Cork history, General History, Maritime History, Waterford history

Blackwater and Bride book: ten years on

Blackwater and Bride book: ten years on

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

 

In December 2008 (ten years ago this month) I published my history book (and to date, December 2018, my only history book) entitled Blackwater and Bride: Navigation and Trade, 7000 BC to 2007. The book ran to 562 pages including numerous illustrations and tables. The vast majority of historians first attend college, then write a few articles for various historical journals and then publish a book or two as the culmination of their gathered knowledge. I kind of did the sequence of stages in reverse – firstly publishing a book, then writing articles for various historical journals and then, in 2017-19, attending the University College Cork education course, entitled: Diploma in Local and Regional Studies.

As the preface of the book recounted (reprinted below) the book originally began as a project for an article in Decies: the journal of the Waterford Archaeological and Historical Society, in the summer of 2002. Having finished the article on navigation on the Rivers Blackwater and Bride, I asked Mike Hackett of Youghal was there anything else to know relating to the subject. Before I could say ‘Hop, skip and jump’, the word had travelled around the historian community of east Cork and west Waterford that I was writing a book about the two rivers. I tried repeatedly to tell them that I was just writing an article for a historical journal but eventually just gave up. In 2002 the Rivers Blackwater and Bride were just noted fishing rivers and the present of numerous quays marked on the Ordinance Survey maps was possibly just done in the hope of river traffic rather than responding to a substantial level of river traffic in former times. I was confident that the book would be 100 pages at most and, like the Great War, be finished by Christmas. It was to be six years later before the book was done – ah the foolishness of youth.

 

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The official launch of the book in the Walter Raleigh Hotel, Youghal, 9th December 2008, was a nervous affair as I was then an unknown historian. The dust jacket of the book said that I had ‘written a number of articles in various historical journals’. This was a stretch of the truth. Up until 2008 I had only published two articles – one in a historical journal and another in a school history book. But to help promote the book I wrote off two articles during 2008 for two journals – Niall O’Brien, ‘The Earl of Desmond’s Navy’, in the Journal of the Kerry Archaeological and Historical Society, Series 2, Vol. 8 (2008), pp. 87-96 and Niall O’Brien, ‘The Estate of Maurice Brown of Rathmoylan: Its Origins and Descent’, in Decies, No. 64 (2008), pp. 41-46. The choice of these two journals was that they include a biography of the author and thus I could write in these biographies that I published the Blackwater and Bride book. The article in Decies did result in a direct sale of a copy of the book but I am not sure did it do much more.

In total 1,000 copies of the Blackwater and Bride book was produced of which 127 copies were sold at the book launch. It then took another 4 years to sell most of the books mainly through shops in Fermoy, Dungarvan and Youghal. The slow rate of sales, the end of Heritage Council funding of book publication and other distractions for my funds has meant that the Blackwater and Bride is so far my only book although the number of articles published in historical journals has increased to over sixteen.

The Blackwater and Bride book not only recorded the navigation and river trade on the two rivers and the Lismore canal but helped generate an appreciation of the two rivers among the communities along its banks. The river boating services offered by Denis Murray and Tony Gallagher acquired more customers. The Gathering 2013 festival in Knockanore used the river to boat people between Youghal and Cappoquin as an important part of its programme. A number of people have explored the idea of a restaurant river boat service on the Blackwater and the Bride. In 2016 the Villierstown community has established a boating service that includes a special boat for wheelchair people. Recently, the various communities along the Blackwater between Clashmore and Lismore have come together to develop the economy of the region with the river as a central theme. Before 2008 people along the two rivers had mostly forgotten about the river as they drove their cars to destinations away from the rivers. Since 2008 the two rivers have once again become a linkage between the communities.

On a personal level, the Blackwater and Bride book generated invitations to give history talks about the rivers and trade in Youghal, Tallow and Waterford city, which would not previously happen. The book further generated an invitation to write an article on the history of the Irish timber trade for the journal, Irish Forestry, which was nice to do and also opened my eyes to other places to publish history rather than keeping it too local.[1]

A further development by the book was the establishment of a Facebook page, entitled, Sailing Merchant Vessels, which records the history of various sailing vessels and accounts of sailing history that is today long gone.[2] The page has (December 2018) over 2,300 followers and it is hoped to continue to develop the site with more maritime history.

Hopefully someday I will get a chance to publish another book if I don’t get too distracted with articles in historical journals, or by two history blogs[3] or by two history pages on Facebook[4] as well as the fun of life, work and family. Should be good fun as the Blackwater book was even with all the work involved.

 

 

 

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Contents

 

Preface

 

Acknowledgements

 

Chapters

 

  1. Early years of travel, 8,000 B.C. – 1600                               1
  2. The Rivers 1580 – 1700                                                          17
  3. Tidal river traffic 1700 – 1800                                              37
  4. Opening the river 1700 – 1850                                             53
  5. The ferries                                                                                67
  6. Lismore canal                                                                          81
  7. Tidal river traffic 1800 – 1900                                              98
  8. Shipbuilding by the river                                                     128
  9. Passenger traffic and steamboats                                       135
  10. The Bride River 1902 – 1922                                                145
  11. Blackwater dredging and river improvements              159
  12. River quays and bridges                                                      165
  13. Rowing, coting and yachting                                               187
  14. Tidal river traffic 1936 – 1958                                             196
  15. Bride and Blackwater vessels                                              213
  16. Conclusion                                                                              272

 

Bibliography                                                                                     274

 

Appendices

 

Appendix I

Partial returns of trade on the Lismore canal                      283

Appendix II

Local corn and flour mills from Griffith’s Valuation           284

Appendix III

Personalities of the river in the nineteenth century           285

Appendix IV

Types of vessels on the river                                                   286

Appendix V

Time table of the Blackwater Steamer Company                287

Appendix VI

Coastal trade at Youghal 1866 to 1879                                  288

Appendix VII

Some mallow canal accounts for 1761                                   289

Appendix VIII

Figures by Musgrave to get £10,000 savings on river traffic 291

Appendix IX

Notes on the Youghal Harbour records                                  292

Appendix X

Notes on the Lismore Canal Lockage accounts                     293

Appendix XI

Miscellaneous trade on the two rivers 1879 to 1898           294

Appendix XII

Line drawings of a Blackwater market boat                          296

 

Index of people and places                                           200

 

Index of ships                                                                317

 

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Preface

 

 

Today when we think of travel, we mention cars, buses, trains and planes. But for an island nation we often fail to mention ships. Yet to people in the past, ships would be their first choice. The Blackwater and Bride are today noted all over the world as rivers for good fishing. For our forefathers, they were the super highways of their time. If we want to go to England, France or Australia, many hours in a car and at an airport would have to be endured. Our grandparents just had to go down to the bottom of the garden and board a ship which would take them there direct.

The first river navigators came to do shopping and find accommodation. The Irish of the early medieval period used the rivers to export their agriculture surplus as did the later Normans while importing luxury items from across the globe.  The seventeenth century saw a great expansion in river traffic with the influence of the new English and the happy survival of more documents than the medieval period. After such activity, the first haft of the eighteenth century was one of rest until 1750 when the Mallow Canal and the growth of the corn trade brought an increase in traffic. From this time until the 1950’s, the corn trade provided varied levels of river activity, along with imports of coal and exports of timber. Such trade was carried on the river lighters and after1884 principally on the merchant schooners. Facilities such as the many river quays and warehouses were constructed while many of the fishing weirs were removed to aid navigation. The two rivers saw some of the first navigators to Ireland and had visits from some of the last merchant schooners at the end of sail.

The origin of this book was a request by Patrick Grogan that I write an article on west Waterford for the Waterford Archaeological and Historical Society journal, Decies. Navigation on the Suir had been well written about in Decies and I felt a little balance to marine affairs in Waterford would do no harm. Therefore I wrote a piece on the opening of the Blackwater River above Lismore from 1700 to 1850 (which now forms chapter four).

Having finished the proposed article in just a few months, I felt really happy with myself. This article encompassed the whole picture of Blackwater navigation, as I supposed it to be. But just to make sure that I had covered all the aspects of the subject, I wrote a letter to Mike Hackett of Youghal, asking was there anything else to be learnt on the subject. Mike had written so many books on Youghal and the Blackwater that he seemed like a good fellow to ask (he also happen to be the only marine person I knew at the time). Mike replied that Frank Mills of Knockanore was the person to ask. He wisely never let on that only the tip of the iceberg had been touched. So I rang Frank in February 2003 and five years later, this book is the bigger picture. Even Frank was amazed at the amount of information available.

But despite the bigger picture, this book does not tell the full story. People may find the use of notes to be excessive. I apologize if the notes break the flow of your reading and enjoyment. The subject of navigation on the Blackwater and Bride Rivers has never been written in book form before. Some aspects like the Mallow Canal and the passenger steam boats of the nineteenth century have appeared in articles of historical journals or in a chapter of a book, but not the full story. Therefore this book not just corrects this lacking but also forms an information source for future research and publications. Hence the excessive notes are I hope an aid to the next voyage of discovery.

I could even have spent more time on further research. We didn’t consult old newspapers. What! Didn’t consult newspapers; what scandal. Yea well some people are full of scandal. To do so would postpone publication for two or three more years. As the living memory of navigation is fast leaving us with the last vessel having left the Blackwater in 1958, it was felt that further postponement would deprive of us all of giving acknowledgement to the men (they were mostly men), who sailed the Blackwater and Bride where now only fish and ducks travel.

In such a work there have been high and low points. Meeting Frank Mills and the legendary Dick Scott was a joy and pleasure which long years will never diminish. Johnny McGrath looking into a skip full of papers in Dungarvan, from where he pulled out the bridge log books of Camphire (for 1902 to 1956), and of Youghal (from 1936 to 1958) was an invaluable piece of salvage. Some would express disappointment that he didn’t pull out more papers, but without those log books the navigation story would certainly be the poorer. Finding the log books for the Lismore Canal in Dublin and, in greater number, at Dungarvan was great. The disappointment came with only one book for before for the fifty four years before 1851 (and that book only covering three years).[5] Further sorrow arrived with the Youghal harbour books only surviving for the period after 1878, made establishing the level of trade on the two rivers extremely hard. Thankfully the harbour books after 1878 gave us wonderful information. Chapter seven and fifteen are based heavily upon these books.

Dr. Johnson once wrote to Charles O’Connor on his “Dissertations on the History of Ireland” that “I hope you will continue to cultivate this kind of learning, which has too long lain neglected, and which if it be suffered to remain in oblivion for another century, may, perhaps, never be retrieved.” This book is slightly late in time to retrieve much of the living folklore, but I trust, not too late to tell this remarkable story, and keep it from oblivion.

If there any errors or omissions, I hope they are few and that if readers note any, we can correct same in a further edition. With this proviso, hopefully you will find the result of this book to be worthwhile and enjoyable, fascinating and interesting.

 

 

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[1] O’Brien, N.C.E.J., ‘Timber exports in the south east’, in Irish Forestry, Vol. 74, Nos. 1 & 2 (2017), pp. 168-190

[2] https://www.facebook.com/sailingmerchantvessels/?ref=bookmarks [accessed 30 December 2018]

[3] http://celtic2realms-medievalnews.blogspot.com/ [accessed on 30 December 2018] covering medieval history and https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/ [accessed on 30 December 2018] covering modern history.

[4] https://www.facebook.com/MallowFermoyLismoreWaterfordRailwayBranchLines/?ref=bookmarks [accessed on 30 December 2018] and https://www.facebook.com/sailingmerchantvessels/?ref=bookmarks [accessed 30 December 2018]

[5] Since the writing of the preface in 2007 the National Library of Ireland completed a new catalogue of the Lismore Papers by Stephen Ball in which additional information on the Lismore canal before 1851 was discovered. MS 43,786/1 is an Account for the Lismore Canal with Samuel Kenah & Co. (1816-9), returns of lockage received (1828-49), and return of proceeds of lockage from the Lismore Canal (1855-7), 6 items; MS 43,786/2 is entitled Lockage account book for the years 1828 to 1840, 1 item

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Cork history, Maritime History

Youghal vessels in 1860

Youghal vessels in 1860

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

Introduction

The following article is just a brief biography of the vessels registered to the port of Youghal in 1860. The port of Youghal is situated at the mouth of the Munster Blackwater in east Cork in southern Ireland. Its seafaring tradition extends back to the thirteenth century and beyond. Peter de Paris, a merchant of the town, was appointed commander of the English fleet which took part in the war on Scotland around 1300.

