General History, Kildare History

The Archbold family of Davidstown, County Kildare

The Archbold family of Davidstown, County Kildare

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

 

 

In 1518 the Earl of Kildare was subject to royal service for his property at Davidstown in County Kildare. At Davidstown (which was part of the manor of Castledermot) the Earl had a number of messuages and 115 arable acres but the Earl gained no income from the place as it was unoccupied and the land uncultivated.[1]

William Archbold

In 1663 William Archbold of Timolin claimed that his grandfather, William Archbold, was seized of all the family property in October 1641 at the start of the Rebellion.[2] The Civil Survey gave title to Christopher Archbold, son of the latter and father of the former. During the 1640s William Archbold was sheriff of Kildare and signed indentures for electing burgesses from Athy and Naas to serve on the Supreme Council of the Confederate government. For this and the activities of his son Christopher, the family lands were declared forfeit after the war.[3]

As well as a son Christopher, William Archbold was the father of Margaret Donnell, wife of James Donnell of Tenekilly in Queen’s County, son of Captain Fergus Donnelly. In 1628 Captain Donnell mortgaged some of his property to Edward Jacob for £235. Later William Archbold took the mortgage and demised the property to Margaret’s second son, William Donnell (died March 1650). After William Donnell died Margaret Archbold as administrator entered the property. But James Donnell (who died in London in 1661) and William Archbold were both indicted and outlawed for taking the Irish side in the Rebellion and lost all their property.[4]

In June 1619 Peter Walsh of Kilgobban, Co. Dublin, gave William Archbold of Crookstown, Co. Kildare, three messuages and 75 acres at Jamestown, Co. Dublin, for 1,000 years with a clause of redemption.[5] In the Civil Survey Sir Adam Loftus was proprietor of Jamestown.[6]

Christopher Archbold

Christopher Archbold married Jane Dungan, daughter and heir of the late Edward Dungan. As part of the marriage articles William Archbold entered into the family property and held it for his natural life after which it would pass to Christopher and in turn to the first and second sons of Christopher.[7] During the 1640s Christopher Archbold was said to have arrange voters to elect representatives to the Supreme Council from the counties of Dublin, Wicklow and Kildare.[8]

Davidstown in the Civil Survey 1640

In the Civil Survey of 1640 (made in 1654-6) George Fitzgerald, Earl of Kildare held Davidstown (then known as Ballydavid) as part of the manor of Castledermot. The manor, containing 1,000 acres, comprised the townlands of Castledermot with Davidstown, Finoge and Knockneiry. In the notes to the Civil Survey it was reported that Christopher Archbold of Timolin, Irish papist, had a stone house on the lands of Castledermot.[9] This stone house could have been at Davidstown which in later times was the residence of the Archbold family.

Elsewhere in the Civil Survey it was reported that Christopher Archbold held the townlands of Collins, Davidstown, Hughstown, Killelan, Comminstown, Knockbrath and Bonack in the parish of Killelan in the Barony of Kilkae and Moone. The total of these lands measured 925 acres (worth £120) and was divided into arable (445 acres), meadow (20 acres) and pasture (460 acres). Christopher Archbold also held the townland of Graingefore in Killelan parish. This measured 72 acres (worth £15) of which 60 acres was arable and 12 acres in meadow.[10]

Other lands of Christopher Archbold

In 1640 Christopher Archbold held two townlands (Timolin and Porterseize) in the parish of Timolin in the Barony of Narragh and Reban in Kildare. The parish of Timloin bordered the parish of Castledermot on the north. In Timolin townland Christopher held 519 acres, worth £120 in which was situated a castle and two mills and a stone quarry. This castle was the main residence of Christopher Archbold. The land was divided into arable (400 acres), meadow (31 acres), pasture (80 acres) and bog (8 acres). The townland of Porterseize contained 178 acres (worth £10) made up of arable (130 acres), meadow (8 acres), pasture (30 acres), and bog (10 acres).[11]

Elsewhere Christopher Archbold held the townlands of Moyle Abbey and Sprostown in the parish of Narraghmore. These townlands measured 336 acres (worth £37) made up of arable (111 acres), meadow (20 acres), pasture (205 acres). Christopher Archbold also held half of the townland of Crookestown in the same parish. This measured 140 acres (worth £20) and was divided into arable (110 acres), meadow (10 acres), pasture (15 acres) and bog (5 acres). The value of these lands may have declined by the 1650s as the surveyor’s reported that many inhabitants of the parish died in the Confederate War or were transplanted to Connacht.[12]

In 1640 Christopher Archbold held the townlands of St. John and Skeyghnegone in the parish of Castledermot in the Barony of Kilkae and Moone. These townlands measured 282 acres (worth £40) made up of 200 acres arable, 12 acres meadow and 70 acres of common pasture. There was a castle on the lands of St. Johns worth five pounds. Christopher Archbold also held Gurtin Vacon in the same parish with a ruined castle. Gurtin Vacon measured 73 acres of which 60 acres was arable, 3 acres in meadow and 10 acres in pasture.[13] Christopher Archbold also held 25 acres of arable land (worth £6 5s) in the parish of Moone in the Barony of Kilkae and Moone.[14]

William Archbold

In 1663 William Archbold claimed the lands of his father which he said included the above and other property like at Kilrush and Tyredoyne, a tenement in Castledermot, a mill at Johnstown with the lands of Corristown, Spinant and Rathcool in Wicklow along with a mortgage on the town of Clonfert in King’s County and a lease on Ardery in Kildare.[15]

 

Davidstown House001

Davidstown House [photographer unknown]

Davidstown in 1660

In the census of Ireland dated 1659 but with a more correct year of 1660 mentions Davidstown. In that year there were eight Irish taxpayers in the townland.[16] Captain William Archbold fought for King James in 1690 and had his estate confiscated.[17]

Robert Archbold

Even with all the upheaval of the seventeenth century, the Archbold family managed to hold onto to their property at Davidstown. It is not known when William’s son Robert Archbold recovered Davidstown but he was there in the 1720s. Robert Archbold of Davidstown had at least two sons called William and Thomas Archbold. In 1727 Robert Archbold was made a tenant for life at Davidstown by his son William Archbold on the latter’s conversion to the Protestant faith.[18]

William Archbold

William Archbold of Davidstown was the eldest son of Robert Archbold. On 7th October 1727 William Archbold converted to the Protestant faith and was enrolled on 12th October 1727. After his conversion William Archbold made his father Robert Archbold a tenant for life at Davidstown. William Archbold made his will on 9th October 1752 (proved 17th August 1753) and named is wife Anne as executor. Also mentioned in the will was his brother Thomas Archbold.[19]

Thomas Archbold

Thomas Archbold of Davidstown was a younger brother of Robert Archbold.[20]

James Archbold

In the early nineteenth century James Archbold lived at Davidstown house. James Archbold married Miss Copeland (she died 1842).[21] Other sources say he married Eleanor; daughter of T. Kavanagh.[22] James Archbold had at least two sons called Robert and James Archbold.[23]

Robert Archbold

Robert Archbold of Davidstown house was a magistrate and Deputy Lieutenant for County Kildare. In 1837 Robert Archbold was elected one M.P. for County Kildare and served until 1847.[24] In the 1837 poll Richard More O’Ferrall (Liberal) got 762 votes and Robert Archbold (Liberal) got 728 votes. Both candidates were elected and were re-elected unopposed in the 1841 general election.[25] In 1855 Robert Archbold died and was succeeded by his brother James Archbold.[26]

