbey of St. Thomas in Dublin.[1] In the 1190s the bishop of Cork claimed the church of Tallow as part of the paruchia of Cork but was unsuccessful.[2] Sometime afterwards Tallow parish and church became the property of Molana Abbey near the mouth of the River Blackwater. Yet Molana had difficulties controlling Tallow parish.

Sometime before 7th April 1469 Molana Abbey petitioned the pope for the recovery of the Tallow vicarage. The vicarage was occupied by Raymund Staccabul for about eight years without title. The previous vicar appointed by Molana, William Nurruyn, was long since dead (pre 1461). The petition of Molana said that its fruits etc. were so slight that they could not decently maintain themselves, or have the buildings repaired and keep hospitality. Molana said that the rectory of Tallow church was canonically united to the said monastery, and that the values of the said vicarage and monastery did not exceed 6 and 40 marks sterling respectively. The abbot of Inislounaght was to examine the case and if the facts were correct, unite the vicarage to Molana in perpetuity. Thereafter Molana could appoint, and remove at pleasure, its own canons as vicars to Tallow.[3]

At the dissolution of the monasteries in 1540 Molana held Tallow church.



Tallow 18th century church 

Tallow church was subsequently granted to the new Protestant Church of Ireland. in December 1616 Sir Richard Boyle paid to have a gallery installed in Tallow church. Mr. Langredg was paid ten pounds for the work.[4] In 1746 Tallow church was one of only 16 churches in repair in the Diocese of Lismore.[5]

In 1746 Charles Smith described Tallow church as ‘the church is low, and has but an indifferent aspect’.[6] The low-church aspect is in keeping with a medieval church design with its small windows.

The present church is described as a detached four-bay double-height single-cell with single-bay single-storey lean-to vestry to south-east, and single-bay three-stage entrance tower to west on a square plan.[7] It was built about 1772-3 as three new registry books were started in 1772 to record baptisms, marriages burials.[8] In the map of Tallow in 1774 a drawing of the church is depicted showing a tall structure as like the present church and not the low church described in 1746 and so confirming the 1772-3 date. An un-dated front elevation drawing of the new church exists in the Lismore papers in Dublin.[9]

In 1827 the church expenditure included: parish clerk £20, sexton £10, elements £4, washing church linen £2 5s, repairs to the church £8, coffins for paupers £2 and foundling children £10 giving a total of £56 5s. The churchwardens in 1827 were A. Burrudge and William Hudson.[10]

In 1834 Tallow parish had 352 Anglican Protestant residents, making it the second largest rural parish in County Waterford after Lismore which had 494 Anglican Protestants. As a percentage of the total parish population, Tallow came in fourth in size (7.1%) after Killea (9.7%), Kill St. Nicholas (9.7%) and Clonegam (8.7%). The Anglican community in Lismore was only 3.1% of the total population.[11] A report in 1835 gave the Protestant population of Tallow as 357 people, second in County Waterford behind Lismore with 539 Anglican Protestants. In percentage terms against the total population Tallow was fourth (7.2%) behind St. Mary’s Clonmel (11.1%), Clonegam (9.2%) and Monksland (8.0%).[12]

In 1833 it was noted that Rev. John Jackson of Tallow was owed £260 in unpaid tithe. This placed him twelfth in the order of unpaid clergymen in the Lismore part of the Diocese. Yet the amount owed to Rev. Jackson amounted to almost his entire income and he was reduced to some ‘painful embarrassments’ when it came to paying his bills.[13]

In 1943 G.B. Nason (Sandy Hill, Tallow) and J.B. Tuckey of Tallow were the churchwardens.[14] In 1945 the value of the rectory at Tallow was given as £28.[15] Rev. R.B. Bryan, MA, MD, was then the rector.[16] The glebe land was sold sometime before 1942 for £1,419 1s 3d with the money realised going into the parish fund.[17]

Tallow church closed in the late 1960s and many of its fixtures and fittings were removed to other local churches. The east window (originally donated by the Percival family in 1894) was moved to St. Luke’s church at Curraheen. The pews and lectern were also removed to Curraheen.[18] A number of other items were removed to St. Carthage’s Cathedral in Lismore. Having concluded all income and expenditure the vestry books were closed in 1972.[19]

Hayden gateway

At the southern boundary of the graveyard is a pair of cut-stone panelled piers with moulded capping and quatrefoil panels. Between the piers is a decorative wrought iron double gate with spear-head finials, with sections of wrought iron railings flaking the piers. This gateway is said to date to about 1775 but this is incorrect.[20]



Church gateway

In a map of Tallow in 1774 the area of present-day Mill Road didn’t exist. Instead the road was the glebe land of the church. Access to the graveyard was via a lane coming south from Tallow mill and another lane coming west from the Glenaboy River. This western lane turned north at the Glenaboy river and linked up with West Street beside O’Neill’s house.

In the 1840 Ordnance Survey map Mill Road was still not built. Instead a new access road was constructed directly north from the church towards West Street opening at the gateway into MacCarthy’s former hardware premises. When Griffin’s Valuation was done in 1851 no Mill Road was mentioned. The glebe land of the church was included on Mill Lane, a small lane, still in existence, south of the present Mill Road. Sometime after 1856 Michael Hayden of West Street, the man who made the gates and railings died or ceased trading. Therefore Mill road and the gateway date to sometime in the 1850s.



Site of Michael Hayden’s forge behind the wall on West Street



A biography of the 18th and 19th century vicars of Tallow is available at




End of post




[1] Flanagan, M.T., ‘Conquestus and adquisicio: Some early charters relating to St. Thomas’ abbey, Dublin’, in Clerics, Kings and Vikings: Essays on medieval Ireland in honour of Donnchadh Ó Corráin (Dublin, 2015), pp. 127-146, at p. 137

[2] MacCotter, P., A history of the Medieval Diocese of Cloyne (Blackrock, 2013), p. 75

[3] Twemlow, J.A. (ed.), Calendar of Papal Letters relating to Great Britain and Ireland, Volume XII, 1458-1471 (Stationery Office, London, 1933), p. 668

[4] Casey, A.E. & O’Dowling, T. (eds.), O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 6, p. 363

[5] MacCarthy, R.B., The diocese of Lismore, 1801-69 (Dublin, 2008), p. 42

[6] Charles Smith, The ancient and present state of the County and City of Waterford, edited by D. Brady (Dungarvan, 2008), p. 36

[7] http://www.buildingsofireland.ie/niah/search.jsp?type=record&county=WA&regno=22818047 [accessed on 21 May 2019]

[8] https://www.ireland.anglican.org/cmsfiles/pdf/AboutUs/library/registers/ParishRegisters/PARISHREGISTERS.pdf [accessed on 26 May 2019]

[9] National Library of Ireland, Lismore Castle Papers, AD 3,594/8

[10] http://www.dippam.ac.uk/eppi/documents/10167/page/224867 [accessed on 21 May 2019] Report on Account of Sums applotted by Vestries in Ireland under Parochial Rates, 1927, p. 119

[11] Broderick, E., ‘Waterford’s Minority Anglican Community during three crises – 1824-25; 1831-35; and 1848’, in Decies, Number 59 (2003), pp. 161-183, at p. 168

[12] Broderick, E., ‘Protestants and the 1826 Waterford County Election’, in Decies, Number 53 (1997), pp. 45-66, at p. 65

[13] Broderick, E., ‘Waterford’s Minority Anglican Community during three crises – 1824-25; 1831-35; and 1848’, in Decies, Number 59 (2003), pp. 161-183, at pp. 173, 174

[14] Church of Ireland, Diocese of Waterford and Lismore, Report of the Diocesan Council, 1945 (Waterford, 1946), p. 33

[15] Church of Ireland, Diocese of Waterford and Lismore, Report of the Diocesan Council, 1945 (Waterford, 1946), p. 28

[16] Church of Ireland, Diocese of Waterford and Lismore, Report of the Diocesan Council, 1945 (Waterford, 1946), p. 8

[17] Church of Ireland, Diocese of Waterford and Lismore, Report of the Diocesan Council, 1942 (Waterford, 1942), p. 24; Church of Ireland, Diocese of Waterford and Lismore, Report of the Diocesan Council, 1945 (Waterford, 1946), p. 12

[18] Anon, St. Catherine’s Parish: Conna, Ballynoe Glengoura: A Christian Heritage (Conna, 2000), p. 109

[19] https://www.ireland.anglican.org/cmsfiles/pdf/AboutUs/library/vestrybooks.pdf [accessed 26 May 2019] Vestry book at the Representative Church Body Library, Dublin

[20] http://www.buildingsofireland.ie/niah/search.jsp?type=record&county=WA&regno=22818047 [accessed on 21 May 2019]

Waterford history

Tallow Army Barracks

Tallow Army Barracks

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien


Before a national police force was organised in the mid-19th century, the army was employed to keep the peace and enforce the laws under direction of the local magistrates. In the 17th century the army was billeted in private houses and inns. This divided the army about a town and exposed the soldiers to the evil drink. In the 18th century this practice of army deployment was phrased out and purpose built army barracks were constructed at key locations around the country. The town of Tallow in west County Waterford had accommodated a troop of cavalry in the 17th century and was strategically located at a crossing point on the River Bride allowing troops to move north or south of the river as the situation demanded.[1]



The ruins of the army barracks at Tallow.