Albion: The Albion was built in 1834 in Nova Scotia with a barque rig. She had 313 net tons. In 1840 the Albion was owned by W. Delap of New Brunswick while Mr. Carpenter was her master.[1] In 1853 she had repairs and was partially rebuilt with iron bolts. In 1855 further repairs were carried out. By 1855 the Albion was owned by Pim & Co. of Youghal with S. Hanlan as master. She was involved in the Youghal/Mediterranean trade.[2] In 1860 she was still owned by Pim and Son of Youghal while S. Hanlan was her master.[3] The Albion does not appear in the 1865 Lloyd’s Register and her fate is unknown.

Caroline: The Caroline was built in 1856 on Prince Edward Island. She was a brigantine rig vessel with 115 net tons. The Caroline was constructed using black beech and oak with iron bolts. Also used were spruce, pine and juniper with maple. In 1858 she was owned by W. Parker of Youghal and E. Sheehan was her master.[4] In 1860 she was still owned by W. Parker of Youghal and was involved in the Youghal coasting trade.[5]

The Caroline does not appear in the 1865 Lloyd’s Register. Yet in 1865 she was owned by W. Parker of Youghal with a signal hoist of SMVF and having a registration number of 39094.[6] She was still owned by W. Parker in 1870.[7] By 1872 John Evans of Youghal was the owner of the Caroline.[8] The Caroline seems to disappear from the records in 1878.

Ceres: The Ceres was an old schooner in 1860 as she was built in 1826 at Youghal by Mr. McCarthy.[9] The Ceres was 27 gross ton (16 net tons) and in 1860 was owned by M. MacCarthy.[10] The Ceres does not appear in the 1865 Lloyd’s Register. Yet in 1865 she was owned by C. McCarthy of Youghal. In that year her signal hoist was JLMH and her registration number was 5871.[11] The Ceres is last seen in the records in 1868 and disappears after that.[12]

Countess of Durham: The Countess of Durham was a barque rig vessel built in 1838 at Truro in Nova Scotia. She was 324 net tons. In 1846 she had repairs at White’s shipyard in Waterford.[13] In 1848 she had some further repairs in which she was sheathed in yellow metal. In 1850 she was owned by Barns & Co. of Waterford and was involved in the Waterford to Quebec trade. Rowlands was her master.[14] In 1849-50 the Countess of Durham earned £149 on the Quebec sailings.[15] In 1850 and again in 1855 there were some repairs done to the vessel. By 1855 the Countess of Durham was owned by T. Strangman of Waterford and W. Dalton was her master. The vessel was then involved in the Waterford to Cadiz trade.[16]

In 1858 she was owned by J. Pim of Youghal and was involved in the Youghal to America trade.[17] In 1860 she was owned by J. Pim of Youghal and was involved in the Youghal coastal trade. Her master in 1860 was W. Dalton.[18] In 1865 she was still owned by Pim.[19] In 1868 the Countess of Durham was still owned by J.W. Pim of Myrtle Grove, Youghal.[20] Myrtle Grove was given that name by Sir Lawrence Parsons after 1616. Sir Walter Raleigh is said to have lived in the house in 1588 and in 1602 it is referred to as the Warden’s house of Youghal College but the exact age of the house is unknown.[21]

In 1868 the Countess of Durham’s signal hoist was RCJQ and her registration number was 32966 and her registered tonnage was 298 tons.[22] The Countess of Durham does not appear in the 1870 Lloyd’s Register but was still owned by J.W. Pim.[23] In 1878 she was still owned by J.W. Pim but disappears from the records after that.[24]

 

Youghal

Youghal Harbour (photo by Niall O Brien)

 

Eliza O’Keeffe: The Eliza O’Keeffe was built in 1856 at Youghal by P. Kidney using iron bolts. P. Kidney was a builder of several schooners and brigantines for the Mediterranean fruit trade. The Eliza O’Keeffe was his most famous vessel.[25] The Eliza O’Keeffe was rigged as a brigantine and had 120 net tons. In 1858 she was owned by O’Keeffe of Youghal and Eastaway was her master.[26] In 1860 she was still owned by O’Keeffe of Youghal and was involved in the Youghal/Mediterranean trade with Eastaway was her master.[27]

In 1865 the dimensions of the Eliza O’Keeffe were 85.6 feet X 22.1 X 11.1 feet and she was still owned by O’Keeffe.[28] In 1870 the Eliza O’Keeffe was sold to Clifford’s and Co. of Waterford. She then was involved in the Cork/France trade. S. Clifford took over as master from J. Walsh.[29] In 1898 she was still owned by Clifford’s. Her dimensions were given as 85.6 feet X 22.1 11.1 feet. Her official number was 14647 and her signal host was LPBK.[30] In March 1900 she was wrecked in Dungarvan Bay.[31]

Ellen: The Ellen was a schooner rigged vessel built in 1842 in Sackville, New Brunswick, using iron bolts. She 109 gross tons and 81 net tons. In 1845 the Ellen was owned by O’Keeffe of Youghal and was involved in the Youghal to London trade. R. Hanlon was her master.[32] In 1855 the Ellen was restored. By 1858 the Ellen was owned by D. O’Keeffe of Youghal and E. Kennedy was her master.[33] In 1860 she was still owned by D. O’Keeffe of Youghal and was involved in the Youghal coastal trade. E. Kennedy was still the master of the Ellen.[34]

The Ellen does not appear in the 1870 Lloyd’s Register yet she was still owned by David O’Keeffe of Youghal. In 1870 her registration number was 19031 and her signal hoist was MQGR and she had 87 registered tons.[35] In 1872 the Ellen was owned by Thomas Leonard Barber Edgecome of 24 Brunswick’s Square in London.[36] By 1874 the Ellen was back in Youghal ownership in the hands of John McCarthy and he still owned her in 1887 but the vessel disappeared from the records after that.[37]

Industry: The Industry was a schooner rigged vessel built in 1848 in Sackville, New Brunswick, using iron bolts like the Ellen. In 1850 the Industry was owned by John & Co. of Milford and was involved in the Milford coastal trade. She had 76 net tons and J. John was her master.[38] In 1855 she was still owned by John & Co.[39] By 1858 the Industry was owned by Walsh & Co. of Youghal and was involved in the Cork coastal trade.[40] In 1859 the Industry had some repairs. In 1860 she was owned by Walsh & Co. of Youghal and D. Llewellyn was her master. She had 69 net tons.[41] In 1865 she was still owned by Walsh & Co. and her dimensions were given as 68.4 feet X 17.1 X 9 feet.[42] In 1870 the Industry was owned by Thomas Curtin, junior, of Youghal. Her registration number was 11462 and her signal hoist was KSRC with 70 registered tons.[43] The Industry does not appear on the 1872 Lloyd’s Register. In 1874 Thomas Curtin still owned the Industry but the vessel disappeared from the records after that time.[44]

Jersey Tar: The Jersey Tar was built in 1837 in Jersey using some iron bolts. She had a Brigantine rig. The vessel was noted for its figurehead of a sailor with a naval cap and collar.[45] In 1845 the Jersey Tar was owned by J. du Caen of Jersey. She was involved in the Liverpool to Cadiz trade. J. de Caen was her master and she had 143 gross tons and 135 net tons.[46] The Jersey Tar does not appear in the 1850 Lloyd’s Register.

In 1853 and again in 1856 the Jersey Tar had some repairs. In 1858 the Jersey Tar had a new bottom installed.[47] In 1855 she was owned by McCarthy and J. McCarthy was her master. The port of registration was not given.[48] By 1858 she was owned by Walsh & Co. of Youghal with J. Sheppard as her master.[49] In 1860 the Jersey Tar was still owned by Walsh & Co. of Youghal while Donovan was her master. In 1860 she had 118 net tons.[50]

In 1865 the Jersey Tar was still owned by Walsh & Co. while Donovan was still her master. Her dimensions were given as 72.5 feet X 18.5 X 12.6 feet.[51] In 1872 the Jersey Tar was owned by J. Curtin of Youghal with Donovan as her master. She was then involved with the coastal trade.[52] In 1883 the vessel was owned by John McGrath of Youghal with Donovan as her master. She was involved in the coastal trade.[53] In 1885 the Jersey tar was still owned by John McGrath. Her registration number was 26767 and her signal hoist was PMLJ and she had 118 tons.[54] She disappeared in the records by 1887.

The Jersey Tar does not appear on the 1889 Lloyd’s register. It was possibly about that year that the Jersey Tar collided in fog with another vessel while on a passage from Cardiff to Youghal with coal. The Jersey Tar lost her job-boom and her bow was smashed to pieces but she managed to make it to Youghal. There the vessel was judged to be uneconomic to repair and local boat-builder, Dan Ahern, brought the spars and canvas. The Jersey Tar was towed to the ship’s graveyard by Green’s Quay.

A few years later the hulk of the Jersey Tar was towed out again into the harbour. The Blackwater Tourist Board operated a steamer service on the River Blackwater between Cappoquin and Youghal. But the Board had trouble berthing the steamer at Youghal at low tide. The Board had the idea of using the hulk of the Jersey Tar as a pontoon between the steamer and the quay wall but it was found unsuitable. To recover the cost of buying the Jersey Tar, the Board sold the hulk for scrap metal to Paddy Dunne, captain of the steamer. Paddy Dunne had expected to recover firewood and scrap-iron but instead got copper and brass all over. The holding bolts between the keel and the keelson were nearly three feet solid brass by one-and-a-half inch thick. Paddy Dunne made a small fortune and soon had his own fishing fleet and became a member of the Urban District Council.[55]

Later years: Youghal merchants, seamen and locals didn’t stop owning sailing vessels after 1860 but the records are more difficult to extract as Youghal lost its independent port of registration and came under the port of Cork instead. Later vessels owned by Youghal people include the B.I., Dart, Emily, Express, Nellie Fleming, and the Kathleen & May among a host of other vessels.