James Archbold

In 1855 James Archbold succeeded his brother Robert Archbold to the estate at Davidstown house. By 1860 James Archbold was the eldest surviving son of James Archbold of Davidstown house. James Archbold was born in the 1780s. In 1842 he married Mary, daughter of Nicholas Mahon Power of Faithlegg, Co. Waterford.[27]

Robert Archbold

James Archbold was succeeded by Robert Archbold, a child of twelve. On 9th December 1876 Robert Archbold of Davidstown house died. He left effects valued at under £5,000 and on 2nd August 1877 administration was given to his sister, Eleanor Frances Archbold.[28]

Eleanor Archbold

In 1901 Eleanor Frances Archbold was the landlady of Davidstown. She was 48 years old, single and a Roman Catholic. On census night she was living in Davidstown house with five servants.[29] In 1901 Davidstown house had 27 rooms with 14 windows in the front elevation and 24 outbuildings.[30] In 1911 Eleanor Archbold was still the landlady of Davidstown. She was 54 years old and single and a Roman Catholic. On census night she was living in Davidstown house with five servants.[31] In 1911 Davidstown house had 28 rooms and 15 windows at the front elevation. There were 13 outbuildings near the house.[32] This was nearly half the number of outbuildings that were there just ten years before.

Over the years Eleanor Archbold sold much of the estate under the various land acts. Eleanor Archbold died in 1927 and the Land Commission took over the estate and sold the house.[33] So ended many centuries of association between the Archbold family and Davidstown.

 

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[1] Mac Niocaill, G. (ed.), Crown Surveys of Lands 1540-41 with the Kildare rental begun in 1518 (Dublin, 1992), p. 286

[2] Tallon, G. (ed.), Court of Claims: Submissions and Evidence, 1663 (Dublin, 2006), no. 897

[3] Tallon, G. (ed.), Court of Claims: Submissions and Evidence, 1663 (Dublin, 2006), no. 897

[4] Tallon, G. (ed.), Court of Claims: Submissions and Evidence, 1663 (Dublin, 2006), no. 395

[5] Griffith, M. (ed.), Calendar of inquisitions formerly in the Office of the Chief Remembrancer of the Exchequer prepared from the MSS of the Irish Record Commission (Dublin, 1991), no. JI 146

[6] Simington, R. (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 Vol. VII County of Dublin (Dublin, 1945), p. 274

[7] Tallon, G. (ed.), Court of Claims: Submissions and Evidence, 1663 (Dublin, 2006), no. 897

[8] Tallon, G. (ed.), Court of Claims: Submissions and Evidence, 1663 (Dublin, 2006), no. 897

[9] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 Vol. VIII County of Kildare (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1952), p. 106

[10] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 Vol. VIII County of Kildare (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1952), p. 115

[11] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 Vol. VIII County of Kildare (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1952), p. 96

[12] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 Vol. VIII County of Kildare (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1952), p. 95

[13] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 Vol. VIII County of Kildare (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1952), p. 107

[14] Robert C. Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 Vol. VIII County of Kildare (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1952), p. 117

[15] Tallon, G. (ed.), Court of Claims: Submissions and Evidence, 1663 (Dublin, 2006), no. 897

[16][16] Seamus Pender (ed.), A Census of Ireland circa 1659 (Irish Manuscripts Commission, Dublin, 2002), p. 404

[17] http://landedfamilies.blogspot.com/2015/04/163-archbold-of-davidstown-house.html [accessed on 5th September 2019]

[18] Eileen O’Byrne (ed.) with additional material edited by Anne Chamney, The Convert Rolls (Irish Manuscripts Commission, Dublin, 2005), p. 290

[19] Eileen O’Byrne (ed.), The Convert Rolls, pp. 2, 290

[20] Eileen O’Byrne (ed.), The Convert Rolls, p. 290

[21] Edward Walford, The County Families of the United Kingdom (Robert Hardwick, London, 1860), p. 15

[22] Edward Walford, The County Families of the United Kingdom (Robert Hardwick, London, 1860), p. 717

[23] Edward Walford, The County Families of the United Kingdom (Robert Hardwick, London, 1860), p. 15

[24] Edward Walford, The County Families of the United Kingdom (Robert Hardwick, London, 1860), p. 15

[25] B.M. Walker, Parliamentary Election Results in Ireland, 1801-1922 (Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, 1978), pp. 65, 70

[26] Edward Walford, The County Families of the United Kingdom (Robert Hardwick, London, 1860), pp. 717, 849

[27] Edward Walford, The County Families of the United Kingdom (Robert Hardwick, London, 1860), p. 717

[28] http://www.willcalendars.nationalarchives.ie/reels/cwa/005014893/005014893_00017.pdf [accessed on 26th April 2016]

[29] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai000901487/ [26th April 2016]

[30] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai000901485/ [accessed on 26th April 2016]

[31] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai002560760/ [23rd April 2016]

[32] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai002560756/ [23rd April 2016]

[33] http://landedfamilies.blogspot.com/2015/04/163-archbold-of-davidstown-house.html [accessed on 5th September 2019]

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General History, India History, Uncategorized

Causes of the War of Independence 1857 or the Sepoy Mutiny

Causes of the War of Independence 1857 or the Sepoy Mutiny

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

 

Introduction by Aleeza Javed

The War of Independence of 1857 was a very critical event towards independence for the Indian sub-continent. The rebellion began on 10th May 1857 in the town of Meerut. It ended on 1st November 1858 with a general amnesty after a bloody conflict on both sides, although the fighting didn’t totally end until 8th July 1859. The mutiny or rebellion came close to ending British power in India and the British had to gather troops and ships from across the Empire to first hold the Indians and then push them back. Many causes led to the rebellion and these are listed below.

 

Political causes by Sarah Fatima

1 = Lord Dalhousie applied the Doctrine of Lapse

2 = Nana Sahib was denied a pension after his father’s death

3 = Bahadur Shan’s son was not allowed to live in the Red Fort

4 = The British denied all treaties and agreements of the government

 

Sepoy_Mutiny_1857

The Bengal army by Granger

Economic causes by Wanda Khan

1 = The policy of economic exploitation by the British and extensive destruction of the traditional economic structure caused widespread resentment among Indian society

2 = people were hanged or tortured if they failed to pay taxes

3 = the traditional industries collapsed under the pressure of the industrial fields

 

Military causes by Rameesha Pervaiz

1 = the Sepoys had helped the British established their empire in India but were not awarded or promoted at all

2 = the was discrimination between the Indian and British soldiers

3 = an Indian soldier got much less salary as compared to a Western soldier

4 = the Indian soldiers were much more numerous than the British soldiers and this encouraged the Sepoys to rise against the British

5 = the senior British officers did not pay any respect to the Indian soldier at all

 

Social causes by Mahroosh Fatima

1 = Lord Wellesley described the Indians as vulgar, ignorant, rude, familiar and stupid

2 = the efforts of missionaries to convert people to Christianity also angered the Indians

 

The immediate cause by Afsah Shahzad

1 = there was an issue of the grease cartridges that had a grease cover that had to be bitten off before loading the Enfield Rifle = the rumour was that this grease was made from cow fat or pig lard – not permitted to Hindus and Muslims. The soldiers took it as a challenge to their religion and were extremely angry with the British.