Building the barracks

It is not known exactly when the Tallow army barracks was built but a reference in the Journal of the Irish House of Commons places the building of the barracks as occurring between 1743 and 1752 during the time when Arthur Neville was Surveyor-General. Neville employed his clerk, George Ensor to be the contracting builder of Tallow barracks while at the same time constructing a barracks at Cappoquin and Mallow.[2] A British Parliamentary report on the date of the erection of army barracks across the United Kingdom, taken in 1847, fails to mention Tallow as it was no longer an army barracks by that time. Mallow barracks is mentioned but unfortunately no date of construction is given.[3] It was possibly the Earl of Cork who provided the site for the barracks at the southern end of what would become Barrack Street. The rising ground would give the soldiers an observation platform to see all approaches to the town.

The setup costs and economic benefits

In 1719 the initial cost of building a barracks for a troop of horse was about £500-£700 while in operation it would generate £500 to £1,000 per year for the local economy. A barracks for a troop of horse, like Tallow, would fall into the higher range.[4]

Designer and builder

George Ensor went on later in the 1760s to become a recognised architect with his own practice. In 1766-69 he designed the new church of St. John the Evangelist in Fishamble Street, Dublin. The church was demolished in 1884 as part of a road widening scheme.[5]

The dragoons in 1762

Like in the 17th century Tallow was home to a troop of horse which could give a greater range of operations compared to foot soldiers. It is not known when the first troops arrived. In March/April 1762 a troop and a half of dragoons were stationed in the army barracks at the southern end of Barrack Street. But the dragoons were of limited value for security when trouble came. In April 1762 during the Whiteboys disturbances across west Waterford, a large assembly of people invaded the town with weapons of guns and pikes. They freed all the prisoners in the town jail and took over the town.[6] Troops from Youghal had to come and restore order. About 13 Whiteboy prisoners were then confined to the barracks. In November 1763 the army barracks at Tallow and Cappoquin were united under the control of Youghal army barracks.[7]

Later dragoons

In 1789 two companies of the 18th Regiment of Dragoons was stationed at Tallow. Another two companies were stationed at Clogheen while there was one company at Clonmel, and Cappoquin.[8] In 1811 we get a better glimpse into the size and structure of the Tallow army barracks. In that year there were eight cavalry officers and 68 privates were stationed in the barracks. There were no infantry units.[9] The cavalry had 76 horses.[10] It is not exactly clear where these people and horses were accommodated in the barracks. It is possible the horses were on the ground floor with the day rooms on the first floor and the sleeping quarters on the top storey.

Closure of the army barracks

After the end of the war with France in 1815 and the growth of Fermoy as the main army garrison in the south of Ireland, small local army barracks like Tallow were closed down. It is not known when Tallow was closed but the site was an auxiliary workhouse in the second half of the 1840s. In 1818-1826 the Army department in Dublin was in talk with the agents of the Duke of Devonshire about the future of the army barracks suggesting the army had no further use for it.[11] In 1819 a proposal letter was sent to William Curry, agent for the Duke on the sale of the barracks.[12] In 1824 another offer of sale was made to the Duke.[13]

Later life of the barracks buildings

After its use as an auxiliary workhouse from the 1840s to the 1890s the old army barracks became a corn store by 1900 under the Jacob family and was later known as Bride valley Stores when owned by the Kelleher family. In 1920-22 the army barracks was re-occupied by the military – first the British army, then the Irish Republican Army and then by the Irish Free State army. In 1923 the Duke of Devonshire sought compensation from the Board of Works for damaged to the army barracks.[14]

Today (2019) the barracks continues to stand at the southern end of Barrack Street. Even in its ruinous state the barracks still exerts an influence upon the town as the building lives on in the street name of Barrack Street. Such was its impact that it is unknown what the name of the street was before the barracks was built in the 1740s. As the barracks at Mallow is no longer standing and that at Cappoquin much altered, the barracks at Tallow is a time capsule of George Ensor’s work and a picture into how a barracks for cavalry was built.




End of post




[1] For more on the 17th century soldiers at Tallow see https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/03/22/a-seventeenth-century-horse-troop-in-tallow-2/

[2] McParland, E., Public Architecture in Ireland, 1680-1760 (New Haven, 2001), p. 129 which referred on note 46 to the Journal of the House of Commons, V, p. xxi ff. Volume V covers the period 1723 to 1730 and so the correct reference must be to a later volume.

[3] British parliamentary Papers, Barracks return from each barracks in the United Kingdom relative to its date of erection, 1847 (169), XXXVI, pp. 376-405, at p. 402

[4] Dickson, D., Old World Colony: Cork and South Munster 1630-1830 (Cork, 2005), p. 424

[5] Bennett, D., Encyclopaedia of Dublin (Dublin, 1994), p. 188

[6] Hayman, Rev. S., The Hand-book for Youghal (reprint Youghal, 1973), p. 67

[7] Hayman, Rev. S., The Hand-book for Youghal (reprint Youghal, 1973), pp. 68, 69

[8] The Gentleman’s and London Magazine: Or Monthly Chronologer, 1741-1794, p. 222

[9] British Parliamentary Papers, Return of Army Barracks, 1811, p. 187

[10] Butler, D., South Tipperary 1570-1841 (Dublin, 2007), p. 285

[11] National Library of Ireland, Lismore Castle Papers, MS 43,388/3

[12] National Library of Ireland, Lismore Castle Papers, MS 43,545/11

[13] National Library of Ireland, Lismore Castle Papers, MS 43,545/19

[14] Waterford County Archives, Lismore Castle papers, IE/WCA/PP/LISM/515

Cork history, Maritime History, Waterford history

The Hope of Cork

The Hope of Cork

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien


In 2008, I wrote in Blackwater and Bride: Navigation and Trade, 7000 BC to 2007 that the Claggan of Barrow, purchased by David O’Keeffe of Tallow in 1912, was just the latest in a number of vessels owned by O’Keeffe over his long business career.[1] One of these other vessels owned by O’Keeffe was the Hope of Cork.




The Hope was built in 1858 at Ulverston as a wooden schooner. Ulverston was then in Lnacastershire but is now in Cumbria. The Hope’s original port of registration was Lancaster and so she was called the Hope of Lancaster.[2] The vessel’s dimensions were given as 71 X 19.6 X 8.9 feet.[3] The Hope had 75 net registered tons. Her official number was 20484 and she displayed a signal hoist of NBJP.[4]

In 1860 the Hope was owned by Petty & Co. of Ulverston who operated the vessel as a coaster and J. Pernic was her master.[5] Petty & Co. was a private bank founded in Ulverston in 1804 under that name of Petty & Postlethwaite. In 1863 the bank was purchased by the Wakefield, Crewsdon & Co. bank of Kendal.[6] Petty & Co. was involved in building and owning ships since the 1810s.[7] By 1865 the Hope was still owned by Petty & Co. of Ulverston who continued to operate the vessel as a coaster while M. Wilson was her new master.[8]

Later in 1865 Matthew Wilson of Ulverston was given as the owner of the Hope.[9] As her former master he must have liked the vessel sufficiently to purchase her. But Matthew Wilson didn’t long enjoy the Hope of Lancaster as by 1867 the vessel was owned by John Bell of Ulverston[10]. In about 1876 the Hope of Lancaster was sold to James Geldart of Barrow in Lancastershire.[11]

In 1889 the Hope sailed up the Blackwater to Cappoquin, Co. Waterford, with a cargo for John Stanley. Her captain on that occasion was named Dalton. In the same year, the Hope exported three cargos of timber for David O’Keeffe of Tallow and another two cargos for John Stanley. The Hope sailed up the Bride, a tributary of the Blackwater, twice in 1890 and again in 1895 to export oats (948 barrels). The vessel sailed up the Blackwater once in 1890 and twice in 1891. Captain Allin was her master in 1891.[12]

After seeing the Hope in 1889 David O’Keeffe of Tallow liked the vessel so much that her brought her and re-registered the Hope at Cork. Although David O’Keeffe is listed as the owner and manager it is unlikely that he was the actual master of the Hope. David O’Keeffe was a large coal, timber and grain merchant in west Waterford/east Cork and would have little time to sail merchant vessels and little training. Later, during the Great War, David O’Keeffe was the owner of the Claggan of Barrow.[13]



David O’Keeffe

But owning and operating a sailing merchant vessel was a specialist activity. By 1891 David O’Keeffe decided to sell the Hope yet still use her to carry his cargoes as in 1893 the vessel exported oats for O’Keeffe from the Bride River.[14]

Between 1891 and 1897 the Hope of Cork was owned by Mrs. Emma Nance of Placetenton Place, Cardiff and Horatio Nance of Dock Chambers, Cardiff was the master.[15] Horatio Nance was born about 1849 in Cornwall and in 1881 was living in Glamorgan. His wife was Emma Nance but it is not clear if it was Emma Nance of Placetenton Place or another woman of the same name.[16] The purchase of the Hope by the Nance family must have given them hope for a better future as in October 1888 Horatio Nance and his partner William Edwin Nance (merchant, ship brokers and coal agents) were in the Cardiff bankruptcy court.[17] By 1896 Horatio Nance was the owner of a coal mine at West Llantwit, near Beddau, Pontypridd. The mine was managed by David Thomas and had 12 workers underground and 3 on the surface.[18] In 1898 and 1899 the Hope of Cork was owned and manged by Ellis Roberts of Port Dinorwic, Carnarvon.[19]

After 1899 the Hope of Cork disappeared from the records and its fate is unknown.


