Biography, Cork history

Roger Brettridge of Duhallow and his descendants

Roger Brettridge of Duhallow and his descendants

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

Roger Brettridge came from the West Country in England and at first settled on the Brook estate in Co. Donegal in the early 1650s. Towards the end of the 1650s he became involved with the Munster army and in the 1660s received lands in the Barony of Duhallow in North West County Cork. These lands were centred on the manor of Castle Magner which Roger renamed as Castle Brettridge. Roger’s brother Samuel Brettridge received a smaller estate in Duhallow which he gave to Roger. In his will of 1683 Roger Brettridge left the townland of East Drumcummer (now called Drumcummer More), to found an alms house for ex-soldiers in the Shandon area of Cork City. In the parish re[1]gister of Whaddon, Gloucester, it is recorded that Roger Brettridge, gent, was buried there on 4th October 1683 having died at Tuffley.[2]

Roger Brettridge was the son of Francis Brettridge. Roger Brettridge married Joan Brettridge (maiden name Hawnby) and sister of William Hawnby of Rasheen. John Hall, rector of Ardstragh, Co. Tyrone was a nephew of William Hawnby. The said William Hawnby had two daughters, Mary (mother of Robert Longfield) and Elizabeth (mother of Bartholomew Purdon).[3] Roger and Joan had three daughters; Mary (wife of Francis Hartstonge), Elizabeth (wife of Robert Deane) and Jane (wife of Thomas Badham). In 1683 Roger’s estate consisted of Castle Brettridge, Cappabrack, Cappagh, Killebraher, Knocknesheling, Knockneineater, East Drumcummer, Rathmahiry, Rossendry, Knockballymartin, Ardagh, Ballyheene, Killballyheen, Clashbale, Kilrush (also called Kilbrash), West Drumcummer and Horse Island, plus a house in Millstreet town.

Roger Brettridge gave some property to his nephew Roger Brettridge, namely West Drumcummer and Horse Island which he had previously received from Samuel Brettridge. Roger Brettridge, the nephew, had a son also called Roger Brettridge the third.[4] In 1758 Roger Brettridge the third married Abigall Sandys.[5] But the couple had no children and his property reverted to Elizabeth Badham Deane.

The castle of Castlemagner = photographer unknown

Mary Brettridge Hartstonge

Mary Brettridge, the eldest daughter, received the lands of Castle Brettridge, with its manorial rights, along with Cappabrack. But these lands were first entrusted to Joan Brettridge for life. A third townland, Cappagh, was granted to Mary’s son, Arthur Hartstonge.[6] Mary married Francis Hartstonge and was the mother of Arthur and Standish. Arthur Hartstonge had no children and Cappagh passed to Price Hartstonge, son of Standish. Price Hartstonge had a son called Henry Hartstonge. In 1751, Henry Hartstonge married Lucy, daughter of Rev Stackpole Pery. She was a sister of Edmond Sexton Pery, speaker of the Irish House of Commons. The couple had no children and much of the Hartstonge estate including Castle Magner and Cappagh passed to the speaker’s son, Edmond Pery, 1st Earl of Limerick. The 1st Earl had married in January 1793 Mary Alice, only daughter and heir of Henry Ormsby by Mary, sister and heir of Sir Henry Hartstone.[7] His grandson, William Henry, 2nd Earl was the owner at Griffith’s Valuation (circa 1850) by which time Cappagh had become Kippagh and was divided into three parts. The 2nd Earl of Limerick died in 1866 and the property was sold to Sir Henry Wrixon-Beecher of Ballygiblin. The present (2021) holder of the title as 7th Earl of Limerick is Edmund Christopher Pery.