 

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End of post

 

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29th April 2014 to 5th September 2019

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Ancient History, General History

Multan: exploring in ancient history

Multan: exploring in ancient history

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

 

Multan is a city in Punjab region of Pakistan. The word Punjab means region of the five rivers. It is Pakistan’s fifth largest city by population and has an area of 133 square kilometres (51 sq. mi). The city is located on the banks of the Chenab River in the geographic centre of the country. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multan]

Multan is known as the City of Sufis or City of Saints and Madinat-ul-Auliya because of the large number of shrines and Sufi saints from the city. The city is blanketed with bazaars, mosques, shrines, and ornate tombs. It is the birthplace of Fariduddin Ganjshakar (popularly known as “Baba Farid”), recognized as the first major poet of the Punjabi language. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multan]

Multan is one of the oldest cities not only in the Asian subcontinent but also in the world. This assertion is made by the Multan tourist Board and the Multan police service. Yet these organisations are not archaeologists.

 

16113-multan-locator-map

 

In the earliest history of Pakistan the Indus civilisation figures high. The Indus civilisation was one of the four great civilisations which began around 3,300 BC – the others were 1st Mesopotamia, 2nd Egypt and the 4th Huang Ho Valley in China. [Talk by Mark Kenoyer, University of Wisconsin, Madison to Oriental Institute, University of Chicago] The Indus civilisation is said to have started about 2,500 BC. [George F. Dales, ‘Indus Valley Civilisation’, in The World Book Encyclopaedia, vol. 10 (Chicago, 1980), page 181]

The following papers and articles deal with the Indus civilisation on the Academia.edu website article.

https://www.academia.edu/5848999/Architecture_of_Harappa

Shows map of main settlement sites

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https://www.academia.edu/5478368/Infection_Disease_and_Biosocial_Processes_at_the_End_of_the_Indus_Civilization

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https://www.academia.edu/3823057/M._Vidale_Aspects_of_Palace_Life_at_Mohenjo-Daro

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https://www.academia.edu/3822060/E._Cortesi_M._Tosi_A._Lazzari_and_M._Vidale_Cultural_Relationships_Beyond_The_Iranian_Plateau_the_Helmand_Civilization_Baluchistan_and_the_Indus_Valley_in_the_3rd_Millennium_BCE

Shows map of main settlement centres

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https://www.academia.edu/3603010/P._Biagi_2006_-_The_Prehistory_of_Lower_Sindh_Pakistan_New_Results_and_More_Perspectives

Map of lower Indus river to the coast = outside Punjab area

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https://www.academia.edu/2711277/Indus_Valley_Floods_Climate_and_civilization_interaction

Ideas on the disappearance of Indus civilisation

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https://www.academia.edu/2197668/The_Indus_Culture_and_Writing_System_in_Contact_At_the_Crossroads_of_Civilization_in_the_Mesopotamian_Realm

Gives a list of Indus reference books

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https://www.academia.edu/2177332/Urbanisation_and_the_Village_crop_processing_social_organisation_and_change_in_Harappan_South_Asia

Talks about rural settlement sites = no paper uploaded

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https://cambridge.academia.edu/JenniferBates

Cambridge archaeologist studying Indus civilisation

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https://www.academia.edu/1285495/Bricks_and_urbanism_in_the_Indus_Valley_rise_and_decline

Mentions a number of Indus Valley cities but no mention of Multan as far as I can see = nice maps. This paper describes what to look for in finding an Indus city = a mound with religious/public buildings on top – the city proper in a grid pattern in the valley below with houses oriented north-south – and a water source [most important feature].

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https://www.academia.edu/243477/Chronology_and_Culture-History_in_the_Indus_Valley

Nice short study on Indus Valley chronology and has map of chief sites with list of books for further reading

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https://www.academia.edu/8552714/Breaking_ground_at_MEHRGARH_Life_before_the_Indus_Valley_Civilization

Before the Indus Valley

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https://www.academia.edu/8491526/The_Harappan_Writing_of_the_Copper_Tablets

Not very clear writing but still an important article on Indus writing

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https://www.academia.edu/8359118/Economic_Sustainability_of_the_Harappan_Civilization_beyond_the_Saraswati-Drasdwati_Valley._Bharati_37_47-56

Although writing about an area outside the Multan area the article still gives the names of a number of Indus valley locations

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https://www.academia.edu/8285547/Agriculture_in_Indus_Villages_the_emerging_picture_of_rural_agricultural_and_subsistence_practices_during_the_urbanisation_and_deurbanisation_of_the_Indus_Civilisation_in_northwest_India

Another paper not uploaded by Jennifer Bates of Cambridge

This paper, not uploaded, still has potential in that Multan is not mentioned in the list of Indus cities but that is not to exclude Multan as an Indus village which stayed small for a long time and only later grew in size.

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pakistan-multan

 

By 1700 BC the Indus civilisation had disappeared.

According to Hindu legends, Multan was the capital of the Trigarta Kingdom at the time of the Mahabharata war, ruled by the Katoch Dynasty. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multan] The Mahabharata is one of the two major epic poems of ancient India. It has gone through many editions. The earliest edition of the text is said to be from about 400 BC but the origins of the text are said to be further back in the 8th and 9th centuries BC. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahabharata]

Multan has frequently been a site of conflict due to its location on a major invasion route between South Asia and Central Asia. The Persians conquered the Punjab during the 500’s BC and made it part of the Achaemenid Empire. It is not clear if Multan existed at that time. In 326 BC Multan was conquered by Alexander the Great. [Robert Crane, ‘Pakistan’, in The World Book Encyclopaedia, vol. 15 (Chicago, 1980), page 81] Other sources contradict and say that Alexander was defeated at Multan and this defeat stopped his eastward campaign and he returned to Persia. [http://www.chiefacoins.com/Database/Countries/Multan.htm]

Using this reference to Alexander the Great, Robert Crane said that Multan was one of the oldest cities in Pakistan and dated to the 300’s BC. [Robert Crane, ‘Multan’, in The World Book Encyclopaedia, vol. 13 (Chicago, 1980), page 758]

Multan was conquered along with Sindh by Muhammad bin Qasim, from the local ruler Chach of Alor circa 712 AD. Following bin Qasim’s conquest, the city was securely under Muslim rule, although it was in effect an independent state and most of the subjects were non-Muslim. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multan]

After the Muslim period Multan became a popular place for Sufi saints and their tombs adore the city.

As said Robert Crane dates Multan to the 300’s BC and says it is one of the oldest in Pakistan. In the lists of oldest cities in the world those of Erbil (Iraq) 6,000 BC, Luoyang (China) 2,070 BC, Balkh (Afghanistan) 1,500 BC, Aleppo (4,300 BC), Damascus, and Jericho 3,000 BC are usually given as the oldest. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cities_by_time_of_continuous_habitation]

In Pakistan the city of Peshawar is given as the oldest, dating to at least 539 BC. This makes it one of the oldest in South Asia. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peshawar]

In 2013 Robert Bracey gave a talk on the coinage used in the Multan area but has so far not uploaded this talk to the web.

https://www.academia.edu/3309988/Temple_of_the_Sun_The_Coinage_of_Multan_to_AD_965

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multan-pakistan

 

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Another website = http://www.chiefacoins.com/Database/Countries/Multan.htm = places the earliest Multan coins to about 316 BC.