End of post


[1] O’Brien, N., Blackwater and Bride: Navigation and Trade, 7000 BC to 2007 (Ballyduff, 2008), p. 397

[2] Mercantile Navy List, 1889

[3] Lloyd’s List, 1865

[4] Mercantile Navy List, 1889

[5] Lloyd’s List, 1860

[6] Orbell, J., & Turton, A., British Banking: a guide to historical records (Abingdon, 2017), p. 522

[7] https://www.liverpool.ac.uk/~cmi/books/storm1826.html [accessed on 2 March 2019]

[8] Lloyd’s List, 1865

[9] Mercantile Navy List, 1865

[10] Mercantile Navy List, 1875

[11] Mercantile Navy List, 1885 & 1889

[12] Cork City & County Archives, Youghal Port Records, U138, Import & Export Returns, 1870-1912; O’Brien, Blackwater and Bride: Navigation and Trade, 7000 BC to 2007, p. 414

[13] Mercantile Navy List, 1890; O’Brien, Blackwater and Bride: Navigation and Trade, 7000 BC to 2007, pp. 268, 270, 271

[14] Cork City & County Archives, Youghal Port Records, U138, Import & Export Returns, 1870-1912;

[15] Mercantile Navy List, 1891 & 1897

[16] https://www.ancestry.co.uk/search/categories/1881uki/?name=_Nance&pg=5&count=50&name_x=_1 [accessed on 2 March 2019]

[17] South Wales Daily News, 4th October 1888 https://newspapers.library.wales/view/3669790/3669791/2/LIVERPOOL [accessed on 2 March 2019]

[18] http://projects.exeter.ac.uk/mhn/1896-59.htm [accessed 2 March 2019]

[19] Mercantile Navy List, 1898 & 1899

General History

Index of modern history articles published on this Blog

Index of modern history articles published on this Blog

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien


On 14th August 2013 the first article in the modern history blog was published. Since then a total of forty posts were published – thirty-nine history articles and one poem. The articles covered a wide range of subjects across a wide geographical area. Many articles cover the West Waterford – East Cork area where I live. Beyond that there are a number of articles relating to Counties Kilkenny and Carlow. After that there are a number of articles from different Counties across Ireland. Overseas Oxford has a number of articles relating to people and places. Many articles explored people I have met in old books and places I have went to or read about.

Some articles have generated good viewing figures such as 703 viewers for https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/06/06/some-tallow-people-who-died-in-the-great-war/ which article gathers a short biography on people from Tallow, Co. Waterford who died in the Great War (otherwise known as World War One). Other articles generated no viewers such as the one on https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2016/06/28/bromsgrove-apprentices-1540-1663/. The article followed the life and times of apprentices from Bromsgrove in Worcestershire who went to learn a trade in Bristol, Oxford or Gloucester.

But viewing figures are not the end result. Some articles may not have had great viewing figures but the reaction to the articles was the pleasure. A descendent of William Spotswood Green got in touch to say she was delighted with the article. = https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/03/08/william-spotswood-green-a-biography/

A relative of a former chaplain at Villierstown also got in touch to say thanks in response to another article. = https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2015/05/07/villierstown-chapel-and-chaplains/

Another article = https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/10/06/a-very-long-lease-ummeraboy-in-duhallow/ = helped a person doing some family history research to solve a problem in his research that had him perplexed for years.

Another article = https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/05/15/the-vicars-of-tallow-co-waterford-1639-1910/ = inspired another historian to do his own research into Protestant churches in his area. You can’t unsurpass those pleasures by just looking at viewing figures.

Not all the articles are of modern (post 1534) history. A few are about Prehistoric Ireland. The medieval period (400 to 1534) is covered in another blog site that I have = http://celtic2realms-medievalnews.blogspot.ie/

The name of the blog is Exploring history with Niall and that is it – the joy and wonder of discovering new things, of people and places long since forgotten brought back to life to live again. There are many more articles in various stages of production and hopefully will see the publishing date in the not too distant future. For the moment, below is an index and link to the published articles and hopefully you, the viewer, will find something of interest.


Compass map


Index and link to the published articles


Published 19th August 2016


25 views by 26th August 2016


Published 11th August 2016


34 views by 26th August 2016


Published 2nd August 2016


3 views by 26th August 2016


Published 28th June 2016


No views by 26th August 2016


Published 27th June 2016


2 views by 26th August 2016

Published 8th June 2016


44 views by 26th August 2016


Published 4th June 2016


37 views by 26th August 2016


Published 3rd June 2016


19 views by 26th August 2016


Published 30th May 2016


9 views by 26th August 2016


Published 21st February 2016


24 views by 26th August 2016


Published 17th February 2016


73 views by 26th August 2016


Published 8th February 2016


86 views by 26th August 2016


Published 20th October 2015


34 views by 26th August 2016


Published 13th October 2015


21 views by 26th August 2016


Published 1st October 2015


22 views by 26th August 2016


Published 9th September 2015


10 views by 26th August 2016


Published 26th August 2015


43 views by 26th August 2016


Published 1st July 2015


249 views by 26th August 2016


Published 7th May 2015


119 views by 26th August 2016


Published 14th April 2015


A poem = 15 views by 26th August 2016


Published 24th March 2015


43 views by 26th August 2016


Published 9th March 2015


273 views by 26th August 2016


Published 4th January 2015


72 views by 26th August 2016


Published 24th December 2014


20 views by 26th August 2016


Published 8th December 2014


69 views by 26th August 2016


Published 6th October 2014


126 views by 26th August 2016


Published 14th September 2014


44 views by 26th August 2016


Published 27th August 2014


21 views by 26th August 2016


Published 19th July 2014


68 views by 26th August 2016


Published 17th July 2014


226 views by 26th August 2016


Published 4th July 2014


113 views by 26th August 2016


Published 27th June 2014


31 views by 26th August 2016


Published 6th June 2014


703 views by 26th August 2016


Published 15th May 2014


88 views by 26th August 2016


Published 23rd April 2014


596 views by 26th August 2016


Published 12th April 2014


164 views by 26th August 2016


Published 22nd March 2014


256 views by 26th August 2016


Published 8th March 2014


234 views by 26th August 2016


Published 1st September 2013


238 views by 26th August 2016


Published 14th August 2013


121 views by 26th August 2016






End of post




Waterford history

Some Tallow people who died in the Great War

Some Tallow people who died in the Great War

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

On 31st May 2014 a gathering of people of all ages and backgrounds came to a small bridge over the little river Glenaboy near the town of Tallow in west County Waterford. Although for many the journey to that bridge was relatively short, the journey of a nation to that bridge was long and difficult and some could not yet, in their mental eye, make it. The assembly had come to witness the unveiling of a monument to people from Tallow and its hinterland that left their native place about one hundred years before to fight in the “War to end all wars” as it was called and never returned.

The names of the fallen, recorded on the monument, include George Anderson, Thomas Bacon, Timothy Barron, James Cronin, Patrick Cuffe, William Devine, Michael Donovan, Patrick French, Edward Grey, Richard Griffin, Peter Henley, Patrick Hogan, John Horey, Michael Hynes, John Knight, Michael O’Keeffe, James O’Keeffe, John O’Keeffe, David O’Sullivan, David O’Connell, Michael Power, Cornelius Prendergast and Bartholomew Prendergast.

Four of these people, Patrick Hogan, James O’Keeffe, John O’Keeffe and David O’Connell came from Ballynoe, Co. Cork. They are included in the list of Waterford war dead because Tallow was the postal town for Ballynoe in 1914. In this article I will give a commentary on the Tallow and hinterland servicemen who died in World War One (also called the First World War or the Great War) and leave the Ballynoe men to another article for another day.


The memorial monument was the idea of the Tallow An Toastal Committee of the Festival with Stephen Delaney doing much of the research work. The monument was the work of Adian Walsh.

British Army organisation in the Great War

We begin with a quick commentary on the organisational structure of the British army during the Great War. The basic unit was the section – four sections made up a platoon of about fifty men and there were four numbered platoons in a company (including a Company HQ) with a total strength of about 230 men. Four companies, designed with the letters A, B, C, and D, formed a battalion (platoons numbered 1 to 16). The strength of a battalion was about 1,000 men which included transport, supplies, signals, cooks, headquarters, etc. At first there were four battalions in a brigade and three brigades in a division. By 1917 the strength of a brigade was reduced to three battalions.[1]

The soldiers

Edward Grey – September 1914

Edward Grey was the son of John and Ellen Grey of Barrack Street, Tallow. Edward Grey enlisted in the Irish Guards in the garrison town of Fermoy, Co. Cork. At the start of the war, in August 1914 Private Edward Grey was quartered at Wellington Barracks, London, with the 1st Battalion, Irish Guards. The Battalion formed part of the 4th Guards Brigade in the 1st Army Corps and on 12th August they entrained for Southampton and were in France by morning of the following day. After a day’s rest the Battalion set off on their march to Belgium.

By 21st August the Battalion were at Maroilles and on the following day heard the first sound of the guns of war. On 23rd August they crossed into Belgium and marched towards Mons. The Battalion billeted at Quevy le Petit, near Mons where they heard artillery fire but saw no Germans. Overnight the situation changed as the French were pushed back on the British right leaving the British exposed on two sides. A general retreat was ordered. At Etreux the 2nd Battalion Royal Munster Fusiliers deployed to cover the retreat and were nearly all killed or captured but they had given their comrades a chance to get away and made the Germans follow but avoiding engagement.