Jane Brettridge Badham

Jane Brettridge, the second daughter received as her inheritance the lands of Ballyheene, Killballyheen, Clashbale and Kilbrash. In addition Jane Brettridge also got the lands of Killebraher, Knocknesheling, Knockneineater and Rathmahiry with its mill which property had been grant to her mother Joan for life.[8] Joan married Thomas Badham and had two sons, one of whom was called Brettridge Badham, M.P. for Rathcormac. In 1744 Brettridge Badham was living at Rockfield, Co. Cork at the time of his death.[9] Rockfield was formerly known as Ballyheene and came from the Roger Brettridge inheritance. Brettridge Badham married Sophia, daughter of John King, 3rd Lord Kingston, and had two sons who died young and two daughters Sophia, born in 1720 and, Martha. Sophia Badham inherited Rockfield and her Brettridge lands which she passed to the family of her first husband.

Sophia Badham married Richard Thornhill (1707-1747), M.P., son of Edward Thornhill by Ann, daughter of Rev. Francis Quayle of Brigown, and grandson of William Thornhill (husband of Elizabeth Newenham), and great grandson of William Thornhill from Derbyshire who acquired Castle Kevin and other Irish property as reward for his service in the Parliamentary army of the 1640s civil war. Richard Thornhill took his wife’s surname for his children and the family became known as Badham-Thornhill. Sophia Badham-Thornhill had a number of children including Anne (died unmarried 1790), Sophia (wife of Major-General John Stratton), Major James Badham-Thornhill who died in 1796. Major James married Elizabeth and was the father of Anne (second wife of Richard Tonson-Rye of Rye Court) and Sophia (wife of Samuel Godsell, possible relation of Amos Godsell of Moorestown, Co. Limerick, whose will was, dated 1714).[10] Richard Tonson-Rye and Anne Badham-Thornhill were the parents of John Tonson-Rye (born 1797) who in 1818 married his cousin Mary Godsell, daughter of Samuel Godsell. John Tonson-Rye left one son and five daughters with many descendants as documented in Burke’s Irish Family Records, 1976 (reprinted 2007), page 1004.

The eldest son of Sophia Badham and Richard Thornhill was Edward Badham-Thornhill (1730-1798) who married Mary Marsh, daughter of Henry Marsh of Moyally, King’s County (Offaly), by his wife Barbarra, daughter of Jonathan Gerard of Dublin and Mary Mason. Edward Badham-Thornhill had three sons (Henry, Gerrard and Richard) and seven daughters (Mary, Charolette, Harriot, Barbarra, Alicia, Louisa and Juliet). Henry Badham-Thornhill (1771-1821) married Catherine Odell as her first husband (she later married Francis Roche and had a son), daughter of Thomas Odell and Sarah Westropp. Henry Badham-Thornhill had three daughters; Sarah, wife of William Beamish Ware; Mary who in 1820 married Rev. Benjamin Burton Johnson and they had three children with many descendants in Australia and Canada; and Catherine who married William Maitland. Henry Badham-Thornhill had five sons (Edward, John Thomas, John, James and Henry R.I.C. officer). The eldest son, Edward Badham-Thornhill (1808-1889) sold Castle Kevin in 1851 to Dorothea Reeves because of debts accrued during the Great Famine. Edward Badham-Thornhill married Elizabeth, daughter of Lawrence O’Donovan of Dublin and had two sons, Henry and Lawrence.[11]

Sophia Badham married secondly, on 2nd September 1752, to John Cuffe, 2nd Lord Desart. John Cuufe was the third but first surviving son of John Cuffe, 1st Baron of Desart by his second wife Dorothea Gorges, daughter of Lt. Gen. Richard Gorges of Kilbrew, Co. Meath. John Cuffe died on 25th November 1767 without any children when the barony passed to his brother Otway Cuffe, 3rd Lord Desart, who left issue. Sophia Badham died on 2nd August 1768 at Merrion Street in Dublin.[12]  