 

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[1] Lloyd’s Register, 1840, page 20

[2] Lloyd’s Register, 1855, page 21

[3] Lloyd’s Register, 1860, page 12

[4] Lloyd’s Register, 1858, page 75

[5] Lloyd’s Register, 1860, page 81

[6] Mercantile Navy List, 1865, p. 58

[7] Mercantile Navy List, 1870, p. 61

[8] Mercantile Navy List, 1872, p. 147

[9] O’Brien, N., Blackwater and Bride: Navigation and Trade, 7000 BC to 2007 (Ballyduff, 2008), p. 232

[10] Lloyd’s Register, 1860, page 86

[11] Mercantile Navy List, 1865, p. 63

[12] Mercantile Navy List, 1868, p. 67

[13] Irish, B., Shipbuilding in Waterford 1820-1882: A historical, technical and pictorial study (Bray, 2001), p. 102

[14] Lloyd’s Register, 1850, page 98

[15] Irish, Shipbuilding in Waterford 1820-1882: A historical, technical and pictorial study, p. 57

[16] Lloyd’s Register, 1855, page 105

[17] Lloyd’s Register, 1858, page 100

[18] Lloyd’s Register, 1860, page 108

[19] Lloyd’s Register, 1865, page 128

[20] Mercantile Navy List, 1868, p. 85

[21] Hayman, Rev. S., The hand-book of Youghal (Youghal, 1896, reprint Youghal, 1973), pp. xiv, xv

[22] Mercantile Navy List, 1868, p. 85

[23] Mercantile Navy List, 1870, p. 84

[24] Mercantile Navy List, 1878, p. 209

[25] O’Brien, Blackwater and Bride: Navigation and Trade, 7000 BC to 2007, p. 233

[26] Lloyd’s Register, 1858, page 131

[27] Lloyd’s Register, 1860, page 142

[28] Lloyd’s Register, 1865, page 161

[29] Lloyd’s Register, 1870, page 162

[30] Lloyd’s Register, 1898, page 129

[31] O’Brien, Blackwater and Bride: Navigation and Trade, 7000 BC to 2007, p. 233

[32] Lloyd’s Register, 1845, page 139

[33] Lloyd’s Register, 1858, page 138

[34] Lloyd’s Register, 1860, page 149

[35] Mercantile Navy List, 1870, p. 117

[36] Mercantile Navy List, 1872, p. 199

[37] Mercantile Navy List, 1874, p. 210; Mercantile Navy List, 1887, p. 307

[38] Lloyd’s Register, 1850, page 204

[39] Lloyd’s Register, 1855, page 215

[40] Lloyd’s Register, 1858, page 207

[41] Lloyd’s Register, 1860, page 220

[42] Lloyd’s Register, 1865, page 243

[43] Mercantile Navy List, 1870, p. 186

[44] Mercantile Navy List, 1874, p. 278

[45] Hackett, M., Sailors and Characters of Youghal (Youghal, 1996), p. 12

[46] Lloyd’s Register, 1845, page 224

[47] Lloyd’s Register, 1860, page 239

[48] Lloyd’s Register, 1855, page 234

[49] Lloyd’s Register, 1858, page 224

[50] Lloyd’s Register, 1860, page 239

[51] Lloyd’s Register, 1865, page 263

[52] Lloyd’s Register, 1872, page 269

[53] Lloyd’s Register, 1883, page 438

[54] Mercantile Navy List, 1885, p. 389

[55] Hackett, Sailors and Characters of Youghal, pp. 12, 13

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Cork history, Dublin History, General History, Political History

The road to an Irish national bank

The road to an Irish national bank

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

Up until the end of the seventeenth century banks were often establishments that were attached to another principal business such as a merchant business. The first stand-alone bank was founded in Cork in 1680 by Edward and Joseph Hoare. The Hoare brothers were city merchants who were extensively involved in overseas trade and foreign exchange.[1]

About the same time a Huguenot refugee, David Digues La Touche settled in Dublin. There he developed a successful cloth dealership and merchant business. In the early 1690s David La Touche opened a bank with other partners. Through David’s business contacts the bank grew beyond its Dublin base.[2]

But this growing banking sector was without a head. In 1694 the Bank of England was established as the national bank of that country. This was followed in 1695 by the Bank of Scotland as the national bank of that country. Although great efforts were made in 1695 to establish a national bank in Ireland no such institution was founded.[3]

In 1692 the Irish House of Commons claimed ‘sole right’ to initiate financial legislation.[4]

In the years since 1680 many of the newly formed banks in Dublin, Cork and half a dozen other towns were both innovative and versatile in their business accruement. Among the activities of the banks was the remitting of large sums of money around the country, and between Ireland and England for merchants, landlords and government agencies. The banks also provided much needed short-term credit to merchants by issuing their own bank notes for bills of exchange prior to maturity.[5]

One characteristic of the early eighteenth century banks was their embodiment of merchant and landlord interest in mutual benefit.[6] The forthcoming debate on a national bank would test this mutual involvement.

Beginning in 1719 another attempt was made at forming a national bank. In 1720 about thirteen members of the House of Commons held senior positions within the Irish revenue service.[7] In December 1721 Lord Chancellor Midleton described a group of MPs as being ‘dependents on the Custom house’ during the final days of the national bank debate.[8] But the monetary interest in setting up a national bank was not as strong as the landed gentry block in the House of Commons.

On 9th December 1721 the Irish House of Commons voted on the issue of a national bank. The proposal for a national bank was defeated but the margin of the defeat is in some dispute. Two documents among the Rosse Papers give different votes. One document claims that one hundred and fifty members voted against and eighty voted for the bank but the other document said that one hundred and fifty-two voted against with ninety-eight for the proposal.[9] The divisional list among the Midleton papers at the Surrey History Centre (MS 1248/5, ff 105-6), records a different vote, but the same result.[10]

 

Parliament house dublin

Parliament House, Dublin and later HQ of the Bank of Ireland

The defeat of the national bank proposal was a telling display of the landed gentry’s dominance of parliament. There was no countervailing ‘moneyed interest’ as at Westminster.[11]

The failure to establish a national bank in Ireland was highlighted in a big way in 1722 with the granting of a royal patent to William Wood to coin copper halfpence pieces.[12] William Wood, a Wolverhampton manufacturer, was licenced to produce £100,800 worth of coins.[13] Lord Justice King and the Irish revenue commissioners separately wrote to the government with strong objects. They warned that the patent would be strongly opposed in Ireland because such a large production of copper coins would destroy the Irish economy.[14]

The political establishment in Ireland united in near one voice in opposition to the Wood patent. Both Houses of Parliament passed resolutions against it and members of the Privy Council and the revenue commissioners refused to use the coins in official receipts and payments.[15] When the Irish Parliament met in September 1732 opposition had become so strong that nobody would defend the patent in public. Even the government’s chief parliamentary manager, Speaker William Connolly, refused to defend the government’s position.[16] The London ministry of Sir Robert Walpole promised to reduce the amount of coins to £40,000 but the opposition remained firm. The patent was eventually cancelled in September 1725.[17]

In 1757 the Irish Parliament passed the Banking Act. One of the Act’s chief provisions was the exclusion of wholesale merchants from the business of private banking. This Act was possibly a reaction of fear by many Protestant landlords at the growing number of prosperous Catholic merchants across the country. Yet even after decades of economic growth by 1775 less than a third of Dublin merchants were Catholic and less the a quarter were so in Cork.[18] But, as in many other times and issues, perception is always a more powerful mover in times of fear than hard facts.

A consequence of this Act was that the surviving older banks and the small number of new banks founded after 1757 were primarily ‘conservative money-moving agencies’ and very reluctant providers of merchant credit.[19]

The old proposal for a national bank resurfaced amidst the economic crisis of 1778-1780. In 1778 three leading Dublin banks had gone bankrupt. Yet the supporters of the new proposal view the established of the bank as a patriotic measure. By 1781 the government came to see the national bank, along the lines of the Bank of England, as a necessary economic measure. In contrast to the 1720 proposal the landed gentry supported the 1780 scheme.[20] The pockets of the gentry had suffered during the crisis of 1778-1780 and money or even the lack of it always talks and persuades the most reluctant of people.

In 1783 Ireland finally got a national bank when the Bank of Ireland was established by royal charter. One of the Bank’s perks was that it was the only bank within a 50-mile radius with a licence to print its own bank notes. The Bank soon became the government’s banker as well as forming a number of public and commercial functions. Yet it did not establish branches within or outside Dublin.[21] After the Act of Union of 1800 ended the independent Irish parliament, the Bank of Ireland purchased the disused parliament building in College Green for its own headquarter. Yet a fully fledged central bank did not come into existence until 1943 with the formation of the Central Bank of Ireland.[22]

 

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End of post

 

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[1] Ollerenshaw, P., ‘Banking’, in Connolly, S.J. (ed.), The Oxford companion to Irish History (Oxford, 1998), p. 36

[2] Ollerenshaw, ‘Banking’, in The Oxford companion to Irish History, p. 36

[3] Ollerenshaw, ‘Banking’, in The Oxford companion to Irish History, p. 36

[4] McNally, P., Parties, Patriots & Undertakers: parliamentary politics in early Hanoverian Ireland (Dublin, 1997), p. 191 accessed 3rd March 2014

[5] Dickson, D., New Foundations: Ireland 1660-1800 (Dublin, 2000), p. 135

[6] Dickson, New Foundations: Ireland 1660-1800, p. 135

[7] McNally, Parties, Patriots & Undertakers, p. 114

[8] McNally, Parties, Patriots & Undertakers, p. 114

[9] Malcomson, A.P.W. (ed.), Calendar of the Rosse Papers (Dublin, 2008), pp. 235-38

[10] Malcomson (ed.), Calendar of the Rosse Papers, p. 235

[11] Dickson, New Foundations: Ireland 1660-1800, p. 86

[12] McNally, Parties, Patriots & Undertakers, p. 127

[13] Anon, ‘Wood’s Halfpence controversy (1722-5)’, in Connolly, S.J. (ed.), The Oxford companion to Irish History, p. 598

[14] McNally, Parties, Patriots & Undertakers, p. 127

[15] Anon, ‘Wood’s Halfpence controversy (1722-5)’, in The Oxford companion to Irish History, p. 598

[16] McNally, Parties, Patriots & Undertakers, p. 127

[17] Anon, ‘Wood’s Halfpence controversy (1722-5)’, in The Oxford companion to Irish History, p. 598

[18] Dickson, New Foundations: Ireland 1660-1800, pp. 86, 134

[19] Dickson, New Foundations: Ireland 1660-1800, pp. 86, 135-6

[20] Dickson, New Foundations: Ireland 1660-1800, pp. 184-5

[21] Ollerenshaw, ‘Banking’, in The Oxford companion to Irish History, p. 36

[22] Ollerenshaw, ‘Banking’, in The Oxford companion to Irish History, p. 37

Standard
Cork history, Maritime History

Captain George Farmer, RN: Life and family

Captain George Farmer, RN: Life and family

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

 

It is said that Captain George Farmer, Royal Navy (1732-1779), was the son of John Farmer from Northamptonshire who settled in Youghal at the start of the eighteenth century.[1] Records show that John Farmer was not the first person of that name to live in Youghal and his family may have lived there previous to John’s time.

Farmer in Ireland

In 1655 another person called John Farmer was named as a witness to a conveyance by Cornet Robert Gough of land at Waseshayes, Co. Kilkenny, to Lieutenant Allen Trench of the same county.[2] In 1656 Thomas Farmer was named among the disbanded soldiers that were owed money by the Commonwealth government. Thomas was owed £45 15s 3d to be paid for out of confiscated lands in Limerick and Kerry.[3] Thomas Farmer may possibly be the Thomas Farmer and his wife Elizabeth who in 1666 were executors to the will of Captain Thomas Carrick and were challenged over property in Dublin by Sir Richard Gethin and others.[4] In 1686 the will of Major Jasper Farmer was proved in which was named his sons in America; Edward, John, Robert and Charles along with his sons in Ireland; Richard and Samuel.[5] Jasper Farmer is said to have died at sea coming from Pennsylvania to Ireland.[6] In 1691 Richard Farmer of Ardra in the Barony of Imokilly, Co. Cork (will proved 1691) was the brother of Samuel Farmer and the nephew of Captain John Wakeham. Richard Farmer was also the brother-in-law of Onesipherus Phair.[7] Richard’s wife was Elizabeth Phair (daughter of Colonel Robert Phair, died 1682) who was still alive in 1707.[8]

Colonel Robert Phair was born c.1619 at Kilshannig, Co. Cork, the son of the local vicar. At first he fought for the English in Munster in the 1640s before he was sent to England as part of a prisoner exchange. There he befriended Oliver Cromwell and was one of the three officers who were named in the warrant of execution of King Charles the First. In 1649-50 Robert Phair led the Cromwellian attack on Youghal which captured the town.[9]

Richard Farmer of Ardra was the father of Jasper Farmer of Ardevolane, Co. Tipperary (who died in 1707, will proved in 1715). This Jasper Farmer was the father of Richard Farmer (died 1739).[10] Jasper Farmer also had a daughter called Anne Farmer. Jasper Farmer was also the brother of Robert Farmer of Inch, Co. Cork (to whom Jasper left his share in the Enniscorthy iron works) and John Farmer and a relation of Samuel Farmer of Ballymacoda, near Youghal. Jasper Farmer left £20 to his mother Elizabeth Farmer.[11] Robert Farmer was possibly the father of Hovel Farmer who entered Trinity College Dublin in 1733.[12]