By 30th August the Battalion was at Coucy le Chateaux, about 70 miles south of Mons. Resting only for ten minutes in every hour the retreat continued south-westwards with the Germans following at a distance. The only close fighting by the Battalion with the Germans was at Landrecies on 25th August. The retreat finally stopped on 6th September at Rozoy, about 30 miles south-east of Paris and some 150 miles from Mons. At Rozoy the Irish Guards faced the Germans and halted their advance as part of the greater affair known as the Battle of the Marne.

On 7th September 1914 the Germans went into retreat with the British advancing north again just to the east of their line of retreat. By 9th September the Irish Guards had advanced 30 miles and crossed the Marne at Villiers-sur-Marne. The war of movement continued northwards and by 12th September the 1st Battalion of the Irish Guards had reached Courcelles, 10 miles from Soissons. On 12th September 1914 Private Edward Grey was killed in action in what could be described as skirmish fighting. It would be two days later, on the River Aisne, before the Germans stopped their retreat and both sides came to battle. This would be called the Battle of the Aisne and lasted until 12th October. By that date both sides had given up the war of movement and dug in with the trench warfare that would last for the succeeding four years.[2] By the end of 1914 there remained on average one officer and thirty men in each Battalion who left for France in those sunny days of August 1914.[3] The death of Private Edward Grey so early in the war was unfortunately the first of many from Tallow and its hinterland.

John Horey – November 1914

John Horey was born in Tallow, Co. Waterford about 1894 when his father Martin Horey was an RIC constable and had married Margaret Horey in 1893. By 1911 Martin Horey had retired and was living as a farmer with his family near Birr, Co. Offaly. John Horey enlisted at Athlone in 4th Dragoon Guards (Royal Irish) of the Household Cavalry. The 4th began life in 1685 as the Earl of Arran’s troop of horse in the north of Ireland. In February 1788 the regiment’s title was changed to the 4th Dragoon Guards with the additional words of ‘Royal Irish’ in a few months.

In 1914 the 4th Dragoon Guards fought at Mons, the covering action at La Cateau, the retreat from Mons, the Marne and the Aisne. After the Germans were stopped at the Aisne River in October 1914 a race developed between the British and German armies as to who would get to the Belgian coast first and encircle the other side. The Battle of Messines (12th October-2nd November) was part of this race. By 2nd November the armies of Britain, France and Germany were worn out but the German had the Messines Ridge. Over the following ten days small attacking raids were conducted by all sides until large scale action was renewed on 10th November with the First Battle for Ypres. In this quiet time, on 3rd November 1914 Private John Horey was killed in action.[4]

Bartholomew Prendergast – January 1915

Bartholomew Prendergast was the son of James and Mary Prendergast of Barrack Street, Tallow and brother of Cornelius Prendergast [see entry below]. Bartholomew Prendergast enlisted in the Royal Engineers at Fermoy, Co. Cork. By 1915 he was a driver in the 23rd Field Company. This company was involved in the retreat from Mons, and the Battles of the Marne, the Aisne and Ypres in 1914. They ended 1914 at the Battle of Nonne Boschen, Belgium as part of the Ypres battle. In the winter months of 1914-5 the 23rd was at winter operations and did not see battle action until May 1915. It was during these winter operations that on 15th January 1915 Bartholomew Prendergast was killed. He was buried at the Beuvry Communal Cemetery in France.[5]

William Devine – February 1915

William Francis Devine was born in Tallow, Co. Waterford. He enlisted at London in the Household Cavalry. The 16th Lancers (The Queen’s) was the regimental unit. This unit was involved in the so-called ‘Curragh Mutiny’ in 1914 but it is not known if William Devine was there. The 16th Lancers were involved in many of the 1914-5 battles such as Mons, La Cateau, the retreat from Mons, the Marne, Aisne, Messines, Armentieres and Ypres. Following action in February 1915 Private William Devine died from his wounds on 24th February 1915. He was buried at Hazelbrouck Cemetery in the north of France.[6]

Michael Power – May 1915

First class stoker Michael Power was the son of Michael and Hannah Power of Convent Street, Tallow. Michael Power joined the Royal Navy and in May 1915 was a stoker on HMS Goliath. HMS Goliath was a pre-dreadnought battleship built in 1897-1900. At the start of the Great War she did duty in the English Channel and was off German East Africa in the winter of 1914-5. By March 1915 the Goliath was involved in the Dardanelles Campaign. There she acted as battery support for the landing forces. On 13th May 1915, at about 1 a.m. HMS Goliath was hit by three torpedoes from the Turkish torpedo boat destroyer, Muvanet-I-Milet in Murto Bay. The Goliath blew up and capsized almost immediately taking 570 of her 750 crew down went her. Ten Waterford people lost their lives on HMS Goliath that day. The Goliath was the fourth pre-dreadnought battleship lost in the Dardanelles Campaign The campaign (19th February 1915 to 7th December 1915) was an attempt to capture and force open the narrow Dardanelles water which joined the Mediterranean Sea to the Black Sea. The Allies could then send help to Russia while at the same time knocking Turkey out of the war. The various naval and army attacks on the Turkish positions ended in failure and the Allies abandoned the campaign on 7th December with victory to the Ottoman Empire.[7]

Timothy Barron – September 1915

In about 1893 Timothy Barron, son of Thomas Barron, was born in Kilcalf, Tallow, Co. Waterford. Timothy Barron moved to Wales to seek work. While there the Great War broke out and Timothy signed up with the Black Watch (Royal Highlanders) Regiment at Tonypandy, Glamorganshire. In September 1915 Private Timothy Barron was in the 9th Battalion of the Regiment. The 9th Battalion was a new unit having been formed in September 1914 at Perth. After training in England the 9th Battalion landed at Boulogne on 8th July 1915. On 25th September 1915 Private Timothy Barron joined his mates for the biggest offensive by the British army in 1915, the Battle of Loos. Loos was located north of the French mining town of Lens in a flat, featureless landscape. Advancing over open fields within range of German machine guns and artillery, British losses were devastating. At some stage Private Timothy Barronsuffered injury and on 28th September died from his wounds. In all 20,000 British soldiers were killed in the battle which lasted until 14th October 1915 without any advance in territory worth talking about.[8]

Thomas Bacon – September 1916

Thomas Bacon was born in Carrigmore, Co. Tipperary. His parents, John and Ellen Bacon and in 1901 family were living at Church Lane, Lismore. Thomas’s brother, John Bacon was a soldier in the 1901 census at Lismore. The family are said to have lived at West Street, Tallow but at what time is unknown.

Thomas Bacon enlisted in the Royal Munster Fusiliers at Cork. The Royal Munster Fusiliers were formed in 1881 with the amalgamation of the 101st and 104th Regiments. Both Regiments began life as units in the East India Company army. The 104th Regiment was itself formed in 1862 from the union of the 101st and 104th Bengal Fusiliers. The 104th Regiment became the 2nd Battalion of the Royal Munster in 1881. During the Great War eleven battalions were created in the Royal Munster.

The 2nd Battalion was in England at the start of the war and crossed over to France in August 1914. The 2nd Battalion was never out of ear shot of the guns throughout the whole war. As a result the Battalion suffered heavy casualties in battles such as at Festubert, Rue de Bois, Ypres and St. Quentin. 1916 saw the 2nd Battalion involved in the Battle of the Somme, beginning its campaign on 14th July. The Battalion achieved its targets and held its ground. After a few weeks in reserve in early August the Battalion was back on the front line on 20th August. On 22nd September 1916 Private Thomas Bacon, 2nd Battalion, Royal Munster Fusiliers, was killed in action. September 1916 was to be the most costly month for the 2nd Battalion with many officers and men killed.[9]

Peter Henley – October 1916

Peter Henley was the son of Mary Henley of Tallowbridge Street, a widow. In 1901 Peter Henley was a baker in Tallow as was his brother James Henley. In 1911 Peter Henley was a general labourer and was visiting the home of his brother-in-law, Martin McNamara in West Street on census night with his mother. Peter’s brother, James Henley, was still a baker and lived a few doors further down West Street with his young family.

Army records say that Rifleman Peter Henley of Tallow enlisted in the Royal Irish Rifles in Cardiff while living in Lismore. The Royal Irish Rifles Regiment was formed in 1881 when the 83rd (County of Dublin) and the 86th (Royal County Down) Regiments of Foot were joined together to form the 1st and 2nd Battalions, respectively. Rifleman Peter Henley was a member of the 2nd Battalion. In September 1916 the 2nd Battalion was part of the 74th Brigade, 3rd Division and was assigned the sector south of the River Ancre in the Battle of the Somme. After light raids a major offensive was launch on 9th October in appalling weather. The Battalion captured and held its targets.

On 22/23rd October the Battalion was sent about 15 miles further to the north-west to Doullens. It was there, on 26th October 1916, that Rifleman Peter Henley was killed in action. In his will dated 6 March 1916 Peter left everything to his sister Teresa McNamara, Fourtane Lodge, Lismore, Co. Waterford.

Peter Henley’s name does not appear on the recent book about the 2nd Battalion, Royal Irish Rifles. Yet the author, James Taylor, said that some of the usual databases are incomplete and not entirely accurate. It is not beyond the bounds of possibility that Peter Henley was in another battalion of the Royal Irish Rifles. People were moved from battalion to battalion as the army tried to balance experienced soldiers with raw recruits in the face of terrible losses. The enormous scale of the losses and the subsequent large transfer of soldiers meant the record system broke down and soldiers were left on the records in one battalion when they had in actual fact moved to another battalion.