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In about 1870 James Grant wrote in his History of India that “Moultan is built on a considerable height, formed by the accumulated debris of many cities that have occupied the same site, on the left bank of the Chenab”. He said that in about 1848, before the Multan revolt against the new British occupation, the city had a population of 80,000. “Its silks and carpets rivalled those of Persia”. [James Grant, History of India (London, c.1870), vol. 2, page 168] In 1870 the National Encyclopaedia, vol. 9, page 191 gave the population of Mooltan as 80,000. In 1980 the population of Multan was 538,000.  [Robert Crane, ‘Pakistan’, in The World Book Encyclopaedia, vol. 15 (Chicago, 1980), page 78c] By 2014 the population of Multan was about 750,000. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multan]

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Conclusion

After all of this writing where does that leave the age of Multan? It is so far clear that Multan is not the oldest city in the world or the second oldest or even lower. Within Pakistan, Multan appears as the second oldest city after Peshawar and thus by continuation Multan is one of the very oldest cities in South Asia [Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Uzbekistan]. Yet in all of this the only way of knowing how old Multan is for sure is to dig it up in a series of archaeological digs in different parts of the city.

 

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This collection of sources about papers of ancient Multan was assembled in December 2014 to help a young history student in Pakistan. Its publication here is hoped to help others to understand the joy of the ancient world and how we walk on the shoulders of giants.

 

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End of post

 

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Cork history, General History, Maritime History, Waterford history

Blackwater and Bride book: ten years on

Blackwater and Bride book: ten years on

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

 

In December 2008 (ten years ago this month) I published my history book (and to date, December 2018, my only history book) entitled Blackwater and Bride: Navigation and Trade, 7000 BC to 2007. The book ran to 562 pages including numerous illustrations and tables. The vast majority of historians first attend college, then write a few articles for various historical journals and then publish a book or two as the culmination of their gathered knowledge. I kind of did the sequence of stages in reverse – firstly publishing a book, then writing articles for various historical journals and then, in 2017-19, attending the University College Cork education course, entitled: Diploma in Local and Regional Studies.

As the preface of the book recounted (reprinted below) the book originally began as a project for an article in Decies: the journal of the Waterford Archaeological and Historical Society, in the summer of 2002. Having finished the article on navigation on the Rivers Blackwater and Bride, I asked Mike Hackett of Youghal was there anything else to know relating to the subject. Before I could say ‘Hop, skip and jump’, the word had travelled around the historian community of east Cork and west Waterford that I was writing a book about the two rivers. I tried repeatedly to tell them that I was just writing an article for a historical journal but eventually just gave up. In 2002 the Rivers Blackwater and Bride were just noted fishing rivers and the present of numerous quays marked on the Ordinance Survey maps was possibly just done in the hope of river traffic rather than responding to a substantial level of river traffic in former times. I was confident that the book would be 100 pages at most and, like the Great War, be finished by Christmas. It was to be six years later before the book was done – ah the foolishness of youth.

 

179786_499441156796443_949584805_n

 

The official launch of the book in the Walter Raleigh Hotel, Youghal, 9th December 2008, was a nervous affair as I was then an unknown historian. The dust jacket of the book said that I had ‘written a number of articles in various historical journals’. This was a stretch of the truth. Up until 2008 I had only published two articles – one in a historical journal and another in a school history book. But to help promote the book I wrote off two articles during 2008 for two journals – Niall O’Brien, ‘The Earl of Desmond’s Navy’, in the Journal of the Kerry Archaeological and Historical Society, Series 2, Vol. 8 (2008), pp. 87-96 and Niall O’Brien, ‘The Estate of Maurice Brown of Rathmoylan: Its Origins and Descent’, in Decies, No. 64 (2008), pp. 41-46. The choice of these two journals was that they include a biography of the author and thus I could write in these biographies that I published the Blackwater and Bride book. The article in Decies did result in a direct sale of a copy of the book but I am not sure did it do much more.

In total 1,000 copies of the Blackwater and Bride book was produced of which 127 copies were sold at the book launch. It then took another 4 years to sell most of the books mainly through shops in Fermoy, Dungarvan and Youghal. The slow rate of sales, the end of Heritage Council funding of book publication and other distractions for my funds has meant that the Blackwater and Bride is so far my only book although the number of articles published in historical journals has increased to over sixteen.

The Blackwater and Bride book not only recorded the navigation and river trade on the two rivers and the Lismore canal but helped generate an appreciation of the two rivers among the communities along its banks. The river boating services offered by Denis Murray and Tony Gallagher acquired more customers. The Gathering 2013 festival in Knockanore used the river to boat people between Youghal and Cappoquin as an important part of its programme. A number of people have explored the idea of a restaurant river boat service on the Blackwater and the Bride. In 2016 the Villierstown community has established a boating service that includes a special boat for wheelchair people. Recently, the various communities along the Blackwater between Clashmore and Lismore have come together to develop the economy of the region with the river as a central theme. Before 2008 people along the two rivers had mostly forgotten about the river as they drove their cars to destinations away from the rivers. Since 2008 the two rivers have once again become a linkage between the communities.

On a personal level, the Blackwater and Bride book generated invitations to give history talks about the rivers and trade in Youghal, Tallow and Waterford city, which would not previously happen. The book further generated an invitation to write an article on the history of the Irish timber trade for the journal, Irish Forestry, which was nice to do and also opened my eyes to other places to publish history rather than keeping it too local.[1]

A further development by the book was the establishment of a Facebook page, entitled, Sailing Merchant Vessels, which records the history of various sailing vessels and accounts of sailing history that is today long gone.[2] The page has (December 2018) over 2,300 followers and it is hoped to continue to develop the site with more maritime history.

Hopefully someday I will get a chance to publish another book if I don’t get too distracted with articles in historical journals, or by two history blogs[3] or by two history pages on Facebook[4] as well as the fun of life, work and family. Should be good fun as the Blackwater book was even with all the work involved.

 

 

 

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Contents

 

Preface

 

Acknowledgements

 

Chapters

 

  1. Early years of travel, 8,000 B.C. – 1600                               1
  2. The Rivers 1580 – 1700                                                          17
  3. Tidal river traffic 1700 – 1800                                              37
  4. Opening the river 1700 – 1850                                             53
  5. The ferries                                                                                67
  6. Lismore canal                                                                          81
  7. Tidal river traffic 1800 – 1900                                              98
  8. Shipbuilding by the river                                                     128
  9. Passenger traffic and steamboats                                       135
  10. The Bride River 1902 – 1922                                                145
  11. Blackwater dredging and river improvements              159
  12. River quays and bridges                                                      165
  13. Rowing, coting and yachting                                               187
  14. Tidal river traffic 1936 – 1958                                             196
  15. Bride and Blackwater vessels                                              213
  16. Conclusion                                                                              272

 

Bibliography                                                                                     274

 

Appendices

 

Appendix I

Partial returns of trade on the Lismore canal                      283

Appendix II

Local corn and flour mills from Griffith’s Valuation           284

Appendix III

Personalities of the river in the nineteenth century           285

Appendix IV

Types of vessels on the river                                                   286

Appendix V

Time table of the Blackwater Steamer Company                287

Appendix VI

Coastal trade at Youghal 1866 to 1879                                  288

Appendix VII

Some mallow canal accounts for 1761                                   289

Appendix VIII

Figures by Musgrave to get £10,000 savings on river traffic 291

Appendix IX

Notes on the Youghal Harbour records                                  292

Appendix X

Notes on the Lismore Canal Lockage accounts                     293

Appendix XI

Miscellaneous trade on the two rivers 1879 to 1898           294

Appendix XII

Line drawings of a Blackwater market boat                          296

 

Index of people and places                                           200

 

Index of ships                                                                317

 

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Preface

 

 

Today when we think of travel, we mention cars, buses, trains and planes. But for an island nation we often fail to mention ships. Yet to people in the past, ships would be their first choice. The Blackwater and Bride are today noted all over the world as rivers for good fishing. For our forefathers, they were the super highways of their time. If we want to go to England, France or Australia, many hours in a car and at an airport would have to be endured. Our grandparents just had to go down to the bottom of the garden and board a ship which would take them there direct.