Farmer in Youghal

In 1685 Samuel Farmer was one of the two bailiffs of Youghal and in August 1711 Samuel Farmer was sworn as a member of the Common Council of Youghal and was a member also in 1716.[13] In 1693 Thomas Farmer was a member of the Common Council of Youghal and in 1711 he was bailiff of Youghal.[14] In 1724, Mary Farmer, a widow from Youghal, died leaving three sons; Thomas, Anthony and John.[15]

John Farmer

John Farmer was described as a descendent of a Northamptonshire family that settled in Youghal, Co. Cork.[16] In 1704 John Farmer was a bailiff of Youghal. In 1712 John Farmer was named among the freemen of Youghal and a member of the Common Council in 1712 and 1718. He was possibly the John Fennell Farmer named as a merchant of Youghal in 1720-23. In 1722 John Farmer (town bailiff) participated in a second gathering of town voters that elected Edward Lawndy as mayor after the majority of the Common Council had elected Henry Ball as mayor. The Lord Justices ordered a fresh election at which Henry Ball became mayor.[17] In 1734 John Farmer junior became one of the two wardens elected to the revived Company of Merchants and Mercers of Youghal.[18] John Farmer, mariner of Youghal, died in 1735 with his will proved in October of 1735. In the will he named his son John junior. Also mentioned were the sisters of John senior, Anne, Mary and Mrs. Pratt and his nephew Jeremiah Pratt and niece Mary Pratt.[19] Another of John Farmer’s sons, George Farmer, [B1] became a celebrated captain in the Royal Navy.[20]

Captain George Farmer

Captain George Farmer was born in 1732. At an early age he went to sea in the merchant navy. Later George Farmer entered the Royal Navy, serving as a midshipman on HMS Dreadnought aboard which he saw service in the West Indies. He later returned to England to serve on the home station aboard HMS Achilles. In May 1759 he was promoted to be lieutenant of the frigate HMS Aurora, in which he served until January 1761 on the home station.[21]

In 1761 George Farmer was placed on half-pay, and settled for the time in Norwich, where he had been previously employed on the impress service. The Royal Navy was a vital institution to defend Britain’s growing overseas empire and important trade routes. Between 1739 and 1815 the navy grew from 23,000 to 145,000 sailors. The French had adopted conscription (where 18 year olds around her coast served one year in every three) to fill her navy. The British saw this as too centralised and government controlled. Instead the Royal Navy adopted the impress system where seaworthy people were picked up from merchant ships, quayside pubs and seaport prisons. Men were often offered a bounty, paid up-front, to serve in the navy which allowed the seaman’s family to live on something while the breadwinner was absent overseas. It is estimated that about 44% of sailors employed during the American War of Independence were impressed sailors.[22]

 

800px-George_Farmer_by_Charles_Grignion

George Farmer by Charles Grignion

Captain Farmer and family

Shortly after settling in Norwich, George Farmer got married to Rebecca, daughter of Captain William Fleming of the Royal Navy. The couple had at least eight children. In 1766 he is said to have given assistance in suppressing a riot in Norwich, and to have been promoted to the rank of commander in May 1768, in consequence of the representations of the local magistrates.[23]

Captain Farmer and the Falklands Crisis, 1770

George Farmer had no active employment till September 1769, when he was appointed to command the 14-gun sloop HMS Swift. The Spanish had been attempting settlements on the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic and threatening the small English settlement there. Captain Farmer was sent to the Falkland Islands, where, on his arrival in the following March, he found that the Spanish had established themselves at Puerto Soledad.[24] The Falkland Islands were noted by English seafarers in the 1590s and by the French in the early eighteenth century. In 1764 the French established a settlement on East Falkland called St. Louis. This was followed in 1766 by an English settlement on West Falkland called Port Egmont.[25] Shortly after the Spanish ordered the English to quit the settlement, precipitating the Falklands Crisis. As there was no English force to resist any aggression, the senior officer, Captain Hunt, decided to go to England with the news, leaving Farmer in command.[26]

A few days after arriving at the Falkland Islands, the Swift sailed for a cruise round the islands; but in a gale was blown over to the coast of Patagonia, and in attempting to go into Port Desire struck on a rock, and was lost. The crew escaped to the shore, but being entirely destitute Farmer despatched the cutter to Port Egmont with orders to the only remaining ship, HMS Favourite, to come to their relief. On 16 April 1770 they arrived safely back at Port Egmont. The Spanish saw that the English were in trouble decided to put on the pressure.

On 4 June 1770 a Spanish frigate anchored in Port Egmont and was shortly followed by four other vessels, and the Spanish commandant wrote to Farmer to quit his position. Captain George Farmer replied that he would defend his position. With this the Spanish landed on the island at which George Farmer gave a few volleys of his guns. But seeing that the odds of victory were too much he capitulated on terms, The English were permitted to return home on the Favourite.[27]

This withdrawal from the Falkland Islands was not a good start for the new administration of Lord North. The prime minister already had a crisis in the American colonies after soldiers fired on a threatening mod in March 1770, killing five people, began a wave of protest with the people demanding the withdrawal of British troops from American.[28] By the autumn of 1770 the Royal Navy was impressing seamen for an expedition to the Falkland Islands. At Bristol 92 people volunteered for service by the 15th December 1770 before the press gangs began operations and increased recruitment to about 200 per week. During the crisis about 29% of all sailors recruited at Bristol for the Falkland Islands were impressed. By January 1771 HMS Aldborough and HMS Folkstone were ready to sail with 240 sailors to the Falklands with the support ship the Andrew hired for six months service.[29] Although France had being allied to Spain at the start of the Falkland crisis, the sight of the Royal Navy preparing to send a task force to the South Atlantic gave them cold feet and King Louis XVI told Spain he was not going to war over a faraway place of which he knew little about. Spain then approached Britain for a deal which was accepted. Spain returned Port Egmont to England and retained Puerto Soledad. Spain later claimed that Britain agreed to permanently leave the Falklands but this was denied. In 1774, due to the escalating cost of the American war, Britain evacuated the garrison at Port Egmont while leaving behind a plague to assert British sovereignty.[30]

Meanwhile the French gave up their settlement to the Spanish and the British didn’t reinvade the Falklands. The developing crisis in the American colonies diverted attention and resources. In 1820 the Republic of Buenos Ayres took possession of the Falkland Islands. Britain now saw the value of the Falkland Islands for southern whalers and as a strategic point around South America and in 1829 lodged an objection. In 1837 the Republic of Buenos Ayres gave up the islands to Britain and in 1844 Port Stanley was built.[31]

George Farmer back in England

After arriving home in September 1770, George Farmer, on being acquitted of all blame for the loss of the Swift, and was appointed commander of the sloop HMS Tamar. In August 1773 he was appointed to the HMS Seahorse, and sailed for the East Indies, having among his company Horatio Nelson, a midshipman.[32]

George Farmer and HMS Quebec

On returning to England after an uneventful commission, George Farmer was appointed in March 1778 to the HMS Quebec, doing service in the North Sea. In 1779 he was stationed chiefly at Guernsey as a guard for the Channel Islands. While there on 18 June 1779 George Farmer sent word that the French fleet had sailed from Brest and the Spanish fleet had sailed from Cadiz with the purpose of invasion.[33] France and Spain were at time aiding the American colonies in their War of Independence. In 1778 France recognised the independence of the American colonies and formed an military alliance with same.[34]

On 6 July 1779 George Farmer engaged a convoy of forty-nine foreign small vessels, with a 20-gun frigate and several armed vessels. After beginning action the Quebec got struck heavily on the rocks, and had to throw her guns overboard to make good an escape. On reaching Portsmouth it was found that there were no 12-pounders to replace the lost guns and George Farmer had to use 9-pounders taken from another frigate which was not ready for sea.[35]

With this reduced armament the Quebec met the French frigate Surveillante on 6 October 1779 off Ushant. After a sharp action of about three and a half hours both ships were dismasted; but the Quebec’s sails fell over the guns and the vessel was soon ablaze. There was little wind and a great swell other vessels nearby found it impossible to help the burning frigate, which after five hours blew up. Later sixty-six crew members (out of 195 on board) were picked up by the Surveillante, the HMS Rambler, and by a Russian vessel that came on the scene.[36]

The baronetcy created

Captain George Farmer went down with his ship. Later reports said that his conduct both in the action and during the fire was admired. At the special request of the Board of Admiralty, a baronetcy was conferred on his eldest son, then 17 years of age; also a pension of £200 a year to his widow, Rebecca, and of £25 per annum to each of eight children, and a ninth not yet born.[37]

George Farmer, 1st Baronet

Sir George Farmer, 1st Baronet (c. 1762-1814) lived at Mount Pleasant in Sussex and served in the navy like his father. In October 1786 he married Sophia, 3rd daughter of Richard Kenrick. They had one son and three daughters.[38] The 1st Baronet died in 1814 after a fall from his gig. For a while it was thought that the baronet was extinct.[39] But later George’s only son, George Richard Farmer, was allowed to succeed.[40]

George Farmer, 2nd Baronet

Sir George Richard Farmer, 2nd Baronet was born in 1788.[41] The 2nd Baronet lived for much of his life at Bideford in Devon.[42] In 1825 George Richard Farmer married Irene, daughter of George Farmer Ellis, esquire, of Youghal, Co. Cork.[43] He was possibly as relation of Francis Ellis, treasurer of Youghal from 1787 to 1795.[44] George Farmer Ellis was a relation of the Farmer family. Martha Farmer of Cork, a spinster, described George Ellis as her nephew in her will of 1807. Martha also mentioned her deceased sister Elizabeth Farmer of Youghal and her brother Jeremiah Farmer, late surgeon in the East India Company.[45] The 2nd Baronet died in 1855 and was succeeded by his eldest son, George Farmer.

George Farmer, 3rd Baronet

Sir George Farmer, 3rd Baronet was born in 1829. He lived at Hobart in Tasmania and later lived at Soho Villa in Reading.[46] The 3rd Baronet died in 1883.

George Farmer, 4th Baronet

Sir George Richard Hugh Farmer, 4th Baronet (1873-1891)

Richard Farmer, 5th Baronet

Sir Richard Henry Kenrick Farmer, 5th Baronet was born in 1841. He was a son of George Richard Farmer, 2nd Baronet.[47] The 5th and last Baronet died in 1913.

 

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[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Farmer_(Royal_Navy_officer) accessed on 31 August 2013

[2] Ainsworth, J. & MacLysaght, E. (eds.), ‘Survey of documents in private keeping’, in Analecta Hibernica, No. 20 (1958), p. 239

[3] Ainsworth, J. (ed.), ‘Survey of documents in private keeping’, in Analecta Hibernica, No. 25 (1967), no. 514

[4] Refausse, R., ‘Welply’s Abstracts of Chancery Bills 1601-1801’, in The Irish Genealogist, Vol. 7, No. 2 (1987), pp. 166-185, at p. 167, no. 15

[5] Casey, A.E., & O’Dowling, T. (eds.), OKief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 631

[6] Refausse, R., ‘Welply’s Abstracts of Chancery Bills 1601-1801’, pp. 166-185, at p. 173, no. 78

[7] Casey, A.E., & O’Dowling, T. (eds.), OKief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 631

[8] Casey & O’Dowling (eds.), OKief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater, vol. 14, p. 659

[9] Cadogan, T., & Falvey, J., A biographical dictionary of Cork (Dublin, 2006), p. 181

[10] Refausse, R., ‘Welply’s Abstracts of Chancery Bills 1601-1801’, pp. 166-185, at p. 178, no. 125

[11] Casey & O’Dowling (eds.), OKief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater, vol. 14, p. 631

[12] Burtchaell, G.D., & Sadleir, T.U. (ed.), Alumni Dublinenses (Bristol, 2001), p. 273

[13] Caulfield, R. (ed.), The Council Book of the Corporation of Youghal (Guildford, 1878), pp. 401, 408, 620

[14] Caulfield (ed.), The Council Book of the Corporation of Youghal, pp. 391, 401

[15] Casey & O’Dowling (eds.), OKief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater, vol. 14, p. 640

[16] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Farmer_(Royal_Navy_officer) accessed on 31 August 2013