Subsequent information received from James Taylor says that Peter Henley was listed among the dead in the 1st Battalion Royal Irish Rifles. The Battalion war diary’s say that two Companies of the Battalion were sent towards the enemy on the 24th October but “owing to being met by heavy rifle and M.G. fire from ZENITH TRENCH which was strongly held by the enemy, the attack was held up and failed, and severe casualties were incurred during the retirement, 50% being casualties. On the 24th orders were received to hold the line, which was occupied by 3 Companies with one in support’. The Battalion casualties over the four days (23rd to 26th) amounted to  9 officers killed along with 20 from other ranks, 143 wounded and 43 missing in action.[10]

Patrick French – January 1917

Patrick French enlisted at Lismore in the Royal Irish Regiment while living in Tallow. He was the son of William and Hannah French of Chapel Street, Tallow.

The Royal Irish Regiment was the oldest of the Irish regiments. It was formed in 1683-4 from the merger of a number of independent companies of foot. The 2nd Battalion was in England when the Great War started and was in France by October 1914 where the Battalion went into almost immediate action. At La Basse in October 1914 the Battalion fought until every single man was dead or wounded. By January 1917 Private Patrick French was in ‘E’ Company of the 2nd Battalion, Royal Irish Regiment. The Battalion was then attached to the 49th Brigade, 16th Irish Division. On 10th January 1917 ‘E’ Company was in action somewhere in the Arras Battle field and Patrick French got killed.[11]

George Anderson – March 1917

George Anderson was the son of John and Mary Anderson of Tallow, Co. Waterford. George Anderson was born in Wales about 1888. In 1901 John Anderson was a wood-ranger living at Curraghreigh South, Tallow. On 19th March 1917 George Anderson was a corporal in the Royal Garrison Artillery (unit: 112th Heavy Battery) when he was killed in action.[12] The Royal Garrison Artillery provided the big guns of the First World War with which they pounded the enemy and the terrain to pieces. It is not yet known where the 112th Heavy Battery was in March 1917. Between 14th March and 5th April 1917 the Germans were involved in a planned withdrawal to the prepared Hindenburg Line with the British in cautious pursuit.

Michael O’Keeffe – July 1917

Michael O’Keeffe was born in Tallow and enlisted at Cork while living in Westminster. Michael O’Keeffe was 26 years old when he died in 1917 leaving a widow; Nora O’Keeffe Sergeant Michael O’Keeffe was with the 1st Battalion, Irish Guards when he died from his wounds on 26th July 1917.[13] Nearly two months before, on 7th June the British launched an attack on the Messines Ridge south of Ypres. Major William Redmond, brother of the Home Rule leader John Redmond, was killed on the first day. His death caused a bye-election in East Clare which was won by Eamon de Valera. The Battle of Messines drove the Germans from the Ridge that they had held for two years.[14]

On 10th June General Gough took over command of the Ypres Salient in preparation for a major offensive which would be called the Third Battle of Ypres (July-November 1917). The 1st Battalion, Irish Guards was operating north of Ypres in June 1917. They served on the junction line between the British on the south and the Belgian army on the north and suffered the extra baggage of fighting that the junction point of Allied armies always suffered. On 15th July the Battalion was relieved of their tour on the front line by the 1st Coldstream Guards. After ten days of training and drilling at Herzeele the Battalion moved back to the front line at Proven, Belgium on 25th July in a deluge of heavy rain.

On 26th July 1917 the Battalion was awoken at 2 a.m. by gas-alarms followed by a barrage of shell fire. Lieutenant H.H.H Maxwell and seven men, including Sergeant Michael O’Keeffe, were wounded. Sergeant O’Keeffe died later the same day. Over the next few days the Battalion engaged in shelling operations against the Germans with a few ground actions and received plenty of German shells in return with the rain pouring down for days.[15] In the following Third Battle of Ypres the British and French armies made slow advancement over the late months of 1917. For a time the German retreat had all the potential of a rout but divisions between the Allies, the terrible rain and a major defeat against Italy, which forced the Allies to redeploy troops to Italy, gave the Germans a chance of recovery. The Allies had taken much ground by the end of the Battle but no breakthrough.

Michael Hynes – July 1917

Michael Hynes was born in Co. Waterford and enlisted at Lismore in the Royal Irish Regiment while living in Tallow. Michael was the son of Denis and Eliza Hynes (in 1901 at Knockaun South, Kilwatermoy). About 1908 Michael Hynes married Mary Hynes of Fenor South, Tramore, Co. Waterford and became a farmer at that place. At the 1911 census they had a son and a daughter. By 1917 Private Michael Hynes was in the 2nd Battalion of the Regiment when he suffered grave injuries. On 28th July 1917 Private/Lance Corporal Michael Hynes died from his wounds. The 2nd Battalion was at that time making preparations for the Third Battle of Ypres (31st July-10th November 1917) as part of the larger 16th Irish Division. The Third Battle of Ypres is better known as Passchendaele. If the Somme is noted for the number killed on its first day, Passchendaele is noted for hell on earth. Few battles in a sea of fruitless battles cost so many lives for very little gain as did Passchendaele.[16]

James Cronin – October 1917

James Cronin was described as a grandson of John Cronin of Loughnasillis, Tallow in 1901 and was eight years old. In 1911 there is an eighteen year old pharmaceutical apprentice at Kanturk, Co. Cork who could be the same James Cronin. After the war started James Cronin joined the Royal Horse Artillery.  Bombardier James Cronin died on 4th October 1917 as a member of the 70th Battery of the 34th Army Brigade in the Royal Horse Artillery, Each battery had six guns and there were three batteries in the 34th Army Brigade.[17] I don’t yet know where the 70th Battery was in October 1917 but it was likely to be involved in the Third Battle of Ypres.

Patrick Cuffe – March 1918

On 24th March 1918 Private Patrick Cuffe of the 7th Infantry Company of the Machine Gun Corps was killed in action. Patrick Cuffe was born in Tallow and enlisted in the Royal Irish Rifles in Cardiff while living in Waterford. Patrick Cuffe later changed to the Machine Gun Corps. The Machine Gun Corps was formed in October 1915 in response to the need for more effective use of machine guns on the Western Front, i.e. not enough people were being killed.

Patrick Cuffe was possibly killed during the German offensive of 1918 which began on 21st March. This was the last great push by the Germans as they tried to defeat the Allies before the full weight of American troops arrived in France. The offensive made significant gains along the front but for want of supplies the Germans could not push home the attack and the offensive stopped on 18th July. The Allies launched their own offensive in August and broke the German lines and advanced forward as the war of movement reappeared and the trenches were left behind.[18]

David O’Sullivan – April 1918

In 1918 Private David O’Sullivan of Tallow was involved in a Royal Navy attack on Zeebrugge. The plan was to sink three old ships at the entrance to Zeebrugge and so stop its use as a submarine base. David O’Sullivan was part of the Royal Marine Light Infantry Regiment on HMS Hindustan. As they approached the harbour the wind changed direction and the fleet’s cover smoke screen was gone out to sea. The Germans opened fired and panic gripped the British fleet. The marines were launched at the wrong place without their heavy guns and one of the blockade ships was lost before the harbour entrance was within reach. The other two ships were scuttled in the wrong place which only closed the port for a few days for submarines before the Germans dug a channel around the sunken ships. About 227 British were killed and 356 wounded. David O’Sullivan was one of the casualties on that day of 23rd April 1918.[19] After about a month his body was washed ashore in Holland following a storm. David O’Sullivan is buried in Holland.

The HMS Hindustan battleship was launched in 1903 and completed in 1905. She spent most of her career in the Home Fleet with a brief tour in the Mediterranean Sea in 1912. In 1918 HMS Hindustan served as a parent and depot ship for the Zeebrugge and Ostend Raids. HMS Hindustan was decommissioned and sold in 1919 and was scrapped at Belfast in 1923.

John Knight – August 1918

John Knight was a postman in Tallow in 1911 and lived in what is now called Convent Street with his wife of one year, Kate. John’s brother, Thomas Knight, was also a postman in 1911. John Knight was the son of James Knight (boot-maker) and Jane Knight of Townspark East, Tallow. Records say John Knight enlisted in the army at Tallow, Co. Waterford while living in the town. He joined the 9th London Regiment (Queen Victoria Rifles). The 9th London Regiment was part of the 58th Division in August 1918. On 8th-11th August they took part in the Battle of Amiens and on 22nd August took part in the Battle of Albert. Rifleman John Knight was therefore killed in a so-called lull period on 13th August 1918. These battles were part of the Allied offensive which began on with the Battle of Amiens. The battles broke the German lines and led to the surrender on 11th November 1918.[20]

Richard Griffin – October 1918

Richard Griffin was the son of Michael and Johanna Griffin of Kilmore, Tallow. Richard enlisted at Cork in the Royal Horse Artillery and by October 1918 was in the 111th Battery, 24th Brigade. The 24th Brigade also contained the 110th and 112th Batteries and was part of the 6th Infantry Division. On 17th October 1918 Gunner Richard Griffin was killed in action. This was on the first day of the Battle of the Selle (17th-25th October 1918). This battle was fought around the town of Le Cateau where the British last saw action in August 1914. The British and French advanced many miles and freed many towns. The Germans made a counter-offensive on 24th October but this was stopped. Thereafter the Germans continued their forced retreat at a controlled pace. Richard’s elder brother, John Griffin was also in the army and survived the war but was in poor health for the rest of his life due to the effects of shell shock.[21]

Michael Donovan – November 1918

Michael Donovan was born on 15th August 1895, the son of Michael and Bridget Donovan of Knockaun Pike, Tallow, Co. Waterford. Michael Donovan emigrated to the United States and settled at 808 Rush Street, Chicago where he worked as a cook. His sister, Margaret Donovan also went to America and in 1917 was living at 818 Rush Street, Chicago. On 22nd October 1917 Michael Donovan joined the Central Ontario Regiment of the Canadian army. The Regiment was sent to France. By November 1918 Private Michael Donovan was in 102nd Battalion.