The first river navigators came to do shopping and find accommodation. The Irish of the early medieval period used the rivers to export their agriculture surplus as did the later Normans while importing luxury items from across the globe.  The seventeenth century saw a great expansion in river traffic with the influence of the new English and the happy survival of more documents than the medieval period. After such activity, the first haft of the eighteenth century was one of rest until 1750 when the Mallow Canal and the growth of the corn trade brought an increase in traffic. From this time until the 1950’s, the corn trade provided varied levels of river activity, along with imports of coal and exports of timber. Such trade was carried on the river lighters and after1884 principally on the merchant schooners. Facilities such as the many river quays and warehouses were constructed while many of the fishing weirs were removed to aid navigation. The two rivers saw some of the first navigators to Ireland and had visits from some of the last merchant schooners at the end of sail.

The origin of this book was a request by Patrick Grogan that I write an article on west Waterford for the Waterford Archaeological and Historical Society journal, Decies. Navigation on the Suir had been well written about in Decies and I felt a little balance to marine affairs in Waterford would do no harm. Therefore I wrote a piece on the opening of the Blackwater River above Lismore from 1700 to 1850 (which now forms chapter four).

Having finished the proposed article in just a few months, I felt really happy with myself. This article encompassed the whole picture of Blackwater navigation, as I supposed it to be. But just to make sure that I had covered all the aspects of the subject, I wrote a letter to Mike Hackett of Youghal, asking was there anything else to be learnt on the subject. Mike had written so many books on Youghal and the Blackwater that he seemed like a good fellow to ask (he also happen to be the only marine person I knew at the time). Mike replied that Frank Mills of Knockanore was the person to ask. He wisely never let on that only the tip of the iceberg had been touched. So I rang Frank in February 2003 and five years later, this book is the bigger picture. Even Frank was amazed at the amount of information available.

But despite the bigger picture, this book does not tell the full story. People may find the use of notes to be excessive. I apologize if the notes break the flow of your reading and enjoyment. The subject of navigation on the Blackwater and Bride Rivers has never been written in book form before. Some aspects like the Mallow Canal and the passenger steam boats of the nineteenth century have appeared in articles of historical journals or in a chapter of a book, but not the full story. Therefore this book not just corrects this lacking but also forms an information source for future research and publications. Hence the excessive notes are I hope an aid to the next voyage of discovery.

I could even have spent more time on further research. We didn’t consult old newspapers. What! Didn’t consult newspapers; what scandal. Yea well some people are full of scandal. To do so would postpone publication for two or three more years. As the living memory of navigation is fast leaving us with the last vessel having left the Blackwater in 1958, it was felt that further postponement would deprive of us all of giving acknowledgement to the men (they were mostly men), who sailed the Blackwater and Bride where now only fish and ducks travel.

In such a work there have been high and low points. Meeting Frank Mills and the legendary Dick Scott was a joy and pleasure which long years will never diminish. Johnny McGrath looking into a skip full of papers in Dungarvan, from where he pulled out the bridge log books of Camphire (for 1902 to 1956), and of Youghal (from 1936 to 1958) was an invaluable piece of salvage. Some would express disappointment that he didn’t pull out more papers, but without those log books the navigation story would certainly be the poorer. Finding the log books for the Lismore Canal in Dublin and, in greater number, at Dungarvan was great. The disappointment came with only one book for before for the fifty four years before 1851 (and that book only covering three years).[5] Further sorrow arrived with the Youghal harbour books only surviving for the period after 1878, made establishing the level of trade on the two rivers extremely hard. Thankfully the harbour books after 1878 gave us wonderful information. Chapter seven and fifteen are based heavily upon these books.

Dr. Johnson once wrote to Charles O’Connor on his “Dissertations on the History of Ireland” that “I hope you will continue to cultivate this kind of learning, which has too long lain neglected, and which if it be suffered to remain in oblivion for another century, may, perhaps, never be retrieved.” This book is slightly late in time to retrieve much of the living folklore, but I trust, not too late to tell this remarkable story, and keep it from oblivion.

If there any errors or omissions, I hope they are few and that if readers note any, we can correct same in a further edition. With this proviso, hopefully you will find the result of this book to be worthwhile and enjoyable, fascinating and interesting.

 

 

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[1] O’Brien, N.C.E.J., ‘Timber exports in the south east’, in Irish Forestry, Vol. 74, Nos. 1 & 2 (2017), pp. 168-190

[2] https://www.facebook.com/sailingmerchantvessels/?ref=bookmarks [accessed 30 December 2018]

[3] http://celtic2realms-medievalnews.blogspot.com/ [accessed on 30 December 2018] covering medieval history and https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/ [accessed on 30 December 2018] covering modern history.

[4] https://www.facebook.com/MallowFermoyLismoreWaterfordRailwayBranchLines/?ref=bookmarks [accessed on 30 December 2018] and https://www.facebook.com/sailingmerchantvessels/?ref=bookmarks [accessed 30 December 2018]

[5] Since the writing of the preface in 2007 the National Library of Ireland completed a new catalogue of the Lismore Papers by Stephen Ball in which additional information on the Lismore canal before 1851 was discovered. MS 43,786/1 is an Account for the Lismore Canal with Samuel Kenah & Co. (1816-9), returns of lockage received (1828-49), and return of proceeds of lockage from the Lismore Canal (1855-7), 6 items; MS 43,786/2 is entitled Lockage account book for the years 1828 to 1840, 1 item

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Cork history, Dublin History, General History, Political History

The road to an Irish national bank

The road to an Irish national bank

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

Up until the end of the seventeenth century banks were often establishments that were attached to another principal business such as a merchant business. The first stand-alone bank was founded in Cork in 1680 by Edward and Joseph Hoare. The Hoare brothers were city merchants who were extensively involved in overseas trade and foreign exchange.[1]

About the same time a Huguenot refugee, David Digues La Touche settled in Dublin. There he developed a successful cloth dealership and merchant business. In the early 1690s David La Touche opened a bank with other partners. Through David’s business contacts the bank grew beyond its Dublin base.[2]

But this growing banking sector was without a head. In 1694 the Bank of England was established as the national bank of that country. This was followed in 1695 by the Bank of Scotland as the national bank of that country. Although great efforts were made in 1695 to establish a national bank in Ireland no such institution was founded.[3]

In 1692 the Irish House of Commons claimed ‘sole right’ to initiate financial legislation.[4]

In the years since 1680 many of the newly formed banks in Dublin, Cork and half a dozen other towns were both innovative and versatile in their business accruement. Among the activities of the banks was the remitting of large sums of money around the country, and between Ireland and England for merchants, landlords and government agencies. The banks also provided much needed short-term credit to merchants by issuing their own bank notes for bills of exchange prior to maturity.[5]

One characteristic of the early eighteenth century banks was their embodiment of merchant and landlord interest in mutual benefit.[6] The forthcoming debate on a national bank would test this mutual involvement.