[17] Caulfield (ed.), The Council Book of the Corporation of Youghal, pp. lx, 402, 404, 412, 419, 621

[18] Caulfield (ed.), The Council Book of the Corporation of Youghal, p. 435

[19] Casey & O’Dowling (eds.), OKief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater, vol. 14, p. 640

[20] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Farmer_(Royal_Navy_officer) accessed on 31 August 2013

[21] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Farmer_(Royal_Navy_officer) accessed on 31 August 2013

[22] Rogers, N. (ed.), Manning the Royal Navy in Bristol: liberty, impressment and the state, 1739-1815 (Bristol Record Society, Vol. 66, 2014), pp. xi, xii

[23] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Farmer_(Royal_Navy_officer) accessed on 31 August 2013

[24] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Farmer_(Royal_Navy_officer) accessed on 31 August 2013

[25] Anon, ‘Falkland Islands’, in The National Encyclopaedia (London, 1870), pp. 118-120, at p. 120

[26] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Farmer_(Royal_Navy_officer) accessed on 31 August 2013

[27] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Farmer_(Royal_Navy_officer) accessed on 31 August 2013

[28] Ransome, C., History of England, 1603-1910 (London, 1910), p. 820

[29] Rogers (ed.), Manning the Royal Navy in Bristol: liberty, impressment and the state, 1739-1815, pp. xii, 85, 87

[30]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falklands_Crisis_(1770) accessed on 17th December 2018

[31] Anon, ‘Falkland Islands’, in The National Encyclopaedia (London, 1870), pp. 118-120, at p. 120

[32] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Farmer_(Royal_Navy_officer) accessed on 31 August 2013

[33] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Farmer_(Royal_Navy_officer) accessed on 31 August 2013

[34] Gordon, I, Admiral of the Blue: The Life and Times of Admiral John Child Purvis, 1747-1825 (Barnsley, 2005), pp. 7, 8

[35] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Farmer_(Royal_Navy_officer) accessed on 31 August 2013

[36] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Farmer_(Royal_Navy_officer) accessed on 31 August 2013

[37] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Farmer_(Royal_Navy_officer) accessed on 31 August 2013

[38] Courthope, W. (ed.), Debrett’s Baronetage of England (London, 1835), p. 214

[39] Stockdale, W., The present baronetage of the United Kingdom (London, 1820), p. 58

[40] Lodge, E., The peerage of the British Empire (London, 1843), p. 596

[41] Lodge, The peerage of the British Empire, p. 596

[42] Walford, E., The County Families of the United Kingdom (London, 1860), p. 218

[43] Lodge, The peerage of the British Empire, p. 596

[44] Caulfield (ed.), The Council Book of the Corporation of Youghal, pp. 514, 531

[45] Casey & O’Dowling (eds.), OKief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater, vol. 14, p. 648

[46] Walford, The County Families of the United Kingdom, p. 218

[47] Walford, The County Families of the United Kingdom, p. 218

Standard
Cork history

Clondulane flour mill

Clondulane flour mill

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

 

In the townland of Clondulane North, by the south bank of the River Blackwater, in the civil parish of Clondulane, lie the large ruins of a nineteenth century flour mill. The mill is sometimes referred to as Glandalane mill. The extensive Clondulane flour mill was said to have been built by Stephen Moore, 2nd Earl of Mount Cashell (b.1770, s.1790, d.1822). The Earl also built a weir at Poulshane on the River Blackwater with a mill race to provide power for the mill.[1]

The growth in tillage

From the 1760s onwards there was a change in the nature of Munster agriculture. Cereal prices began to increase and tillage farming expanded after years of stagnation. The Dublin trade was the first point of sale for these grain crops but soon demand for oats and wheat came from England. In the north Cork area after 1780 wheat cultivation began to change the landscape. Many landlords invested in the construction of large flour mills and by the 1820s Fermoy (the new town of John Anderson) was regarded as the largest inland market in south Munster for wheat and oats.[2] The Clondulane mill was part of this expansion of tillage production and an important part of the local wheat and flour trade.

The mill building

The mill race is about 200 meters long and the mill building varies from six to seven stories. The window openings were arched with stone and later repaired with brick arches. By the 1980s the interior of the mill building was empty except for some trees and ivy. Some of the gearing machines were still visible in the wheelhouse.[3]

In 1848 the dimensions of the mill building were given as 40 feet long by 26 feet wide and 58.6 feet high. The mill wheel at that time was made of iron and measured 20 feet in diameter by 12 feet in breath with an 8 foot fall of water into the wheel pit.[4]

 

800px-Stephen_Moore,_Vanity_Fair,_1883-09-08

Stephen Moore, 3rd Earl of Mount Cashell

Robert Briscoe & Clondulane mill

In 1837 the mill was managed by Robert Briscoe of Fermoy. At that time the mill employed about 30 people and was capable of producing annually about 20,000 bags of flour. Clondulane parish (4,738 acres) was described as chiefly in tillage with also considerable areas under meadow and pasture.[5]

Sometime before 1845 Stephen Moore, 3rd Earl of Mount Cashell (b.1792, s.1822, d.1883), is accredited with building a corn mill at Glandalane.[6] Slater’s Postal Directory for 1846 described the mill as ‘extensive’ and built by the late Earl. In about 1856 Edward Kiley Carey had a corn mill (worth £7) in the townland of Careysville.[7] Careysville townland is just immediately to the east of Clondulane North townland where the Mount Cashell flour mill was situated. In the 1840 Ordinance Survey map the flour mill is shown but no corn mill is marked.

In about 1848 Robert Briscoe was leasee of Clondulane flour mill, then worth £25 15s. In about 1856 Robert Briscoe still rented the Clondulane flour mill from the Earl of Mount Cashell. The mill was then worth £96. Robert Briscoe was then living in Glandalane house, immediately to the west of the flour mill.[8] The large increase in the valuation of the flour mill between 1848 and 1856 was a significant investment in the dark days of the Great Famine. The investment was no doubt a great help in providing local employment as construction workers and employment at the expanded mill.

After Robert Briscoe the Clondulane mill was leased and managed by Henry Smith. The wheel dimensions were maintained under Henry Smith.[9] Slater’s Postal Directory for 1846 says that Henry Smyth was operating the mill at that time but this may be the corn mill owned by Edward Carey as Robert Briscoe still had the Clondulane mill in the early 1850s. in 1856 the lands of Clondulane were offered for sale as part of the Encumbered Estates Court as the Earl of Mount Cashell was heavily bankrupt.[10]

The Hallinan family & Clondulane mill

In 1875 John Hallinan was the leasee of Clondulane flour mill. The mill not only received wheat from neighbouring farmers but now was served by three trains a day on the new Fermoy and Lismore Railway. This railway joined the Great Southern & Western Railway line linking Fermoy to Mallow.[11]

In 1886 the firm of T. Hallinan and Sons operated the Clondulane flour mill.[12]

By the early twentieth century the Clondulane mill was using the railway station at Clondulane to import wheat from Manitoba to mix with local wheat to produce highly acclaimed flour. An aerial ropeway was constructed on derricks which carried the wheat from the station to the mill and the returning baskets from flour to the station for sale around Ireland.[13] The aerial wire rope-way was about 700 meters long and was marked on the 1935 Ordinance Survey map.[14] The railway also allowed the mill to buy large quantities of coal (about 40 to 160 tons a week). The stations at Ballyduff and Tallow only handled about 2 to 10 tons. Lismore station only managed about 30 to 100 tons.[15] This coal must have provided additional power to the mill when water levels were low or when the mill was working at top capacity.

Workers at the mill in 1911

In the 1911 census Joseph Hallinan (aged 46) was the miller in charge of Clondulane flour mill. Joseph Hallinan was born in May 1864 as the second son of Timothy Hallinan. Joseph Hallinan, January 1986, Muriel, daughter Col. Frederick Bell of Fermoy and ded in December 1954 leaving two sons (Donough and Hugh) and two daughters (Muriel and Ruth).[16] Ruth Hallinan was the last of her family to live in Glandalane House and was noted for flying a monoplane to visit friends in the neighbouring estates.[17]

In 1911 Maurice Twomey (45) was a store keeper at the mill. John J. Hallinan (30), Edmund Murphy (40), Stephen Barry (46), Patrick Ronan (50), Jeremiah Power (15), James O’Brien (26), John Leahy (34), Thomas Hallinan (60), John Fitzgerald (27), William Coleman (50), Edmund Thornberry (23), James Fanning (51), James Fanning (18), John Fanning (16), and John Kelleher (18) were mill labourers. William Crosse (38) was described as a ‘mill operator’ while Robert Crosse (39) and Albert Crosse (25) were millers. All these people lived in the two townlands of Clondulane North and Clondulane South.

Also working at the mill according to the 1911 census were Thomas Swaine (36) and John Swaine (40), both from Careysville, with Denis Twomey (50, a carrier) and Charles Quaid (21, a commercial clerk), both from Bettyville; along with Denis Egan (26), Thomas Egan (15), and Patrick Mulcahy (36), from Garrynoe and Patrick Madden (42) Patrick Bransfield (34) both from Kilbarry, all mill labourers.[18] In the period before his arrest in 1919, Michael Fitzgerald, C.O. of the Fermoy Battalion of the Irish Volunteers, worked for a time at the Clondulane flour mill.[19]

The mill in trouble

In the 1920s the Clondulane mill faced increased competition from foreign flour supplies and employment at the mill was under treat. By early 1928 the mill was virtually closed. On 23rd May 1928 William Kent T.D. (National Centre Party, Cork East), asked the Minister of Commerce (Patrick McGilligan) what he was going to do about foreign suppliers dumping flour on the Irish market. The Minister was aware that the mill was closed but when the Irish Flour Millers Association was asked about foreign dumping they could supply no evidence to justify application of custom duties.[20] In the 1937 Dáil debate on agriculture it was mentioned how the Clondulane mill had closed in 1931 due to government actions but reopened after the Fianna Fail government had placed a ban on flour imports.[21]

In 1934 and 1945 the firm of T. Hallinan & Sons operated a number of mills around Co. Cork (at Midleton and Mallow), including the Clondulane mill.[22]

The end of Clondulane mill

In the 1950s the Cork Milling Company had become owners of the Clondulane mill but they made little investments. By 1953 they had closed the mill. In July 1953 Martin Corry, T.D. (Fianna Fail, Cork North-East), asked the Minister of Commerce (Sean Lemass) concerning the reopening Clondulane mill and if the Cork Milling Company would not open it, could the Minster find another owner willing to do so.[23] But little positive action was taken. By the 1960s the mill buildings were idle and nature was recovering the landscape with trees and ivy. A local builder, Dan Noonan, made a bargain with the mill owners to remove the floor and roof timbers. The removal of the roof meant the owners didn’t have to pay rates on the building and this was a great saving for a building that had ceased to generate its own income.

Removing Clondulane mill weir

In 2006 an order of the Minster of Public Works was made to remove the weir at Clondulane as it was said that the weir was a major barrier for the migration of fish up the River Blackwater. European legislation was used to back up the order for removal. But the Duke of Devonshire (owner of the neighbouring Careysville estate – an important fishing centre on the river) and others objected that removal would damage their businesses without being of any great benefit to the migrating fish. Further government orders to remove the weir were made without effect. In 2018 a new government order was made to remove the weir.

If the weir is removed then the water entering the Clondulane mill race will be much reduced and make ineffective any attempt to reused the old mill buildings for the generation of hydro-electric power. It would be the end of an era in which Clondulane flour mill was not just of local importance but a business that covered the country and crossed the Atlantic in its influence.

 

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[1] Power, B., Fermoy on the Blackwater (Mitchelstown, 2009), p. 28; Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of the Parishes, Towns and Villages of Cork City and County, Cadogan, T. (ed.), (Wilton, 1998), p. 115

[2] Dickson, D., Old World Colony: Cork and South Munster 1630-1830 (Wilton, 1998), pp. 283, 284

[3] Power, D., Lane, S., and others, Archaeological Inventory of County Cork, Vol. IV – North Cork, part 2 (Dublin, 2000), no. 15206

[4] Hogg, W.E., The Millers and Mills of Ireland (Dublin, 2011), Co. Cork, Clondulane North townland

[5] Power, B., Fermoy on the Blackwater (Mitchelstown, 2009), p. 28. Information based on that published by Samuel Lewis in his Topographical Dictionary of Ireland (2 vols. London 1837).