Martha Badham, second daughter of Brettridge Badham and Sophia King, married Rev. Thomas Ryder, rector of Brigown and great grandson of John Ryder, bishop of Killaloe. Some records say that Martha was the sister of Brettridge Badham.[13] I think she was the daughter of Brettridge. Thomas and Martha Ryder were the parents of four sons (Henry, Badham, St. George, and John) and one daughter Jane (wife of Rev. James Graves and grandparents of Rev. Richard Hastings Graves, rector of Brigown). Badham and John Ryder appear to have left no descendants. Henry Ryder was the father of Abraham St. George Ryder who married (1777) Frances, daughter of William Harrington. Abraham had a number of children including Captain William Ryder of Riverstown House, Co. Kildare (husband of Anne Dickson) who was the father of William Ryder, genealogist. Local folklore said the Ryder family tried to block up the nearby St. Brigid’s Holy Well but the well fought back and won. In the 20th century Riverstown House had a number of owners, and after empty for a number of years, it was sold again in 2016.

The other sons of Abraham Ryder were Harrington Ryder (husband of Elizabeth Gore, daughter of Arthur Gore) and St. George Ryder (husband of Annabella Pennicuick). Abraham Ryder was the father of Emma, wife of James Cassidy of Bray. Harrington Ryder of the Abbey, Co. Tipperary, was the father of Rev. Arthur Gore Ryder who was the headmaster of Carrickmacross School and later rector of Donnybrook, Co. Dublin. Rev. Arthur married twice (1st to Anne Gore (d.1863), daughter of William Gore of Tramore, and 2nd to Nina MacMahon, daughter of Sir Beresford MacMahon). His eldest son, Harrington Dudley Ryder died in 1858 and his second son, St. George Ryder died in 1859 and Arthur Gore Ryder of Riverstown House (husband of Caroline Grogan) died 1906 by his first marriage. The second marriage produced Nina Beryll Ryder, Ralph Ryder and Beresford Burton MacMahon Ryder (husband of Eleanor Curle).[14]  

Meanwhile St. George Ryder of Mitchelstown, Co. Cork, married Margaret, daughter of William Murphy of Mitchelstown, and was the father of Martha Ryder (d.1846 and wife of Charles Venters), St. George Ryder, barrister (husband of Abigail Rothwell) and John Ryder (d.1819 and chancellor of Cloyne). John Ryder married Margaret, daughter of Rev. Joshua Brown (husband of Margaret, daughter of Llewellyn Nash), and was the father of three sons (St. George, Rev. Joshua and Rev. William) and two daughters (Dorothy and Margaret). St. George Ryder left no issue while Rev. Joshua Ryder married his cousin Lucinda Wood, daughter of Michael Wood, merchant of Cork, by his wife Margaret, daughter of Rev. William Nash, son of Llewellyn Nash. Rev. Joshua Ryder, rector of Castlelyons, was the father of Michael wood Ryder (d.1847) and Lucinda Ryder (d.1875). Rev. William Ryder, archdeacon of Cloyne, married Ann, daughter of Rev. John Ross. Rev. William Ryder (d.1862) was the father of John Ross Ryder and William Ryder (1856). Rev. William Ryder was the father of a number of daughters including Margaret (wife of George Browne), Marianne (wife of John Hendley and later James Murray, leaving descendants presently living by Hendley), Eleanor (wife of Walter Fitzsimon), Isabella and Annie (wife of Walter Browne).

Elizabeth Brettridge Deane

Elizabeth Brettridge, the third daughter, received the lands of Rossanarny (owned by Pierce Purcell of Altamira by the 1840’s), Ardagh and Knockballymartin. After the death of her mother, Elizabeth also got a house in Millstreet.[15] Elizabeth married c.1679 to Robert Deane (d.1714) of Springfield Castle, Co. Limerick, 2nd Baronet, and son of Sir Matthew Deane created 1st Baronet in 1709 and died in 1710.[16] They were the parents of Sir Matthew Deane (c.1680-1747), 3rd Baronet and M.P. for Charleville and later for Co. Cork in the Irish parliament. Sir Mathew Deane married Jane Sharpe, only daughter of Rev. William Sharpe, and was the father of three sons and three daughters. In 1781 Sir Robert Deane, the 6th Baronet, was raised in the peerage to Baron Muskerry. The present (2021) 9th Baron Muskerry lives in South Africa. The Deane family did continue the Brettridge blood line but little of the estate as in 1883 the family held only 28 acres in Co. Cork.[17]