The 102nd Battalion was formed in December 1915 and was initially called the North British Columbians but changed in August 1917 to the Central Ontario Battalion. The 102nd served with the 11th Infantry Brigade of the 4th Division from 1915 until the end of the war. On 18th October 1918 the 102nd captured the town of Obscon (between Douai and Valenciennes) as part of a general advance by the 11th Brigade. On 1st November 1918 the 4th Division along with the 3rd Division launched an attack on Valenciennes, a French city near the border with Belgium and occupied since the early days of the war. The German resistance was stiff in some parts and soft in others. Yet the Canadians pressed on and had captured the town hall early on the 2nd and occupied the whole town by the following day. On 2nd November 1918 Private Michael Donovan was killed in action in the battle for Valenciennes, only a week before the end of the war.[22]

Cornelius Prendergast – March 1920

Cornelius Prendergast was one of five sons of James and Mary Prendergast of Barrack Street, Tallow and was born about 1894. James Prendergast was a black-smith. Bartholomew Prendergast (killed 27th January 1915 = see above entry) was a brother of Cornelius. Cornelius Prendergast entered the Royal Garrison Artillery but in what battery is as yet unknown. What we do is that Gunner Cornelius Pendergast saw the sun rise on the morning of 11th November 1918 (Armistice Day) and saw it go down and rise again on the 12th. Cornelius Prendergast had survived the Great War. But unfortunately the war had taken its toll on Cornelius and he was hospitalised at Catterick Camp in Yorkshire for shell shock. He died there on 18th March 1920 and was returned for burial in the Tallow Catholic Churchyard. He was married to Bridget Prendergast,[23]

The Regimens the Tallow men joined

It is often said that soldiers joining the First World War or in any other war would join army units that their friends were joining. The soldiers from the Tallow area seemed to have broken this rule and joined any and every kind of army unit.

Black Watch = one person

Central Ontario Regiment = one person

Household Cavalry = 15th Lancers (one person), 4th Dragoon Guards (one person)

Irish Guards = two people

London Regiment = one person

Machine Gun Corps = one person

Royal Engineers = one person

Royal Garrison Artillery = two people

Royal Horse Artillery = two people

Royal Irish Rifles = two people and then one (Cuffe left to join the Machine Gun Corps)

Royal Irish Regiment = two people

Royal Munster Fusiliers = one person

Royal Navy = one person

For the Fallen – a poem of remembrance

For the Fallen was written by Robert Laurence Binyon in September 1914 while sitting on the coast of Cornwall thinking of the heavy British losses in the opening weeks of the war, particularly at the recent Battle of the Marne. The poem has seven stanzas with the third and fourth often used at ceremonies to remember fallen soldiers.

For the Fallen

With proud thanksgiving, a mother for her children,
England mourns for her dead across the sea.
Flesh of her flesh they were, spirit of her spirit,
Fallen in the cause of the free.

Solemn the drums thrill; Death august and royal
Sings sorrow up into immortal spheres,
There is music in the midst of desolation
And a glory that shines upon our tears.

They went with songs to the battle, they were young,
Straight of limb, true of eye, steady and aglow.
They were staunch to the end against odds uncounted;
They fell with their faces to the foe.

They shall grow not old, as we that are left grow old:
Age shall not weary them, nor the years condemn.
At the going down of the sun and in the morning
We will remember them.

They mingle not with their laughing comrades again;
They sit no more at familiar tables of home;
They have no lot in our labour of the day-time;
They sleep beyond England’s foam.

But where our desires are and our hopes profound,
Felt as a well-spring that is hidden from sight,
To the innermost heart of their own land they are known
As the stars are known to the Night;

As the stars that shall be bright when we are dust,
Moving in marches upon the heavenly plain;
As the stars that are starry in the time of our darkness,
To the end, to the end, they remain.

Appendix one = soldier service numbers

George Anderson = 29878
Thomas Bacon = 6167
Timothy Barron = S/4871
James Cronin = 58297
Patrick Cuffe = 18139
William Devine = 283
Michael Donovan = 3105437
Patrick French = 5533
Edward Grey = 4283
Richard Griffin = 100418
Peter Henley = 8630
John Horey = 7834
Michael Hynes = 6771
John Knight = former number 8299 = new number 393611
Michael O’Keeffe = 3687
David O’Sullivan = CH/21243
Michael Power = SS/101956
Cornelius Prendergast = 40313
Bartholomew Prendergast = 26205



End of post



[1] James W. Taylor, The 2nd Royal Irish Rifles in the Great War (Four Courts Press, Dublin, 2005), p. 17

[2] Tom Burnell, The Waterford war dead: A History of the Casualties of the Great War (History Press, Dublin, 2010), p. 112; Rudyard Kipling, The Irish Guards in the Great War: The First Battalion (Spellmount, Staplehurst, 1997), pp. 29, 31, 32, 41, 301

[3] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lahW_etCwuw war walks at Mons by Richard Holmes, accessed 1 June 2014

[4] Tom Burnell, The Waterford war dead, p. 135; R.G. Harris, The Irish Regiments: A Pictorial History 1683-1987 (Nutshell Publishing, Tunbridge, 1989), pp. 21, 34; census records online 1901 & 1911

[5] Tom Burnell, The Waterford war dead, p. 242; http://www.reubique.com/23fc.htm accessed 2 June 2014

[6] Tom Burnell, The Waterford war dead, p. 71

[7] Tom Burnell, The Waterford war dead, p. 238; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Goliath_(1898); http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naval_operations_in_the_Dardanelles_Campaign accessed 2 June 2014

[8] Tom Burnell, The Waterford war dead, p. 16

[9] Tom Burnell, The Waterford war dead, p. 16; R.G. Harris, The Irish Regiments, pp. 204-5, 209, 215; Martin O’Dwyer, A Biographical Dictionary of Tipperary (Folk Village, Cashel, 1999), p. 3

[10] Tom Burnell, The Waterford war dead, p. 129; R.G. Harris, The Irish Regiments, p. 142; http://www.1914-1918.net/25div.htm accessed on 2 June 2014; James W. Taylor, The 2nd Royal Irish Rifles in the Great War, pp. 137, 152; James W. Taylor, The 1st Royal Irish Rifles in the Great War (Four Courts Press, Dublin, 2002), p. 164

[11] Tom Burnell, The Waterford war dead, p. 102; R.G. Harris, The Irish Regiments, pp. 107, 119; http://www.1914-1918.net/rireg.htm accessed on 2 June 2014

[12] Tom Burnell, The Waterford war dead, p. 13; census records online 1901 & 1911

[13] Tom Burnell, The Waterford war dead, p. 217; Rudyard Kipling, The Irish Guards in the Great War: The First Battalion, p. 306

[14] Gerry White and Brendan O’Shea (eds.), A Great Sacrifice: Cork Servicemen who died in the Great War (Echo Publications, Cork, 2010), p. 610

[15] Rudyard Kipling, The Irish Guards in the Great War: The First Battalion, pp. 199, 200, 204

[16] Tom Burnell, The Waterford war dead, p. 139; Basil Liddell Hart, History of the First World War (Pan, London, 1972), p. 327

[17] Tom Burnell, The Waterford war dead, p. 58; http://www.warpath.orbat.com/artillery/rfa_btys.htm;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/34th_Brigade_Royal_Field_Artillery accessed on 3 June 2014; census records online 1901 & 1911

[18] Tom Burnell, The Waterford war dead, p. 59; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Machine_Gun_Corps; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spring_Offensive  accessed on 3 June 2014

[19] Jim Stacey, Ann Allridge & Richard Power, ‘List of County Waterford soldiers who died in the World War One’, in Decies, No. 55 (1999), p. 101;  Jim Stacey, Ann Allridge & Richard Power, ‘List of County Waterford soldiers who died in the World War One’, in Decies, No. 56 (2000), p. 208

[20] Tom Burnell, The Waterford war dead, p. 161; census records online 1901 & 1911; http://www.1914-1918.net/58div.htm; http://www.1914-1918.net/london.htm  accessed on 3 June 2014

[21] Tom Burnell, The Waterford war dead, p. 112; http://www.warpath.orbat.com/divs/6_div.htm; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/24th_Brigade_Royal_Field_Artillery accessed on 3 June 2014

[22] Tom Burnell, The Waterford war dead, pp. 76-7; J.F.B. Livesay, Canada’s Hundred Days: With the Canadian Corps from Amiens to Mons, Aug 8-Nov 11, 1918 (Thomas Allen, Toronto, 1919) , pp. 341, 363, 367, 368

[23] Tom Burnell, The Waterford war dead, p. 242; census records online 1901 & 1911

Waterford history

The vicars of Tallow, Co. Waterford, 1639-1910


The vicars of Tallow, 1639-1910


Niall C.E.J. O’Brien


This article gives a brief biographical sketch on the Church of Ireland vicars of Tallow from 1639 to 1910. The period each cleric served at Tallow appears in brackets after their name.