[6] Wilson, C.A., A new lease on life: Landlords, Tenants & Immigrants in Ireland & Canada (Montreal, 1994), p. 37

[7] Griffith’s Valuation, Co. Cork, Condons & Clangibbon barony, Clondulane parish, Careysville townland

[8] Griffith’s Valuation, Co. Cork, Condons & Clangibbon barony, Clondulane parish, Clondulane North townland

[9] Hogg, W.E., The Millers and Mills of Ireland (Dublin, 2011), Co. Cork, Clondulane North townland

[10] http://allens-ucs.com/page/8/ [accessed on 8th December 2018]

[11] Guy’s Postal Directory, 1875, pp. 217, 221 under Fermoy

[12] Guy’s Postal Directory, 1886, p. 482 under Fermoy

[13] Pochin Mould, D.D.C., Discovering Cork (Dingle, 1991), p. 160

[14] Power, Lane, & others, Archaeological Inventory of County Cork, Vol. IV – North Cork, part 2, no. 15206

[15] Waterford County Archives, Lismore Papers, Fermoy & Lismore Railway, IE/WCA/PP/LISM/811 and IE/WCA/PP/LISM/817

[16] Burke’s Irish Family Records, 1976, p. 545

[17] Hajba, A.M., Houses of Cork, Vol. 1 – North (Whitegate, Co. Clare, 2002), p. 177

[18] 1911 census for the Coole District Electoral Division at http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/pages/1911/ [accessed on 8th December 2018]

[19] http://fermoyireland.50megs.com/FITZGERALD_Michael.htm [accessed on 8th December 2018]

[20] https://www.oireachtas.ie/en/debates/debate/dail/1928-05-23/17/ [accessed on 8th December 2018]

[21] http://oireachtasdebates.oireachtas.ie/debates%20authoring/debateswebpack.nsf/takes/dail1937111000064?opendocument [accessed on 17th September 2017]

[22] Thom’s Directory of Ireland, 1934, p. 2693; Guy’s Postal Directory, 1945, p. 207

[23] http://oireachtasdebates.oireachtas.ie/debates%20authoring/debateswebpack.nsf/takes/dail1953072900006?opendocument [accessed on 17th September 2017]

Standard
Biography, Cork history, Dublin History

As I was going down Sackville Street in the 18th Century

As I was going down Sackville Street in the 18th Century

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

 

Sackville Street, or O’Connell Street as it is known today, was built about 1750 as part of a redevelopment of the area by Luke Gardiner who, in 1714, had acquired ownership of the St. Mary’s abbey estate from Viscount Moore, Earl of Drogheda. Luke Gardiner demolished the existing houses on the west side of Drogheda Street and widened the street by 150 feet creating a green mall down the centre known as Gardiner’s Mall.[1] The new street was named for Lionel Cranfield Sackville, 1st Duke of Dorset and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in 1731-37 and again in 1751-55. Fine quality houses were built on the east side for professional people and members of parliament. In 1752 Nathaniel Clements was an early investor in the Sackville Street project and built a fine town house on the street (later known as Leitrim House) on a plot he leased from Luke Gardiner. Nathaniel Clements later brought the fee simple of the property for £722 and lived in the house until 1765. Nathaniel Clements also owned two other houses in Sackville Street one of which he leased out while the other was occupied by Clement’s son, Robert Clements. In 1755 Luke Gardiner made Nathaniel Clements the sole trustee of Gardiner’s Mall. Sometime before 1754 Nathaniel Clements was offered the option of buying two houses on the east side of Sackville Street by Robert Handcock of Westmeath (the houses were designed by John Ensor), for £3,080 but declined.[2]

In the beginning Sackville Street was an enclosed rectangular street. In 1777 the Wide Streets Commission got a grant to extend the street to the River Liffey by knocking down the row of houses blocking the south end of the street. In 1782 the Commissioners got a grant of £15,000 to build Sackville Bridge (now O’Connell Bridge). The new bridge was completed in 1795 but extending Sackville Street (known as Lower Sackville Street) was still to be finished.[3] The quality of the houses in Lower Sackville Street didn’t match those of Upper Sackville Street. The army used some of these houses as a barracks but in 1802 the buildings collapsed, fortunately without loss of life.[4] The houses that occupied the site of the later GPO were so shaky that they could fall down without their residents having time to escape.[5]

The article recounts the story of some of the people who lived in Sackville Street in the eighteenth century using principally the information contained in the parish registers of St. Thomas.

The first people we find in the register of the parish of St. Thomas as living on Sackville Street were Michael and Sarah Ternan. On 28th September 1764 they presented their daughter, Jennet, for baptism in the parish church.[6]

Beatty

On 26th May 1773 Richard, son of Richard and Elizabeth Beatty of Sackville Street, was baptised in the church of St. Thomas.[7] This is the last reference to anybody living in Sackville Street in the parish of St. Thomas as the parish scribe didn’t record the address of later parishioners in the register. Over the next few years Richard and Elizabeth Beatty had other children called James, Ralph and Elizabeth but with address unknown. Like others on Sackville Street the Beatty family had possibly moved on. Their first recorded child in the register of St. Thomas in 1767 was made in Henry Street and in 1768 the family was living in Granby Row.[8] In 1799, a widow called Elizabeth Beatty of Dublin left a will.[9]

Clements

On 28th June 1769 William Thomas, son of Robert Clements of Sackville Street was baptised. Robert Clements was the son of Nathaniel Clements, MP and long term Vice-Treasurer of Ireland. In 1795 Robert Clements was made 1st Earl of Leitrim. It would appear that William Thomas Clements didn’t live long as he is not listed in the published pedigrees of Robert Clements. In 1758 William Clements (2nd son of Nathaniel Clements) had carpentry work done on the Sackville Street house. In 1807 the 2nd Earl of Leitrim let Leitrim House in Sackville Street and in 1807 sold the property to Josiah Wedgwood of Staffordshire.[10]

 

sackville street and mall by Joseph Tudor

Sackville Street by Joseph Tudor

Devenish

On 26th June 1769 the daughter of William and Ann Devonish of Sackville Street, Elizabeth, was baptised. This was possibly William Devenish, a Dublin attorney in 1765.[11]

Digby

In 1770 John Digby, son of John Digby, lived in Sackville Street. In April 1770 he was asked by his father to sit on the Navigation Board as the father was too old to attend. The Digby family had a country seat at Landestown in Kildare and were the ground landlords of the Aran Islands.[12]

French

On 9th November 1764 George French, esquire, and Martha, his wife, presented their son Robert for baptism. On 14th December 1771 George French, son of Arthur and Alicia French of Sackville Street, was baptised at the church of St. Thomas by Rev. Thomas Paul while the churchwardens Arthur Ormsby and Charles Willington looked on.[13]

Gill

On 18th March 1768 Elizier and Jane Gill of Sackville Street brought two children, Elizier and Ann, to the church of St. Thomas for baptism. Three years before (January 1765), Thomas Gill of Sackville Street was buried in the graveyard of St. Thomas. His relationship with Elizier Gill is unclear as in 1766 the Gill family were living in Cavendish Street.[14]

 

Gilmore

In October 1771 John and Marjory Gilmore lived in Sackville Street as did Charles and Elinor Craven along with Oliver and Jane McCasland.[15] In 1789, Anne Jane McCasland of Richmond, Co. Dublin left her will.[16]

Gore

In 1757 Sir Ralph Gore had a house in Sackville Street. He was the second son of Sir Ralph Gore (d.1733), Speaker of the Irish House of Commons. In 1772 Sir Ralph Gore was made 1st Earl of Ross. In 1771 Gore married Alicia, daughter of Nathaniel Clements, his first cousin.[17]

Harrick

On 31st July 1765 Joseph Harrick, son of Dudley and Jane Harrick of Sackville Street, was baptised in the parish church of St. Thomas. This Joseph Harrick must have soon died as on 1st March 1769 Dudley and Jane Harrick of Sackville Street, presented another Joseph Harrick for baptism in the church of St. Thomas.[18] In 1786 Dudley Harrick of Onagh, Co. Wicklow left his will while in 1802 Joseph Harrick of Ballybow, Co. Wexford left his will.[19] It is very possible that these are the same people that were in Sackville Street.

Hyde

In November 1767 John and Sarah Hyde lived on Sackville Street with their new daughter, Anne. By December 1772 the Hyde family had moved to nearby Earl Street.[20] John Hyde’s country house was Castlehyde, near Fermoy, Co. Cork (in 2014 home of the celebrated Irish dancer, Michael Flatley). John Hyde was the third son of Arthur Hyde and Anne, daughter and heiress of Richard Price of Ardmayle, Co. Tipperary. In 1763 John Hyde married Sarah, daughter of Rt. Hon. Benjamin Burton of Burton Hall, Co. Carlow. In 1772 John Hyde succeeded his brother in ownership of Castlehyde. The Anne Hyde, baptised in 1767, married Col. William Stewart, 89th Regt., second son of Sir Annesley Stewart of Ramelton, Co. Donegal. The first President of Ireland, Douglas Hyde, descended from the second wife of John Hyde’s grandfather, Arthur Hyde, while John was descended from the first wife. The Hyde family came from Berkshire and settled in Ireland in the time of Queen Elizabeth.[21]

Jurgens

In January 1770 Charles and Elizabeth Jurgens lived on Sackville Street. When Charles Jurgens and Elizabeth Darley were married in March 1769 their address was given as Mecklenburg Street. In January 1766 a woman called Elizabeth Jurgens of Sackville Street died at age sixty. This Elizabeth may have been the mother of Charles but this is still to be established. By August 1771 Charles and Elizabeth Jurgens were living on The Strand. One year later the family was living on Batchelor’s Walk. Over the next few years the family faced joy and sadness. A son called Charles Jurgens was baptised in July 1773 but was dead by September 1773. Another son, Charles Henry Jurgens was baptised in July 1775 but again was dead by September of the same year. In September 1788 Charles Jurgens died at the age of sixty-nine years.[22]

Loftus

In 1766 Edward Loftus of Sackville Street made a lease to George Roth of Dublin of lands at Powerstown (254 acres) in County Kilkenny for three lives at £21 per year. Edward Loftus had a county seat at Richfield in County Wexford where he was appointed High Sherriff in 1784. Edward Loftus was the husband of Anne Loftus and father of Nicholas Loftus of Loftus Hall, Co. Wexford.[23]

Madden

In January 1771 Malachy and Rebecca Madden lived in Sackville Street with their new daughter, Elizabeth as did John and Mary Reade was their new son, Richard.[24] In 1791 and 1799 wills were proven for John and Mary Reade of Dublin, respectively.[25]

Murray

On 18th June 1769 John, son of Francis and Margaret Murray of Sackville Street, was baptised in St. Thomas church.[26] In 1790 Margaret Murray, a widow, of Rainsford Street, Dublin, left her will.[27]

Newenham

In May 1766 Sir Edward Newenham and his wife, Lady Grace lived on Sackville Street with their new son, William Thomas. By September 1767 the family had moved to Henry Street where they were joined by their new son, Charles Burton.[28] Over the full length of their marriage the Newenham family had eighteen children one of whom was Robert O’Callaghan Newenham, editor of Sketches of Ireland. Sir Edward Newenham was the third son of William Newenham of Coolmore, Co. Cork and Dorothy Worth, daughter and heiress of Edward Worth of Rathfarnham Castle, Co. Dublin.