Beginning in 1719 another attempt was made at forming a national bank. In 1720 about thirteen members of the House of Commons held senior positions within the Irish revenue service.[7] In December 1721 Lord Chancellor Midleton described a group of MPs as being ‘dependents on the Custom house’ during the final days of the national bank debate.[8] But the monetary interest in setting up a national bank was not as strong as the landed gentry block in the House of Commons.

On 9th December 1721 the Irish House of Commons voted on the issue of a national bank. The proposal for a national bank was defeated but the margin of the defeat is in some dispute. Two documents among the Rosse Papers give different votes. One document claims that one hundred and fifty members voted against and eighty voted for the bank but the other document said that one hundred and fifty-two voted against with ninety-eight for the proposal.[9] The divisional list among the Midleton papers at the Surrey History Centre (MS 1248/5, ff 105-6), records a different vote, but the same result.[10]

 

Parliament house dublin

Parliament House, Dublin and later HQ of the Bank of Ireland

The defeat of the national bank proposal was a telling display of the landed gentry’s dominance of parliament. There was no countervailing ‘moneyed interest’ as at Westminster.[11]

The failure to establish a national bank in Ireland was highlighted in a big way in 1722 with the granting of a royal patent to William Wood to coin copper halfpence pieces.[12] William Wood, a Wolverhampton manufacturer, was licenced to produce £100,800 worth of coins.[13] Lord Justice King and the Irish revenue commissioners separately wrote to the government with strong objects. They warned that the patent would be strongly opposed in Ireland because such a large production of copper coins would destroy the Irish economy.[14]

The political establishment in Ireland united in near one voice in opposition to the Wood patent. Both Houses of Parliament passed resolutions against it and members of the Privy Council and the revenue commissioners refused to use the coins in official receipts and payments.[15] When the Irish Parliament met in September 1732 opposition had become so strong that nobody would defend the patent in public. Even the government’s chief parliamentary manager, Speaker William Connolly, refused to defend the government’s position.[16] The London ministry of Sir Robert Walpole promised to reduce the amount of coins to £40,000 but the opposition remained firm. The patent was eventually cancelled in September 1725.[17]

In 1757 the Irish Parliament passed the Banking Act. One of the Act’s chief provisions was the exclusion of wholesale merchants from the business of private banking. This Act was possibly a reaction of fear by many Protestant landlords at the growing number of prosperous Catholic merchants across the country. Yet even after decades of economic growth by 1775 less than a third of Dublin merchants were Catholic and less the a quarter were so in Cork.[18] But, as in many other times and issues, perception is always a more powerful mover in times of fear than hard facts.

A consequence of this Act was that the surviving older banks and the small number of new banks founded after 1757 were primarily ‘conservative money-moving agencies’ and very reluctant providers of merchant credit.[19]

The old proposal for a national bank resurfaced amidst the economic crisis of 1778-1780. In 1778 three leading Dublin banks had gone bankrupt. Yet the supporters of the new proposal view the established of the bank as a patriotic measure. By 1781 the government came to see the national bank, along the lines of the Bank of England, as a necessary economic measure. In contrast to the 1720 proposal the landed gentry supported the 1780 scheme.[20] The pockets of the gentry had suffered during the crisis of 1778-1780 and money or even the lack of it always talks and persuades the most reluctant of people.

In 1783 Ireland finally got a national bank when the Bank of Ireland was established by royal charter. One of the Bank’s perks was that it was the only bank within a 50-mile radius with a licence to print its own bank notes. The Bank soon became the government’s banker as well as forming a number of public and commercial functions. Yet it did not establish branches within or outside Dublin.[21] After the Act of Union of 1800 ended the independent Irish parliament, the Bank of Ireland purchased the disused parliament building in College Green for its own headquarter. Yet a fully fledged central bank did not come into existence until 1943 with the formation of the Central Bank of Ireland.[22]

 

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[1] Ollerenshaw, P., ‘Banking’, in Connolly, S.J. (ed.), The Oxford companion to Irish History (Oxford, 1998), p. 36

[2] Ollerenshaw, ‘Banking’, in The Oxford companion to Irish History, p. 36

[3] Ollerenshaw, ‘Banking’, in The Oxford companion to Irish History, p. 36

[4] McNally, P., Parties, Patriots & Undertakers: parliamentary politics in early Hanoverian Ireland (Dublin, 1997), p. 191 accessed 3rd March 2014

[5] Dickson, D., New Foundations: Ireland 1660-1800 (Dublin, 2000), p. 135

[6] Dickson, New Foundations: Ireland 1660-1800, p. 135

[7] McNally, Parties, Patriots & Undertakers, p. 114

[8] McNally, Parties, Patriots & Undertakers, p. 114

[9] Malcomson, A.P.W. (ed.), Calendar of the Rosse Papers (Dublin, 2008), pp. 235-38

[10] Malcomson (ed.), Calendar of the Rosse Papers, p. 235

[11] Dickson, New Foundations: Ireland 1660-1800, p. 86

[12] McNally, Parties, Patriots & Undertakers, p. 127

[13] Anon, ‘Wood’s Halfpence controversy (1722-5)’, in Connolly, S.J. (ed.), The Oxford companion to Irish History, p. 598

[14] McNally, Parties, Patriots & Undertakers, p. 127

[15] Anon, ‘Wood’s Halfpence controversy (1722-5)’, in The Oxford companion to Irish History, p. 598

[16] McNally, Parties, Patriots & Undertakers, p. 127

[17] Anon, ‘Wood’s Halfpence controversy (1722-5)’, in The Oxford companion to Irish History, p. 598

[18] Dickson, New Foundations: Ireland 1660-1800, pp. 86, 134

[19] Dickson, New Foundations: Ireland 1660-1800, pp. 86, 135-6

[20] Dickson, New Foundations: Ireland 1660-1800, pp. 184-5

[21] Ollerenshaw, ‘Banking’, in The Oxford companion to Irish History, p. 36

[22] Ollerenshaw, ‘Banking’, in The Oxford companion to Irish History, p. 37

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General History, Pre-Historic Ireland

The first known people in Ireland

The first known people in Ireland

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

This article searches for the outline of Irish prehistory and the elusive first known people to live in Ireland.

First evidence of people in Ireland

Ancient Irish history, that it, for history before 750 BC, is divided into four chief periods of human habitation. These four periods are: Palaeolithic (meaning Old Stone Age), Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age), Neolithic (New Stone Age) and the Bronze Age. The earliest period is the Palaeolithic which in Irish history is anything before 8000 BC. In European history the Palaeolithic is time before 12,500 BC.

The difference in time zones between Europe and Ireland has to do with the progress of technology across the Continent and the lack of progress in archaeological investigation within Ireland. Much of the archaeology done in Ireland over the past twenty years has been rescue archaeology in the face of new road construction or building projects. Only a small minority of these archaeological digs published reports and so our access to new knowledge is further restricted. Few archaeologists get to go out and explore the landscape and investigate the ancient sites with new technology.