David Thomas (1639): David was the son of Edward Thomas and Ann Eustace of Dublin. He attended the Trinity College, Dublin school and became vice-provost of the college in 1629. He first served as vicar of St. Kevin’s, Dublin in 1630 before becoming vicar of Kilbride (Meath) the following year. In 1634 he became vicar of Lisronagh and from 1636 until 1641 David was chancellor of the Lismore diocese.

In 1639 David Thomas became vicar at Tallow until some date in the 1650s. He was curate of Tallow from April 1632 to about 1639.


Francis Barnard (c.1655): Francis was vicar at Tallow up to soon after February 1655 when he baptised the daughter of Daniel Burston. It is presumed that 1655 is in the old style and so Francis left Tallow by the end of March as Daniel was appointed vicar in 1655. Francis was vicar of Stradbally from 1662 to 1673 and prebend of Clashmore from 1665 to 1675. He joined the vicar choral at Lismore in 1666.


Daniel Burston (c.1655): On 24th February 1655 Daniel’s daughter Margaret was baptised by Francis Barnard in Tallow where she was born. By 11th March Daniel got Barnard to re-register the baptism. Within a few days, possibly because some disagreement between the two Daniel got himself appointed vicar by the Cromwellian government.

Daniel held other appointments in Lismore diocese including vicar of Ardmore (1664-1671), precentor Lismore (c. 1663 to c.1667), vicar Dunhill (1662-1672), curate Islandikane (c.1669-c.1671), vicar of Killea/Rathmoylan (1666-1674) and curate of same from c.1663 to c.1666. Daniel was made dean of Waterford in 1670 and held the job until his death in December 1678. Hugh Burston, vicar of Tubrid (1694-1699) was his son.  


Francis Becher (c.1672): he was a descendent of Henry Beecher, sheriff of London in 1569. Francis graduated from Trinity College Dublin in 1667 with an AB and got an AM in 1670. He held a number of parishes in the diocese of Ross from 1667 to 1670 when he moved to the diocese of Cloyne. Here he held the prebend of Coole from 1670 to 1713 while rector of Mogeely and vicar of Knockmourne during the same years.

Among his positions in the diocese of Lismore include vicar of Modeligo from 1682 and the prebend of same until his death in 1713. In 1697 he took over the vicar choral seat in Lismore from Robert Prytheroe and held this until 1711. Francis also held the prebend of Clashmore from 1675 to 1682.

In 1683 he married Isabella Andrews and had a son, Lionel, a student of Trinity College, Dublin in 1706. In 1702 Francis married Susannah Becher of Curriglass. He was named in the 1705 will of his cousin, Thomas Becher of Sherkin, Co. Cork.


Francis Foulkes (c.1717): he was a member of the vicar choral at Lismore in 1711 or 1714. He was possibly a relation of Richard Foulkes, vicar of Tullaghorton from 1745.


Thomas Dawson (c.1742): From 1732 to 1743 Thomas was vicar of Grange, Co. Tipperary when he resigned only to be reappointed in 1748 and so held same until 1767. He was vicar of Cahir from 1733 to 1767, and vicar at Kilmolash and Seskinan from 1740 to 1767. He was curate of Clonea from 1763 to 1767. Rev. Thomas Dawson died in 1769.  


Francis Greene (1767 – 1768): Francis was born in Lismore and attended TCD. He was curate at Clashmore from 1768 to 1769 and curate at Carrick-on-Suir until 1761 at which time he finished his curacy of Kilsheelan. He was a member of the Lismore vicar choral (1762 to 1768) and chaplain of Villierstown from 1763 to February 1768 when he died.


Hon. Robert Moore (1768 – 1781): Robert was the fourth son of Stephen Moore, Viscount Mount Cashell. He was vicar of Kilworth from 1779 until his death in 1817. In 1774 he married Isabella, daughter of Richard Odell and they had three daughters.


Hon. Richard Ponsonby (1817): Richard was the third son of William Ponsonby, M.P. for Co. Kilkenny. He was born in Co. Kildare and educated at Kilkenny College. He entered Trinity College, Dublin in 1791 aged seventeen and got a BA in 1794 with a MA in 1816. Richard was ordained in 1795 in which year he acquired the prebend of Tipper in the Dublin diocese and held until 1801. He became vicar of Mothel and Fews, Lismore diocese, in 1800 and held until 1810. While holding these parishes he got married in 1804 and had children. From 1813 to 1821 he was both rector and vicar of Carnew in the diocese of Ferns.

Back in Dublin, Richard was precentor at St. Patrick’s Cathedral from 1806 to 1817 when he became dean of same from then until 1828. In the latter year he became bishop of Killaloe and Kilfenora. He became bishop of Derry in 1831 and held this with the diocese of Raphoe from 1834. He died in October 1853.     


Henry Brougham (1823 – 1831): Henry was son of John Brougham, a fellow at King’s College, Cambridge. He was the father of Henry Brougham junior who was dean of Lismore from 1884, and of John Richard Brougham, vicar of Killea/Rathmoylan from 1854 to 1856.


John Jackson (1831): John was born c.1794, the second son of George Jackson of Glenbeg near Ballyduff. He was curate of Mocollop in 1820, vicar at Colligan in 1823 and vicar at Ringagonagh from 1827 to 1828. From 1836 to 1872 he held the prebend of Tullaghorton after which the prebend was suspended.  

In 1870 his gross income, with included that for Kilwatermoy parish came to £352. But John had big expenses because his net income was only £150. On the first day of 1838 he married Rosa Poole of Glenmore near Lismore. The couple had at least three sons of whom the third, Lt. John Charles Jackson took the additional name of Bennett on succeeding in 1874 to the estate of his uncle. Rev. John Jackson died in 1872.


William Fitzgerald (1872 – 1874): William was born c.1827, the son of John Fitzgerald, gent. He was curate at Modeligo and Kilgobinet until 1862 when he became curate at Kilmolash. William was curate in Kilwatermoy from before 1859 to before 1870. He was vicar of Affane from 1869 to 1874 when that parish was united with Cappoquin. From 1874 until 1879 William was diocesan curate for Waterford. After one year as diocesan curate in Cashel and Emly, William served as treasurer of Cashel from 1883 to 1900 when he died in March.


John Frederick Ryland (1874 to 1896): John was the son of Rev. Richard Hopkins Ryland, chancellor of Waterford and author of a history of Waterford in 1824. John was born about 1822 and got a BA from TCD in 1845. He was made a deacon in 1846 and a priest in 1847. John began his clerical career in England when he was curate of Elstead, Surrey in 1854 and curate of Leathwite in York in 1864. That same year he was made precentor of Waterford and was archdeacon of Lismore from 1870 to 1896. From 1870, John was also curate at Kill St. Nicholas. He was curate in Trinity parish in 1872.


John Richard Hedges Becher (1897 to 1901): He was born c. 1866, the son of Michael Becher of Ardrain, Co. Cork. In 1895 he married Maud, daughter of Archibald A. Robertson of Edinburgh and had two daughters. He got a BA at TCD in 1886 and made a deacon in the same year. He was curate at Tralee from 1887 to 1889.

John Becher was curate of Kilrossanty in 1889 – 90 when he became curate of Trinity parish in Waterford until 1897 while also lecturer at St. Olaves until 1897. He was previously curate of Killea/Rathmoylan from 1885 to 1887.

Among the Co. Cork parishes John Becher held include: rector of Youghal 1901-06; rector Tullagh (Ross) 1906-18 (this parish was once held by the Francis Becher above); rector Berehaven 1918-21; rector Kilmocomogue (Ross) 1921-29 and archdeacon of Ross 1921-29. Rev. John Becher died in May 1929.


Horace Clifford Deane (1901 – 1910): he was born in 1872 in Barbados, the son of John Deane. He was a brother of Charles Beresford Deane, vicar of Tullaghmelan from 1910 to 1919.

Horace Deane became a deacon in 1895 in which year he was made curate of Skerry in the diocese of Connor. In 1899 he left Connor to be curate in Thurles, diocese of Cashel. He moved to Lismore diocese in 1901 to become rector of Tallow. After Tallow he was rector of Killiney in Dublin until 1914. Horace was vicar at Cahir from 1914 to 1940 and rural dean of same from 1934 to 1941. He was treasurer of the Lismore diocese from 1919 until 1934 and treasurer at Waterford from 1925 to 1934.

Horace Deane got married in 1886 to Maria, daughter of Ven. George R. Wynne, rector of Killarney and had one daughter. He died in January 1945.


Robert J. Stringer (1910): Robert was the son of Thomas Stringer, governor of Belfast prison. He got a BA from TCD in 1904 and in which year he became curate of St. Patricks, Waterford. In 1908 he left to be curate at the Mariner’s Church, Dun Laoghaire and stayed two years when he moved to Tallow.

In 1920 he became domestic chaplain to the bishop of Cashel, Emly, Waterford and Lismore. Robert served in Tipperary town from 1920 until 1947 and was made a canon at Cashel. In 1941 he became treasurer of Cashel for one year before serving as chancellor until 1947. Robert died in 1950.