Edward Newenham was born on 5th November 1734. He served as M.P. for Dublin in the Irish Parliament and in February 1764 was knighted. On 4th February 1754 Edward Newenham married Grace Anne, daughter of Sir Charles Burton, 1st Bt., of Pollacton, Co. Carlow. Sir Edward Newenham died in 1814.[29]

O’Malley (Mealy)

In 1772 Michael Mealy lived in Sackville Street where he was one of the deponents for Sir Lucius O’Brien and his family in a law suit against Poole Hickman.[30]

Ormsby

In September 1770 Arthur and Elizabeth Ormsby lived in Sackville Street. Arthur Ormsby was a church warden at St. Thomas Parish. In 1809 Arthur Ormsby, late of Dublin, died at Bath. In 1761 Sarah Donnellan, nee Ormsby, had a house in Sackville Street and landed property in Co. Limerick and Westmeath.[31]

Pery

On 20th November 1764 Edmund Sexton Pery, esquire, and his wife Elizabeth presented their baby girl, Diana Jane, for baptism.[32] Edmund Pery and family didn’t stay long in Sackville Street as by April 1766 they were living in Abbey Street. Edmund Sexton Pery was MP for Limerick and Speaker of the Irish House of Commons. He was the uncle of Edmond Henry Pery, 1st Earl of Limerick.[33]

Badham Thornhill

Later, on 27th May 1768, Edward Badham Thornhill and Mary, his wife, of Sackville Street presented their daughter, Barbara for baptism. By May 1772 Edward Badham Thornhill was living in Drogheda Street. Edward Badham Thornhill held an number of properties around Kanturk. His country seat was at Castle Kevin near Killavullen, Co. Cork.[34]

Power Trench

In May 1766 William Keating Power Trench and his wife Ann lived on Sackville Street with their new daughter, also called Ann (married 1789 William Gregory). Ann Trench was formerly Ann Gardiner and sister of Luke Gardiner, 1st Viscount Mountjoy and daughter of Charles Gardiner. William Trench was the son of Richard Trench, MP of Garbally, Co. Galway. William Trench, MP for Galway (1768-97), was made 1st Viscount Dunlo (1801) and later 1st earl of Clancarty (1803). In June 1767 a son, Richard Power joined the Trench family on Sackville Street. In 1805 Richard Power became 2nd Earl of Clancarty.[35]

Younghusband

On 26th October 1765 two couples from Sackville Street presented their children for baptism at St. Thomas’ church. Joseph and Elizabeth Younghusband had their daughter, Sarah while William and Mary Evatt had their son, William, baptised. By June 1768 Joseph Younghusband and family had moved to Montgomery Street.[36] Later the Younghusband family would be recommended to move again as Montgomery Street became the centre of Dublin’s “red light district”. Between 1800 and 1925 Montgomery Street (Monto) was one of the most notorious areas for prostitution in Europe.[37] It would seem that the family did have ideas of the future for by November 1769 Joseph Younghusband was back living in Sackville Street.[38] A person called Joseph Younghusband of Whitehaven, Cumberland, mariner, left his will in 1796 but it is unclear if he was the same man as that in Sackville Street.[39]

Other people in Sackville Street

On 22nd May 1765 William Wilde, esquire, of Sackville Street and Ann, his wife, presented their new boy, Charles, for baptism at the parish church of St. Thomas.[40] On 18th August 1765 George and Jane Raferty of Sackville Street had their son, Thomas Sexton, baptised in St. Thomas’ church.[41]

On 26th April 1766 Jane Gallagher, daughter of John and Catherine Gallagher of Sackville Street, was baptised in the parish church of St. Thomas which was located on Marlborough Street.[42] On 4th May 1766 James Fortescue, esquire, and his wife, Mary Henrietta of Sackville Street presented their new daughter, Charlotte for baptism.[43] On 7th October 1766 Benjamin Paget, son of Benjamin and Ann Paget of Sackville Street, was baptised in St. Thomas’ church.[44]

On 26th April 1767 Ann Cathery, daughter of Charles and Ann Cathery of Sackville Street, was baptised.[45] In June 1767 John and Elizabeth Eyre lived on Sackville Street with their new son, Thomas.[46] On 27th September 1767 Henry Thomas, son of Lewis and Mary Thomas of Sackville Street, was baptised in St. Thomas’ church. On 23rd April 1769 another son of Lewis Thomas called Francis Edward was baptised.[47] On 23rd December 1767 Robert Creamer and his wife, Elizabeth Carter, presented their daughter Elizabeth for baptism in the church of St. Thomas.[48]

In February 1768 Abraham and Elinor Smyth lived on Sackville Street with their daughter, Mary.[49] In April 1768 William and Elizabeth Noble lived on Sackville Street with their son, Joseph.[50] On 22nd May 1768 Bernard and Jane Donelson of Sackville Street had their daughter, Jane, baptised on St. Thomas’ church.[51] On 5th June 1768 James and Henrietta Hunt of Sackville Street had their son, James, baptised in St. Thomas’ church by the Rev. Lewis Burroughs while P.H. Talbot and John Smyth, churchwardens looked on.[52] In September 1768 Nevil and Catherine Forth lived in Sackville Street with their daughter Catherine Matilda. Further along Sackville Street in November 1768 lived Francis and Margaret Ryan as did William and Elizabeth Donkin.[53]

In February 1769 Peter and Rebacca Murphy along with Henry Westenra and his wife, Harriot, lived in Sackville Street.[54] In March 1769 Walter and Hesther Taylor along with William and Ann Hawkins lived in Sackville Street.[55] On 8th August 1769 William, son of John and Ann Catherine Warburton, was baptised at the church of St. Thomas.[56] In December 1769 John and Lydia Semple lived on Sackville Street with their new daughter, Martha.[57]

In September 1770 Michael and Mary Coglan lived in Sackville Street.[58] In November 1770 Simon and Frances Vierpyl lived in Sackville Street. In 1765 they were living on the Strand.[59]

In June 1772 Daniel and Ann Heatly lived in Sackville Street with their new daughter, Everina Ann.[60] In October 1772 John and Mary Walsh along with Stephen and Frances Fitzgerald lived in Sackville Street.[61]

In 1793 Elizabeth Poole, widow, gave her share in a house on Sackville Street to her son John Poole. The house was lately occupied by Mrs. Teresa Gleadore.[62]

Later Sackville Street

At first Sackville Street was mostly a residential street. The extension to the river and the bridge over the Liffey turned it into a through street. In 1808-9 Nelson’s Pillar (134 feet tall) was built in the centre of Lower Sackville Street.[63] In 1814-8 the General Post Office (by Francis Johnson) was built on the middle of the west side. At 200 feet long by 56 feet wide it dominated Sackville Street.[64] Other businesses and hotels followed such that by the end of the nineteenth century Sackville Street was a commercial street. During the 1916 Rebellion and later in the Civil War (1922-3) much of Sackville Street was destroyed. In the twentieth century, the Street, now renamed O’Connell Street, continued to change with fast food outlets in the 1960s all but eliminating the eighteenth century grandeur. Today only number 42 Upper O’Connell Street (built in 1752) survives in near original condition.[65]

 

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[1] Bennett, D., Encyclopaedia of Dublin (Dublin, 1994), p. 56

[2] Malcomson, A.P.W., Nathaniel Clements: Government and the Governing Elite in Ireland, 1725-75 (Dublin, 2005), pp. 203, 380, 414; Malcomson, A.P.W. (ed.), The Clements Archive (Dublin, 2010), pp. 24, 266

[3] Bennett, Encyclopaedia of Dublin, p. 184

[4] Malcomson, A.P.W. (ed.), The Clements Archive (Dublin, 2010), p. xxxiv

[5] Ferguson, S., The GPO 20 years of history (Cork, 2014), p. 25

[6] Refaussé, R. (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791 (Dublin, 1994), p. 31

[7] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, p. 58

[8] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, pp. 39, 43, 61, 64, 65

[9] Vicars, Index to Prerogative Wills of Ireland 1536-1810, p. 28

[10] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, p. 46; http://www.cracroftspeerage.co.uk/online/content/leitrim1795.htm [accessed on 8th December 2018]; Malcomson (ed.), The Clements Archive, pp. lii, 24, 193, 863

[11] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, p. 46; Keane, Ed., & Phair, P.B., & Sadleir, T.U. (eds.), King’s Inns Admission Papers 1607-1867 (Dublin, 1982), p. 130

[12] Ainsworth, J. (ed.), The Inchiquin Manuscripts (Dublin, 1961), nos. 682, 695; Malcomson (ed.), The Clements Archive, p. 227

[13] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, pp. 31, 54

[14] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, pp. 36, 41, 79

[15] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, pp. 53, 54

[16] Vicars, Index to Prerogative Wills of Ireland 1536-1810, p. 300

[17] Ainsworth, J. (ed.), The Inchiquin Manuscripts (Dublin, 1961), no. 554; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ralph_Gore,_1st_Earl_of_Ross [accessed on 8th December 2018]; Malcomson, Nathaniel Clements: Government and the Governing Elite in Ireland, 1725-75, p. 464

[18] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, pp. 33, 44

[19] Vicars, Sir A., Index to Prerogative Wills of Ireland 1536-1810 (Dublin, 1897), p. 218

[20] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, pp. 39, 57, 58

[21] Burke’s Irish Family Records, 2007, pp. 617, 618, 619

[22] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, pp. 48, 53, 59, 62, 80, 90, 93, 98, 109, 123

[23] Ainsworth, J. (ed.), ‘Survey of Documents in Private Keeping, third series’, in Analecta Hibernica, No. 25 (1967), nos. 158, 165, 168

[24] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, p. 51

[25] Vicars, Index to Prerogative Wills of Ireland 1536-1810, p. 393

[26] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, p. 45

[27] Vicars, Index to Prerogative Wills of Ireland 1536-1810, p. 343

[28] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, pp. 35, 39

[29] Burke’s Irish Family Records, 2007, p. 881

[30] Ainsworth, J. (ed.), The Inchiquin Manuscripts (Dublin, 1961), no. 1468; Malcomson (ed.), The Clements Archive, p. 227

[31] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, p. 50; Vicars, Index to Prerogative Wills of Ireland 1536-1810, p. 238; Eustace, P.B. (ed.), Registry of Deeds, Dublin: Abstracts of Wills, Vol. II, 1746-85 (Dublin, 1954), no. 271

[32] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, p. 31

[33] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, pp. 34, 35; Malcomson, Nathaniel Clements: Government and the Governing Elite in Ireland, 1725-75, p. 197; Malcomson (ed.), The Clements Archive, p. 863

[34] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, pp. 42, 55, 56; Hajba, A.M., Houses of Cork, Vol. 1 – North (Whitegate, Co. Clare, 2002), pp. 105, 249, 314

[35] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, pp. 35, 38; Debrett’s Peerage, 1901, p. 181; http://www.cracroftspeerage.co.uk/online/content/clancarty1803.htm [accessed on 7th December 2018]

[36] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, pp. 33, 42

[37] Bennett, Encyclopaedia of Dublin, p. 139

[38] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, p. 47

[39] Vicars, Index to Prerogative Wills of Ireland 1536-1810, p. 503

[40] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, p. 32

[41] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, p. 33

[42] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, pp. 8, 35

[43] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, p. 35

[44] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, p. 36

[45] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, p. 38

[46] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, p. 38

[47] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, pp. 39, 45

[48] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, p. 40

[49] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, p. 40

[50] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, p. 41

[51] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, p. 41

[52] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, p. 42

[53] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, p. 43

[54] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, p. 44

[55] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, p. 45

[56] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, p. 46

[57] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, p. 47

[58] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, p. 50

[59] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, pp. 31, 51

[60] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, p. 56

[61] Refaussé (ed.), Register of the Parish of St. Thomas, Dublin, 1750-1791, p. 57

[62] Ellis, E., & Eustace, P.B. (eds.), Registry of Deeds, Dublin: Abstracts of Wills, Vol. III, 1785-1832 (Dublin, 1984), no. 221

[63] Ferguson, S., The GPO 20 years of history (Cork, 2014), p. 27

[64] Bennett, Encyclopaedia of Dublin, p. 83

[65] Bennett, Encyclopaedia of Dublin, pp. 184, 185

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Biography, Cork history

Percival Acheson: a 1916 causality at Fermoy

Percival Acheson: a 1916 causality at Fermoy

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

 

In 2016 commemoration ceremonies were held throughout Ireland to remember the centenary of the 1916 Rebellion. One of the unfortunate causalities of the 1916 Rebellion who was remembered was Major Percival Acheson.[1] In the north-east section of Castlehyde cemetery is the headstone of Percival Acheson upon which it is said that he was ‘Killed Easter Week 29th April 1916’. The Easter Rising began on Monday, 24th April 1916 and ended on Saturday, 29th April 1916.[2] Most of the fighting took place in Dublin with a few engagements around the country such as at Ashbourne Co. Meath, Enniscorthy and Athenry. On 2nd May 1916 a gun battle occurred at Bawnard house outside Fermoy to the south-east in which Constable Rowe was the first causality and David Kent the second. Did Major Percival Acheson die in Dublin or at the other battles? The reality was much more unfortunate for Major Percival Acheson and his family.