Palaeolithic period (before 8000 BC)

It is said that a substantial part of southern Ireland was ice free towards the end of the last Ice Age. The existence of humans in this part of Ireland was therefore possible but up until the year 2016 the presence of humans was restricted to a few flint tools without the human touch. Indeed many commentators dismissed these flint tools as not reliable evidence that people had settled in Ireland.[1] The problem with the flint tools was that many were found along by the sea shore and so they were out of context as regard proper dating. It was shown by further investigation that some of these flints were not found in situ and had instead arrived at their discovery location by glacial movement (Mell quarry near Drogheda) and misinterpretation while others were just naturally shaped stones (Rosses’s Point, Co. Sligo).[2]

Searches in caves in the south of Ireland seemed to find promise. This region was ice free in the last ice age and so humans could have lived there. A human skull found in 1928 at Kilgreany Cave, 5 miles from Dungarvan, was interpreted as Palaeolithic man owing to its location near animal remains from the ice age. But further investigation in 1934 found that the skull was buried in a pit dug down into the Palaeolithic layer. Later radiocarbon dating found the skull to be Neolithic, sometime between 3000 to 2500 BC.[3]

Thus the search went on for evidence of that elusive human touch. In the meantime plenty of evidence was found to show that reindeer, bear, fox, wolf, Irish hare and the giant Irish deer (the so-called Irish elk) lived amongst the open tundra areas and the birch trees. By about 9000 BC, it is assumed, that the Irish deer had become extinct. There was a partial advance of the ice sheets in the period 9000 to 8500 BC and land bridges connecting Ireland to Britain and Britain to Europe increased in area or were re-established.[4] The cold and competition from more favourable areas across these land-bridges could have contributed to the deer’s extinct.

The Clare bear and the first humans

Yet in this climate more akin to modern Greenland humans did indeed walk the land of Ireland. In 2016 a kneecap of a bear, that was found in 1903 in a cave in Co. Clare and which rested in a cardboard box in the Natural History department of the National Museum of Ireland, was examined by Dr Marion Dowd, an archaeologist at IT Sligo, and Dr Ruth Carden, a research associate with the National Museum of Ireland. The bone displayed cut marks that were not natural and radiocarbon analysis gave it a date of 12,500 years ago (c.10400 BC). The bone was sent to a three different experts to examine but they were not told that the radiocarbon date. Each expert in turn returned to say the cut marks were made by a Palaeolithic flint knife.[5] Ireland’s earliest humans were found and in the southern part of the country. Further research into caves may turn up even more exciting discoveries.

BearBone014JC

Dr. Marion Dowd with the bear bone

Up until the discovery in Co. Clare the early humans in Ireland were said to be Mesolithic people beginning about 8000 BC.[6] Even a recent academic paper, published in 2016, that discussed the Palaeolithic period in North-West Europe which included countries like the United Kingdom, France, Spain, Belgium, Netherlands and Germany but excludes Ireland from the study.[7] The importance of the County Clare discovery is therefore of national and international importance. It simply puts Ireland on the Palaeolithic map.

Yet there may be other places besides caves to search for early humans.

Ice Age and sea level rise

The last Ice Age began to end about 11000 BC with the start of the Holocene warm period. The retreat of the ice and snow was aided by temperatures which were 1 or 2 degrees higher than today. In this warm period the Irish giant deer made his presence.[8] In most of Europe this period saw the start of the Mesolithic while the Near East was moving into the Neolithic.[9]

In about 9000 BC a short-lived but cold period occurred in which the deer failed to survive. In about 8000 BC temperatures again increased in what is called the Littletonian period and this period is still with us.[10]

The snakes and the end of the land bridges

In these centuries it appears that Ireland was still connected by one or more land bridges with Britain. In those times it was possible to walk from south Kerry to Brittany. The melting ice caps released much stored up water and began a process of a rise in sea levels. The last of the land bridges disappeared sometime before 6000 BC when Ireland became a true island.[11] It was at about 6000 BC Britain also lost its land connections with Europe and also became an island. Leaving out the story of St. Patrick ridding the country of snakes, the evidence of the snakes in Britain and not in Ireland would suggest that Ireland became an island before Britain.

The ending of the land bridges was caused by Lake Agassiz in North America. By 6000 BC this lake was at its greatest size, created by ice sheet meltwater. The lake was held back by an ice sheet dam which slowly gave way. A great flood came out through Hudson Bay and spread across the Northern Hemisphere. It covered Dogger Land and separated Britain from Europe and Ireland from Britain.[12] After 6000 BC sea levels continued to rise until about 3000 BC when they reached present-day levels.[13]

ireland-maps-historical-ice_age

Map of Ireland in the time of the Ice Age

The Mesolithic settlement at Mount Sandel in County Derry was dated from c.7010 BC to c.6490 BC and so existed before the land connections were lost.[14] By 7000 BC Ireland was free of ice. Today many archaeologists and historians date early Mesolithic Ireland from 7500 BC to 6000 BC and later Mesolithic from 6000 BC to 3200 BC.[15]

Much of the North Sea was dry land and low marshy ground before 6000 BC. It is out in the Dogger Bank, under the sea, that fishermen are bringing up many Palaeolithic remains.[16] The search for Ireland’s early Palaeolithic evidence may not just be in caves but also be found under the Irish Sea or the waters off the south coast.

Earliest human activity found

Having found evidence of activity of Palaeolithic humans in Ireland is a major achievement but the search continues for other remains and to understand the evidence so far gathered. In this regard, any evidence that we find may only be partial evidence. We could find more bones or flint tools but the timber bowls, bird traps and eel traps of Palaeolithic humans will have long disappeared. Their clothes and shelter will also be long returned to nature. Of course the Clare bear is only evidence for the earliest humans in Ireland – actually finding a Palaeolithic person is something still to be achieved and hopefully not in the too distant future.

Unanswered questions

Knowing that humans lived in Ireland in about 10400 BC is one thing – trying to answer the many questions they left behind is another. What language did they speak, were the caves they used religious or secular in function and were they the same people who we find in the Mesolithic period or did they leave the country during the cold period of c.9000 BC?

 

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[1] Flanagan, L., Ancient Ireland: Life Before the Celts (Dublin, 2000), p. 16

[2] O’Kelly, M.J., ‘Ireland before 3000 B.C.’, in Ó Cróinin, D. (ed.), A new history of Ireland, Vol. 1: Prehistoric and Early Ireland (Oxford, 2008), p. 57; Harbison, P., Pre-Christian Ireland: From the First Settlers to the Early Celts (London, 1988), pp. 17, 18

[3] Harbison, P., Pre-Christian Ireland: From the First Settlers to the Early Celts (London, 1988), pp. 17, 18

[4] O’Kelly, M.J., ‘Ireland before 3000 B.C.’, in Ó Cróinin, D. (ed.), A new history of Ireland, Vol. 1: Prehistoric and Early Ireland (Oxford, 2008), pp. 54, 55

[5] Dowd, M., ‘A remarkable cave discovery’, in Archaeology Ireland, Vol. 30, No. 2 (Summer 2016), pp. 21-25 https://www.academia.edu/30818511/A_remarkable_cave_discovery_first_evidence_for_a_late_Upper_Palaeolithic_human_presence_in_Ireland (accessed on 15th January 2017)

[6] Flanagan, L., Ancient Ireland: Life Before the Celts (Dublin, 2000), p. 16

[7] Herisson, D., and others, ‘The emergence of the Middle Palaeolithic in north-western Europe and its southern fringes’, in Quaternary International (2016), pp. 1-40, at pp. 2, 4  = https://www.academia.edu/31788596/The_emergence_of_the_Middle_Palaeolithic_in_north-western_Europe_and_its_southern_fringes accessed on 19th March 2017

[8] Harbison, P., Pre-Christian Ireland: From the First Settlers to the Early Celts (London, 1988), p. 18

[9] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holocene accessed on 27th February 2017

[10] Harbison, P., Pre-Christian Ireland: From the First Settlers to the Early Celts (London, 1988), p. 18

[11] Harbison, P., Pre-Christian Ireland: From the First Settlers to the Early Celts (London, 1988), p. 18