End of post



Waterford history

A Seventeenth Century Horse Troop in Tallow

A Seventeenth Century Horse Troop in Tallow

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

The annual horse fair in Tallow is a fitting continuation of a long association between the town and horses. This article records the stationing of a horse troop in the town during the 1670s. Sometime before August 1677 the horse troop of Captain Henry Boyle arrived in the town. Henry Boyle was the second son of Roger Boyle, 1st Earl of Orrery. In March 1674-5 he was a lieutenant in the horse troop of his father, based at Charleville. It was good, therefore that this young officer was served by a triad of experienced company officers. His Lieutenant, Trevor Lloyd, Cornet Edward Alford and Quartermaster John Chichester had long service in the Irish army.[1]

Trevor Lloyd was the senior of the three having served in the royal army of Ireland in 1649. During the Commonwealth he was unemployed but following the Restoration he joined the horse troop of Colonel Mark Trevor (Later 1st Viscount Dungannon). After May 1662 he was appointed cornet as Edward Harrington retired. Trevor’s lieutenant was Oliver Cromwell of the Ulster family of that name and not his more famous namesake. At that time the troop was stationed in Dundalk where there were 75 soldiers beside the seven officers and two trumpeters. By January 1664 the troop had decline to 63 members in total.[2]

In June 1665 Lord Dungannon wrote to the Duke of Ormond that Trevor Lloyd had letters from the king for three years that he would get command of Dungannon’s troop.[3] Nothing became of the request. Instead, Trevor had to continue as a junior officer for another four years. On 14th June 1669 the Earl of Ossory issued a commission to Trevor Lloyd to be lieutenant in Viscount Dungannon’s troop. The promotion was due to the death of Mark Trevor, late lieutenant of the troop.[4]

By March 1674-5 Viscount Dungannon was decease and Edward Brabazon was now captain of the troop. Trevor Lloyd remained as lieutenant was joined by John Chichester as quartermaster.[5] Before August 1677 Captain Edward Brabazon had retired and Henry Boyle took command. The troop, which up to now had spent most of its time stationed at Dundalk and in Ulster, now came south to Tallow. The last we hear of Trevor Lloyd is as a major in the foot company of Warham St Leger. He was deceased by 1685 and Major William Dorrington took command.[6]

The army list of January 1677-8 shows that Captain Henry Boyle’s horse troop was still stationed in Tallow. At that time the military barracks, situated at the south end of Barrack Street, was still to be built. Its construction would not occur for another thirty years. In the meantime the soldiers and their horses were quartered in various private houses and inns of the town. From August 1662 many towns across the country were told to provide fire and candle light to the troops billeted within each town as the troops are placed there to protect the people.[7]

To pay for their lodgings, the wages of a horse troop consisted of: the captain was £19 12s per month, lieutenant £12 12 shillings per month, cornet £9 12 shillings per month and the quartermaster £7 per month. The three corporals and one trumpeter got £3 10 shillings per month while the horsemen got 42 shillings each.[8] Often the soldiers had to wait for their pay with the result that householders had to wait to get paid for providing lodging. In January 1666, John Doughty, innkeeper in Dublin, petitioned Lord Ormond for a debt owing by cornet Trevor Lloyd. Ormond instructed that Lloyd pay the debt.[9] Yet three years later the debt was still unpaid. Margaret Doughty, widow of John Doughty, petitioned Ormond about the unpaid debt owed by Cornet Lloyd. Ormond gave instructions that the debt should be paid.[10] As no further petitions appear in the archives, we presume that the debt was paid.

The main street at Tallow, Co. Waterford

The main street at Tallow, Co. Waterford

The town of Tallow had been rebuilt by Sir Walter Raleigh in the 1590s with further construction under the ownership of Sir Richard Boyle after 1604. By 1622 Tallow was a substantial town with 150 houses occupied by English settlers as well as many more houses inhabited by Irish people.[11] The iron works, establish in the area in the 1620s, were still in operation when Captain Henry Boyle’s horse troop was stationed at Tallow.[12]

After the Confederate War of 1641-53 and the Commonwealth, the prosperity of Tallow was restored with the restoration of Charles II. Butter production became an important business. A writer in 1686 reported that “We passed through Tallagh which is an English town. They trade much in butter and it is said they return in that commodity and in hides £60,000 a year”.[13]

Meanwhile by December 1678 the horse troop was still at Tallow but its officer corps had changed. John Worsopp was now lieutenant and Charles Chichester was quartermaster. Edward Alford was still cornet. The troop had three corporals, one trumpeter and 45 private horsemen.[14]

It is possible that John Worsopp was a son of Thomas Worsopp, who was collector of the customs at Dublin port in 1660. Captain Henry Boyle had great trust in John Worsopp as we see in 1682 when the latter was witness to a letter of attorney which empower Boyle’s mother to pay the £3,000 left to Henry by his father.[15]

Meanwhile, in April 1679 the king allowed a commission to be given to Captain Edward Brabazon to command the first horse troop that becomes available. Following the death of Lord Orrery, command of his horse troop was given to Brabazon in October 1679.[16] Before March 1686 John Worsopp moved to Brabazon’s troop and was captain when his will was proved in 1690.[17] John Worsopp may have moved after 1686 when Captain Henry Boyle declared that lieutenants didn’t need to pay for promotion to a captaincy. Captain Henry Boyle said they were “of that quality as may without money expect to be preferred … for they are all noblemen or at least sons of such”.[18]

It’s not clear when Captain Henry Boyle’s troop left Tallow but by July 1680 they were stationed at Castlemartyr with John Worsopp and Edward Alford still in their same ranks while George Sing was the new quartermaster.[19] Castlemartyr was Captain Henry Boyle’s home town and a place that would become the chief residence of his family. Captain Henry Boyle did return to Tallow occasionally, to transact financial matters, such as in October 1681 when he met John Jephson, to get agreement from the latter to provide security in a Jephson family settlement.[20]

It is possible that Captain Henry Boyle moved the troop to his home town, in anticipation of the announcement by the king, that captains of horse troops should spend more time with their troop or dispose of their commissions if they do not obey within a reasonable time.[21] Yet there was ways around this restriction. In August 1680, Captain Henry Boyle wrote to his mother that he would visit her in Dublin after the muster-master has come to inspect the troop.[22]

Captain Henry Boyle did not long enjoy the command of his troop. The accession of the Catholic James II brought changes in State and army which Boyle hoped would not be true.[23] By September 1686 the troop had 19 Catholic members.[24] After enduring the new regime for a few more years, Henry Boyle gave up his captaincy and left for England where he got command of a regiment in the army of William of Orange (the new King of England) that was preparing to invade Ireland. On the side of King James, there were plans that two French army units would be stationed in Tallow during the impending war but nothing seems to have happen.[25] Shortly after the victory of King William, the horse troop which was previously stationed at Tallow was disbanded. It would be another twenty years before Tallow got a permanent garrison in the new barracks.

The ruins of the army barracks at Tallow.

The ruins of the army barracks at Tallow.


End of post


[1] Historic Manuscripts Commission, Ormond Report, vol. II (1899), pp. 202-3, 206-7

[2] Ormond Report, vol. 1 (1895), pp. 241, 278, 352; vol. II (1899), p. 179

[3] Bodleian Library, Oxford, MS. Carte 34, folio 278, Dungannon to Ormond, 26 June 1665

[4] Bodleian Library, Oxford, MS. Carte 163, folio 103, commission to Trevor Lloyd issued by the earl of Ossory, 14 June 1669

[5] Ormond Report, vol. II (1899), pp. 202-3

[6] Ormond Report, vol. 1 (1895), p. 411

[7] Ormond Report, vol. 1 (1895), p. 250

[8] Ormond Report, vol. II (1899), pp. 234-5

[9] Bodleian Library, Oxford, MS. Carte 154, folio 61, John Doughty to Ormond, 22 January 1666

[10] Bodleian Library, Oxford, MS. Carte 154, folio 178, petition of Margaret Doughty to Ormond, 22 January 1669

[11] David B. Quinn, ‘The Munster Plantation: Problems and Opportunities’, in the Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, vol. LXXI (1966), p. 38

[12] Niall O’Brien, Blackwater and Bride, navigation and trade 7000 BC to 2007 (Ballyduff, 2008), p. 44

[13] Sir Paul Rycaut’s Memoranda and Letters from Ireland, 1686-1687 in Analecta Hibernica, no. 27 (1972), p. 132

[14] Ormond Report, vol. II (1899), pp. 209, 217

[15] Edward MacLysaght (ed.), Calendar of the Orrery Papers (Dublin, 1941), p. 262

[16] Bodleian Library, Oxford, MS. Carte 39, folios 45-6, the King to Ormond, 26 April 1679; MS. Carte 146, folios 224-5, Ormond to Hugh Coventry, 20 October 1679

[17] Vicar’s Index to Prerogative Wills, p. 499

[18] MacLysaght, Calendar of the Orrery Papers, p. 317

[19] Ormond Report, vol. II (1899), pp. 224-5

[20] MacLysaght, Calendar of the Orrery Papers, p. 252

[21] Bodleian Library, Oxford, MS. Carte 72, folio 613, the King to Ormond, 16 November 1680

[22] MacLysaght, Calendar of the Orrery Papers, p. 235

[23] MacLysaght, Calendar of the Orrery Papers, p. 320

[24] Ormond Report, vol. 1 (1895), p. 431

[25] Sheila Mulloy (ed.), Franco-Irish Correspondence 1688-1692 (Dublin, 1983), vol. 1, no. 666