Conclusion

In 1683 Roger Brettridge, army officer and grantee of forfeited estates in north-west County Cork, died in Gloucestershire without any male heirs to continue his name. Yet his three daughters, Mary, Jane and Elizabeth, have continued his blood line over the next 250 years to the present-day.     

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[1] Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 650

[2] Extracted from web site – www.glosgen.co.uk/whadreg.htm, in November 2005

[3] Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 650

[4] Niall O’Brien, ‘Roger Brettridge: and the 1662 Act of Settlement and Duhallow Affairs at the Court of Claims’, in Seanchas Dúthalla, Vol. XV (2011), pp. 11-17, p. 14

[5] Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 5, p. 112

[6] Niall O’Brien, ‘Roger Brettridge: and the 1662 Act of Settlement and Duhallow Affairs at the Court of Claims’, in Seanchas Dúthalla, Vol. XV (2011), pp. 11-17, p. 12

[7] George E. Cokaye, The Complete Peerage (Gloucester, 1987), vol. VII, p. 663

[8] Niall O’Brien, ‘Roger Brettridge: and the 1662 Act of Settlement and Duhallow Affairs at the Court of Claims’, in Seanchas Dúthalla, Vol. XV (2011), pp. 11-17, p. 12

[9] P. Beryl Eustace, ‘Index of Will Abstracts in the Genealogical Office, Dublin’, in The Genealogical Office, Dublin (Dublin, 1998), pp. 79-282, at p. 97

[10] P. Beryl Eustace, ‘Index of Will Abstracts in the Genealogical Office, Dublin’, in The Genealogical Office, Dublin (Dublin, 1998), pp. 79-282, at p. 186

[11] Jane Hills, ‘’, in the Mallow Field Club Journal, No. 20 (2002), pp. 144-153

[12] George E. Cokaye, The Complete Peerage (Gloucester, 1987), vol. IV, p. 228

[13] Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 641

[14] Alison-Stewart blogspot entitled DubStewartMania with the article title of ‘Rev. John Grogan and Lizzie Bourne, Balrothery and Clyde Road’, posted on 16th August 2013

[15] Niall O’Brien, ‘Roger Brettridge: and the 1662 Act of Settlement and Duhallow Affairs at the Court of Claims’, in Seanchas Dúthalla, Vol. XV (2011), pp. 11-17, p. 12

[16] Debrett’s Illustrated Peerage, 1901, p. 590

[17] George E. Cokaye, The Complete Peerage (Gloucester, 1987), vol. IX, p. 443

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Biography, Cork history

Stephen Mills of Cork, merchant and banker

Stephen Mills of Cork, merchant and banker

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

In 1892 C.M. Tenison, writing about the private banks of Cork and the south of Ireland mentioned Stephen Mills as a partner in the baking firm of Falkiner and Mills but that Tenison didn’t know much about Stephen Mills.[1] This article seeks to put some fresh on the life of Stephen Mills, merchant and banker in Cork City in the mid decades of the eighteenth century. It is not known when Stephen Mills was born or who were his parents?