[12] Television programme, Time Team Special 51 (2013) Britain’s Stone Age Tsunami https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3EPNZWBk7i8&t=865s accessed on 27th February 2017

[13] O’Kelly, M.J., ‘Ireland before 3000 B.C.’, in Ó Cróinin, D. (ed.), A new history of Ireland, Vol. 1: Prehistoric and Early Ireland (Oxford, 2008), p. 55

[14] Harbison, P., Pre-Christian Ireland: From the First Settlers to the Early Celts (London, 1988), p. 18

[15] O’Kelly, M.J., ‘Ireland before 3000 B.C.’, in Ó Cróinin, D. (ed.), A new history of Ireland, Vol. 1: Prehistoric and Early Ireland (Oxford, 2008), pp. 55, 65

[16]Television programme, Time Team Special 26 (2007) Britain’s Drowned World https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4P9wQj6qX2I&t=2780s accessed 16th March 2017

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General History

Index of modern history articles published on this Blog

Index of modern history articles published on this Blog

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

 

On 14th August 2013 the first article in the modern history blog was published. Since then a total of forty posts were published – thirty-nine history articles and one poem. The articles covered a wide range of subjects across a wide geographical area. Many articles cover the West Waterford – East Cork area where I live. Beyond that there are a number of articles relating to Counties Kilkenny and Carlow. After that there are a number of articles from different Counties across Ireland. Overseas Oxford has a number of articles relating to people and places. Many articles explored people I have met in old books and places I have went to or read about.

Some articles have generated good viewing figures such as 703 viewers for https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/06/06/some-tallow-people-who-died-in-the-great-war/ which article gathers a short biography on people from Tallow, Co. Waterford who died in the Great War (otherwise known as World War One). Other articles generated no viewers such as the one on https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2016/06/28/bromsgrove-apprentices-1540-1663/. The article followed the life and times of apprentices from Bromsgrove in Worcestershire who went to learn a trade in Bristol, Oxford or Gloucester.

But viewing figures are not the end result. Some articles may not have had great viewing figures but the reaction to the articles was the pleasure. A descendent of William Spotswood Green got in touch to say she was delighted with the article. = https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/03/08/william-spotswood-green-a-biography/

A relative of a former chaplain at Villierstown also got in touch to say thanks in response to another article. = https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2015/05/07/villierstown-chapel-and-chaplains/

Another article = https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/10/06/a-very-long-lease-ummeraboy-in-duhallow/ = helped a person doing some family history research to solve a problem in his research that had him perplexed for years.

Another article = https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/05/15/the-vicars-of-tallow-co-waterford-1639-1910/ = inspired another historian to do his own research into Protestant churches in his area. You can’t unsurpass those pleasures by just looking at viewing figures.

Not all the articles are of modern (post 1534) history. A few are about Prehistoric Ireland. The medieval period (400 to 1534) is covered in another blog site that I have = http://celtic2realms-medievalnews.blogspot.ie/

The name of the blog is Exploring history with Niall and that is it – the joy and wonder of discovering new things, of people and places long since forgotten brought back to life to live again. There are many more articles in various stages of production and hopefully will see the publishing date in the not too distant future. For the moment, below is an index and link to the published articles and hopefully you, the viewer, will find something of interest.

 

Compass map

 

Index and link to the published articles

 

Published 19th August 2016

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2016/08/19/john-burgess-an-evicted-carlow-tenant-reinstated/

25 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 11th August 2016

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2016/08/11/devonshire-arms-hotel-and-lawlors-hotel-dungarvan/

34 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 2nd August 2016

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2016/08/02/an-account-of-thomas-mallinson-of-oxford/

3 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 28th June 2016

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2016/06/28/bromsgrove-apprentices-1540-1663/

No views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 27th June 2016

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2016/06/27/bromsberrow-apprentices-in-seventeenth-century-gloucester/

2 views by 26th August 2016

Published 8th June 2016

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2016/06/08/in-search-of-a-cromlech-near-mocollop-co-waterford-part-one/

44 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 4th June 2016

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2016/06/04/margaret-ringrose-of-moynoe-and-her-mitochondrial-dna/

37 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 3rd June 2016

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2016/06/03/browneshill-dolmen-co-carlow/

19 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 30th May 2016

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2016/05/30/irish-general-elections-of-1832-1835-and-1837/

9 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 21st February 2016

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2016/02/21/exploring-layde-graveyard-darragh-mccurry/

24 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 17th February 2016

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2016/02/17/arrears-of-rent-act-1882-in-carlow/

73 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 8th February 2016

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2016/02/08/shanakill-townland-in-the-barony-of-kinnatalloon-county-cork-2/

86 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 20th October 2015

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2015/10/20/mill-island-mill-in-mallardstown-parish-co-kilkenny/

34 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 13th October 2015

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2015/10/13/a-callan-lease-of-1839-and-griffiths-valuation/

21 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 1st October 2015

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2015/10/01/kenneth-l-p-lely-in-castlehyde-graveyard/

22 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 9th September 2015

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2015/09/09/denis-murphy-of-the-royal-munster-fusiliers/

10 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 26th August 2015

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2015/08/26/lord-walter-bagenal-and-bagenalstown/

43 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 1st July 2015

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2015/07/01/observations-on-villierstown-in-1841-and-1851/

249 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 7th May 2015

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2015/05/07/villierstown-chapel-and-chaplains/

119 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 14th April 2015

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2015/04/14/this-day/

A poem = 15 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 24th March 2015

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2015/03/24/the-dromana-estate-in-1640/

43 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 9th March 2015

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2015/03/09/villierstown-and-the-linen-industry/

273 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 4th January 2015

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2015/01/04/shipping-news-on-this-day-4th-january-in-and-out-of-youghal-1938-1941/

72 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 24th December 2014

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/12/24/christmas-on-the-river-bride-for-merchant-sailing-vessels/

20 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 8th December 2014

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/12/08/thomas-harriot-and-molana-abbey/

69 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 6th October 2014

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/10/06/a-very-long-lease-ummeraboy-in-duhallow/

126 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 14th September 2014

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/09/14/colonel-matthew-appleyard-2/

44 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 27th August 2014

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/08/27/the-gilberts-and-the-calendar-of-ancient-records-of-dublin/

21 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 19th July 2014

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/07/19/leon-foucault-and-the-pendulum/

68 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 17th July 2014

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/07/17/some-notes-on-garbrand-harks-and-family-of-oxford/

226 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 4th July 2014

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/07/04/sapperton-where-cometh-a-name/

113 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 27th June 2014

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/06/27/no-garden-games-in-tudor-oxford-4/

31 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 6th June 2014

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/06/06/some-tallow-people-who-died-in-the-great-war/

703 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 15th May 2014

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/05/15/the-vicars-of-tallow-co-waterford-1639-1910/

88 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 23rd April 2014

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/04/23/grant-family-of-kilmurry-co-cork/

596 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 12th April 2014

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/04/12/youghal-harbour-arrivals-and-sailings-february-1936-3/

164 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 22nd March 2014

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/03/22/a-seventeenth-century-horse-troop-in-tallow-2/

256 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 8th March 2014

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/03/08/william-spotswood-green-a-biography/

234 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 1st September 2013

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2013/09/01/kilwatermoy-landlords-in-1851/

238 views by 26th August 2016

 

Published 14th August 2013

https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2013/08/14/kilwatermoy-people-and-townlands-in-the-subsidy-roll-1662-2/

121 views by 26th August 2016

 

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