Major Percival Acheson died on 29th April 1916, the last day of the Rebellion, but not at any of the major battle sites.[3] Instead Major Acheson was shot at a road checkpoint at Grange, outside Fermoy after he failed to answer a challenge from the sentry on duty.[4] Another source says that the shooting happened at one of the entrances to one of the military barracks within Fermoy town.[5] The circumstances of the death are confusing just as the event was confusing for the sentry on duty. The death was a tragic case of death from friendly fire so near Acheson’s home in a town that was his home for nearly twenty years. Major Acheson was the husband of Mrs. P.H. Acheson of Ive-le-Bawn, Fermoy. The house was located a short distance outside Fermoy on the road to Mallow. Percival Acheson was a major in the Army Service Corps.[6] His headstone at Castlehyde also records his service in the Royal Scots.

 

 

Percival Havelock Acheson was born in 1858 in the Southampton area.[7] Another source says he was born in Fermoy.[8] In 1901 Major Acheson said he was born in England and in 1911 he refined this to say that he was born in Hampshire.[9]

Major Acheson was the son of the Joseph Acheson of Ballyane House, near New Ross, County Wexford.[10] Joseph Acheson lived at Ballyanne House in 1876, 1885 and 1900. During his time major race meetings were held on the estate until a new racecourse was built near Wexford town.[11]

On 23rd October 1875 Percival Acheson joined the Leicestershire Militia infantry beginning his service as a sub lieutenant. Captain Alfred Acheson was also in the Leicestershire Militia in 1876 but it is unknown if he was a relation.[12] In 1877 Percival Acheson was still a sub lieutenant in the Militia.[13]

In 1878 Percival Acheson transferred to the Royal Scots. On 4th December 1878 Percival Acheson was made a second lieutenant in the Royal Scots.[14] On 12th September 1884 Percival Acheson was appointed to the Commissariat & Transport staff of the Army Service Corps.[15] The Army Service Corps may not have been as glamorous as the charge of the Light Brigade but was, and still is, an important part of the British army ensuring supplies reach the front line troops and return to base. The Corps also provided administration of the numerous army barracks at home and overseas.

In 1885 Lieutenant Acheson served in the Sudan Expedition sent to relieve General Gordon at Khartoum.[16] In 1881 the Mahdi revolted in Sudan against the Egyptian government which government was backed by the British. Egypt also revolted and the country had to be occupied by a British army. In 1883 the famous Victorian general, Charles Gordon, was sent to Khartoum to evacuate the British delegation there. But instead the city was surrounded by forces of the Mahdi in the spring of 1884 and General Gordon died in the final assault on the city two days before the British relief force arrived.[17] In 1885-1886 Percival Acheson served in the Nile Expedition. He saw action at Ginnis (30th December 1885) and received a bronze star for the campaign.[18] The battle of Ginnis ended the first Sudan campaign but much of Sudan still remained under Mahdi control under the large campaign of 1896-1898 which ended with the re-conquest of Sudan at the Battle of Omdurman (2nd September 1898).[19] On 11th December 1888 Percival Acheson was made a captain in the Army Service Corps.[20]

On 1st April 1889 Percival Acheson married Charlotte Elizabeth Acheson [b. 31 Jan. 1865] of Gurrane, Kilworth at Castlehyde church. She was the daughter of Lieutenant Colonel Charles Deane and Elizabeth Margaret Deane, née Grant.[21] It is said that Ive-le Bawn house was built in 1889 as a wedding present.[22] The Deane family would only jump at the opportunity to design a new house as they came from a very distinguished line of architects. Sometime before 1869 Alexander Deane, the father of Charles Deane, built Gurrane house for his son on land purchased in about 1850.[23] Alexander Deane, a prominent Cork builder, was the father of Thomas Deane (1792-1871), architect (his works include the quadrangle of University College Cork, the portico of Cork Courthouse and the Commercial Buildings, part of the Imperial Hotel) and grandfather of Thomas N. Deane (1828-1899), architect (his works include the National Library and National Museum in Dublin), and great grandfather of Thomas M. Deane (1851-1933), architect (his works include the Royal Collee of Science, Dublin, now Government Buildings and the Anthropological Museum in Oxford).[24]

Colonel Charles Deane was formerly an officer in the 3rd Battalion Royal Munster Fusiliers. Colonel Deane was an active supporter of local institutions. He served for 35 years as treasurer of the Sustentation Fund of Fermoy parish and was vice-chairman for a number of years of the Fermoy Board of Guardians. His funeral in June 1912 was one of the largest ever seen in the Fermoy area. He was buried in Castlehyde cemetery. Colonel Deane’s two sons Major Deane and W.J. Deane attended the funeral as did his son-in-law, Major Percival Acheson.[25]

In 1890 Percival and Charlotte Acheson had a son, Charles Deane Acheson, while based in Fermoy.[26]

On 1st April 1894 Captain Acheson was made a major in the Army Service Corps.[27] On 31sy July 1895 Major Percival Acheson retired from the army to be with his young family at Fermoy.[28]

In 1901 Percival Acheson (42) was living at Ive-le-Bawn with his wife Charlotte (39) and two unmarried servants; John O’Donaghan (40, groom/domestic servant) and Kathleen Donovan (30, general domestic servant). All could read and write while John could speak both Irish and English.[29] In 1901 Ive-le Bawn house had nine windows at the front of the house and six rooms within while Percival Acheson was the declared owner.[30] The house hd two outbuildings, a stable and a coach house.[31]

On the night of 1901 census Charles Deane Acheson (11) was staying at the house of his grandfather, Charles Deane (70, born c.1831) in the townland of Gurraumgerinagh.[32]

In 1911 Percival Acheson (52) was living with his wife Charlotte Acheson (46) at Ive-Le Bawn with one domestic servant, Anne Ryan (aged 26, a Roman Catholic).[33] At that time (1911) Ive-le-Bawn house had ten windows in the front of the house facing south over the river Blackwater and ten rooms within. This is different from that recorded in the 1901 census and suggests that some reconstruction work was done in the intervening decade. Major Acheson was recorded as the owner of the house.[34] Outside was a stable, coach house and a shed.[35]

When the Great War broke out in August 1914 Percival Acheson offered his services to the Army Service Corps and returned to active service.[36]

After his death in April 1916, his widow, Charlotte Acheson, continued to live in the Fermoy area. She died on 13th June 1924 and was buried with her husband at Castlehyde.[37] Their son, Charles Deane Acheson joined the army and served with the Royal Scots from 1910. He died at Tientsin on 17th November 1929 as a major, the same rank of his father when he died.[38]

As well as the headstone in the north-east section of Castlehyde cemetery, Major Acheson is also remembered on the War Memorial in St. Finbarr’s Cathedral, Cork.[39]

 

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End of post

 

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[1] https://www.corkcoco.ie/sites/default/files/2017-04/Heritage%20Centenary%20Sites%20.pdf [accessed on 4th December 2018]

[2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Easter_Rising [accessed on 2nd December 2018]

[3] https://www.cwgc.org/find-war-dead/casualty/2743504/acheson,-percival-havelock/ [accessed on 2nd December 2018]

[4] https://wartimememoriesproject.com/greatwar/view.php?uid=238175 [accessed on 2nd December 2018]

[5] White, G., & O’Shea, B. (eds.), A Great Sacrifice: Cork Servicemen who died in the Great War (Cork, 2010), p. 166

[6] http://www.everymanremembered.org/profiles/soldier/2743504/ [accessed on 2nd December 2018]

[7] https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/162007387/percival-havelock-acheson [accessed on 2nd December 2018]

[8] White, G., & O’Shea, B. (eds.), A Great Sacrifice: Cork Servicemen who died in the Great War (Cork, 2010), p. 166

[9] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai001928324/ [accessed on 3rd December 2018]

[10] https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/162007387/percival-havelock-acheson [accessed on 2nd December 2018]

[11] Rowe, D., & Scallan, E., Houses of Wexford (Whitegate, Co. Clare, 2004), no. 89

[12] Hart, H.G., The Annual Army List, Militia List and Indian Civil Service List, 1876 (London, 1876), p. 720; https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/162007387/percival-havelock-acheson [accessed on 2nd December 2018]

[13] Hart, H.G., The Annual Army List, Militia List and Indian Civil Service List, 1877 (London, 1877), p. 723

[14] Hart, H.G., The Annual Army List, Militia List and Indian Civil Service List, 1880 (London, 1880), p. 234

[15] Hart, H.G., The Annual Army List, Militia List and Indian Civil Service List, 1890 (London, 1890), p. 237

[16] Hart, H.G., The Annual Army List, Militia List and Indian Civil Service List, 1914 (London, 1914), p. 1309

[17] Churchill, W., The River War (London, 1973), pp. 30, 39, 47, 67

[18] Hart, H.G., The Annual Army List, Militia List and Indian Civil Service List, 1914 (London, 1914), p. 1309; https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/162007387/percival-havelock-acheson [accessed on 2nd December 2018]; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Ginnis [accessed on 4th December 2018]. The Battle of Ginnis was a British victory and the last battle in which the British army worn red coats.

[19] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Ginnis [accessed on 4th December 2018].

[20] Hart, H.G., The Annual Army List, Militia List and Indian Civil Service List, 1890 (London, 1890), p. 237

[21] https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/185508060/charlotte-elizabeth-acheson [accessed on 2nd December 2018]

[22] Hajba, A.M., Houses of Cork, Vol. 1 – North (Whitegate, Co. Clare, 2002), p. 208

[23] Hajba, A.M., Houses of Cork, Vol. 1 – North (Whitegate, Co. Clare, 2002), p. 190. This house is still with the extended Deane family as in 1932, Elizabeth, daughter of Alexander Deane, married Travers Robert Blackley and the Blackley family still live in the house.

[24] Cadogan, T., & Falvey, J., A Biographical Dictionary of Cork (Dublin, 2006), pp. 78, 79

[25] Power, B., Fermoy on the Blackwater (Mitchelstown, 2009), p. 137

[26] https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/162007387/percival-havelock-acheson [accessed on 2nd December 2018]

[27] Hart, H.G., The Annual Army List, Militia List and Indian Civil Service List, 1914 (London, 1914), p. 1252

[28] Hart, H.G., The Annual Army List, Militia List and Indian Civil Service List, 1914 (London, 1914), p. 1252; https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/162007387/percival-havelock-acheson [accessed on 2nd December 2018]

[29] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai000573483/ [accessed on 3rd December 2018]

[30] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai000573478/ [accessed on 3rd December 2018]

[31] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai000573479/ [accessed on 3rd December 2018]

[32] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai000570874/ [accessed on 3rd December 2018]

[33] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai001928324/ [accessed on 3rd December 2018]

[34] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai001928294/ [accessed on 3rd December 2018]

[35] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai001928296/ [accessed on 3rd December 2018]

[36] https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/162007387/percival-havelock-acheson [accessed on 2nd December 2018]

[37] https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/162007387/percival-havelock-acheson [accessed on 2nd December 2018]

[38] https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/162007387/percival-havelock-acheson [accessed on 2nd December 2018]

[39] White, G., & O’Shea, B. (eds.), A Great Sacrifice: Cork Servicemen who died in the Great War (Cork, 2010), p. 166

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