Crawford Art Gallery, Cork near Falkiner and Mills Bank

Possible ancestors of Stephen Mills

He could have been related to Stawell Mills who held property in Cork City and County in the early years of the eighteenth century. Sometime before September 1713 Stawell Mills held property in Cork City, houses in the north liberties of Cork City and land in the barony of Orrery and Kilmore. In September 1713 Joseph Damer of Dublin granted a mortgage of £1,200 to William Ford of Limerick City, subject to the properties once held by Stawell Mills who was then deceased.[2] Elsewhere it is said that Stawell Mills lived at Ballybeg House near Buttevant, later occupied by Hugh Lawton.[3] Thomas Mills (will January 1700), father of Stawell Mills, held Ballybeg House in the 1690s and a sister of Thomas married John Glover of Mount Glover (later called Mount Corbett), Co. Cork.[4] In 1657 Randel, son of Thomas and Elizabeth Mills of St. Peter’s Parish was baptised in Holy Trinity Cork.[5] In 1667 Thomas Mills was sheriff of the city with George Wright. In 1673 Thomas Mills was mayor of Cork while James Mills was one of the two city sheriffs.[6]

Stephen Mills early years

In about 1744 Stephen Mills began his apprenticeship under Riggs Falkiner to learn the trade of being a merchant allowing seven years for the apprenticeship as Stephen ended his term by 1751.[7] Over the next quarter century Stephen Mills would have many interactions with Riggs Falkiner via social activity, property investments and partners in their own bank. The first direct reference to Stephen Mills appears in 1747 when he was at least twenty years old as he was a witness to a marriage deed. In March 1747 Stephen Mills was a witnessed to the marriage settlement between John Lapp of Cork and Ann Falkiner, daughter of Caleb Falkiner, deceased. William Conner of Connerville and Riggs Falkiner, merchant, were trustees of the marriage settlement.[8] Stephen Mills continued his association with the Falkiner family over the following two decades becoming a partner in the 1760s in the banking firm established by Riggs Falkiner. On 4th May 1747, Robert Warren of Kilbarry, Cork, gave a lease to Catherine, wife of John Allen, clothier of Cork, of a house in Cove Lane, Cork City, for the life of Catherine, her husband John and Stephen Mills.[9]  

In 1751 Stephen Mills had completed his merchant apprenticeship with Riggs Falkiner, merchant.[10] On 18th May 1751 Stephen Mills was described as a merchant when he was admitted to the freedom at large of Cork.[11] It is not known what kind of merchant trade he was involved in but considering that he later became a senior partner in a banking firm, the trade must have been profitable. In December 1751 Stephen Mills, merchant of Cork City, married Mary Taylor of Dublin. Mary was the daughter of Francis Taylor, merchant of Dublin, deceased, and Phoebe Taylor, executor of her husband. Stephen Mills promised, as part of the marriage settlement, to give to Mary Taylor one third of his estate in his will or one half if he left no children by Mary. The settlement was witnessed by James North of Drumanhane, Co. Tipperary, along with Daniel Rogers and William Groon, both from Dublin City.[12] In 1723 Francis Taylor had married Phoebe Edwards through the Prerogative Court.[13] Francis Taylor, merchant of Dublin, died in 1751 shortly before the marriage of his daughter to Stephen Mills.[14]

In 1762, Stephen Mills, merchant, joined up with Abraham Devonshire, Riggs Falkiner, Christopher Carlton and Robert Gordon to fill in some 210 feet of the River Lee on its north bank to make a quay from French Quay eastward to a quay by a small house. The property was leased to the partners for 999 years at one shilling per year rent. The partnership was to make a public quay 36 feet wide along the length of the property.[15] On 4th January 1766 Stephen Mills, merchant of Cork City, was a witness, with Anthony Ivors of Waterford, to the lease by Viscount Mountmorris, Shapland Carew and Edward Woodcock of Ballygunner castle, Ballygunnermore, Elaghan, Kilbrickham and Little Island, Waterford to William Finch, merchant of Cork City.[16] In 1767 Stephen Mills, merchant, was mentioned among a host of city freemen who were allowed to benefit from the provision of piped water as part of a parliamentary grant.[17]

Falkiner and Mills bank

In about 1760 Riggs Falkiner, merchant of Cork and son of Caleb Falkiner by Ruth, daughter of Edward Riggs, merchant of Cork, established a bank in the city, possibly wishing to follow the example of his uncle, Daniel Falkiner who was a partner in the Dublin banking firm of Burton’s Bank. By 1767 Riggs Falkiner had acquired a new partner in Stephen Mills to become the firm of Falkiner & Mills.[18] On 28th July 1768 the bank of Falkiner and Mills placed an advertisement in the Cork Evening Post saying that a number of banknotes were lost on the road between Cork and Killcreaght. One of the notes was for £50 and dated 15th April 1765 with a serial number of 884 produced by Falkiner and Mills. A reward of five guineas was offered for the return of the banknotes but we don’t know if a successful recovery was made.[19]

The bank of Falkiner and Mills was situated near the Old Custom House in a street called Falkiner’s Lane, now called Opera Lane.[20] The bank was a friend and creditor of the Earl of Shannon and in 1769 Riggs Falkiner became an M.P. for one of Shannon’s borough constituencies, Clonakilty.[21] In 1778 Riggs Falkiner was made a baronet. After Stephen Mills died in 1770, Riggs Falkiner continued the business on his own until 1776 when he went into partnership with John Leslie and Richard Kellett.[22]

Banks established in Cork in the first half of the eighteenth century were partnered by merchants who used their surplus cash from overseas trade to provide bill discounting, remittance services and make short term loans. In 1756 an act of parliament prevented merchants involved in foreign trade to describe themselves as bankers. The firm of Falkiner & Mills kept their merchant associations but also acquired new partners in the landed gentry and professional sectors of Cork city and county.[23] Among the county gentry, Sir James Cotter, baronet, and Sir Richard Kellet became a partners in the 1780s and 1790s[24] In the 1780s, before his death on 20th January 1786, Doctor Bayly Rogers, doctor of physics, was a partner in the bank which was briefly renamed Falkiner, Rogers, Leslie & Kellet.[25] Bayly Rogers of Floraville came from a strong medical family as he was the eldest son of Joseph Rogers, M.D., of Cork by Margaret, daughter of John Bayly, and in turn Bayly was the father of Joseph Rogers, M.D., of Seaview in Cork.[26]

Falkiner’s bank survived the financial crisis of 1793 when other Cork banks closed their doors. After the death of Riggs Falkiner in 1799 the bank continued under the new name of Cotter & Kellets with some £131,630 banknotes in circulation.[27] Over the next ten years the bank increased its money supply to £447,000 which was £27,000 more than its assets and in June 1809 the bank closed its doors.[28] It would appear that the bank was struggling for a few years as it temporary closed in 1807.[29] The liquidation process continued until 1826 even with an act of parliament in 1820 with creditors only getting about ten shillings in the pound while the lawyers clocked up over £60,000 in fees.[30]   

The family of Stephen Mills

On 4th June 1770 Stephen Mills, a banker of Cork City, died.[31] In 1770 the will of Stephen Mills of Cork was registered.[32] In his marriage settlement with Mary Taylor, Stephen said he would give half his estate to Mary if he died without children.[33] In 1770 Mary received a third of the estate as Stephen had at least two children with Mary. In July 1788, Stephen Mills, aged 18, son of Stephen Mills of Cork, deceased, was admitted into Trinity College Dublin. He was previously taught by Mr. Cary.[34] In 1832 Stephen Mills married Elizabeth Murphy.[35] In 1849 a person called Stephen Mills was living in Lamb Street, Clonakilty.[36] In 1850 Stephen was renting the house and small garden from John Fitzpatrick worth just one pound.[37] No further details are yet available concerning Stephen Mills.

In 1779 Mary, daughter of Stephen Mills, banker of Cork, married William Sankey M.P., 3rd or 5th or 6th son of Matthew Sankey of Coolmore, Co. Tipperary by Elizabeth, daughter and co-heir of George Villiers of Waterford, of Harcourt Street, Dublin.[38] Elsewhere William Sankey’s mother was described as Elizabeth, daughter and co-heir of John Villiers of Hanbury Hall, Co. Stafford.[39] William Sankey (b.c.1745-7, d. 25th November 1813) was M.P. for Philipstown (1790-1797).[40] William Sankey and Mary Mills were the parents of Matthew Sankey, barrister, of Bawnmore, Co. Cork and Modeshill, Co. Tipperary.[41] On 23rd March 1832 Matthew Sankey died at Clydaville near Mallow and was the husband of Eleanor O’Hara by who he was the father of eight children.

Bawnmore in the parish of Kilbrin, barony of Duhallow, appears to have been part of the estate of Stephen Mills left to his family in 1770. During the 1780s Mary Mills and Falkiner’s bank had a number of property deeds with the townland. On 22nd/23rd May 1780 Sir Riggs Falkiner, baronet, of Ann Mount, Co. Cork, and Mary Mills, widow of Stephen Mills of Cork City, made a lease of the town and lands of Bawnmore (otherwise known as Rathanane) to Bayly Rogers of Cork City for £777 8s with the proceeds to benefit, Sir Riggs Falkiner, Bayly Rogers, Richard Kellett and Charles Leslie.[42] On 24th/25th February 1782, by an instrument of a deed of lease and release (registered 12th March 1784), Bayly Rogers sold a third part of Bawnmore to Francis Woodley of Cork city on the direction of William Sankey (husband of Mary Mills junior), barrister-at-law in Dublin city, which property formerly belonged to Mary Mills. This was witnessed by Michael Fulham and Jonas Lander, both from Cork city.[43] In 1817 a person called Mary Mills died in Dublin.[44] She could possibly have been the widow of Stephen Mills but as her will was destroyed in the destruction of the Public Record Office in 1922 we cannot be certain.

Conclusion

In 1892 C.M. Tension could add little information about Stephen Mills apart from the fact he was a partner in the bank of Falkiner and Mills and died before 1772. In this article we have added extra information about the life of Stephen Mills. He came from a successful merchant family who occasionally got involved in city politics. In the early 1740s he became apprentice to Riggs Falkiner, merchant, beginning a quarter century relationship. He was witness to the wedding of Riggs sister and was successful in his own merchant business to buy corporation property with Riggs Falkiner and in the mid-1760s become a senior partner in the bank of Falkiner and Mills. In 1751 Stephen Mills married into a Dublin merchant family and had at least two children before his death in June 1770. Through the Sankey family of south Tipperary the blood line of Stephen Mills continued on to the present day. It is possible that further information on Stephen Mills may be discovered but for the moment we shall leave him rest two hundred and fifty years after his passing.

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[1] Tenison, C.M., ‘The Private Bankers of Cork and the South of Ireland’, in the Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, Volume I (1892), pp. 221-224, at p. 224

[2] Registry of Deeds, Dublin, Volume 13, Page 38, Memorial 4811, dated 28th September 1713

[3] The Dublin Weekly Journal, 8th January 1726, p. 166

[4] Notes & Queries, 1930, vol. 158, issue 2, p. 23

[5] Hood, Susan (ed.), Register of the parish of Holy Trinity (Christ Church), Cork, 1643-1669 (Dublin, 1998), p. 69

[6] Caulfield, Richard, The Council Book of the Corporation of Cork (Guildford, 1876), p. 1174

[7] Caulfield, The Council Book of the Corporation of Cork, p. 661

[8] Registry of Deeds, Dublin, Volume 126, Page 430, Memorial 88201, dated 4th March 1747

[9] Registry of Deeds, Dublin, Volume 125, Page 525, Memorial 85994, dated 14th May 1747

[10] Caulfield, The Council Book of the Corporation of Cork, p. 661

[11] Cork City and County Archives, 2007, List of Freemen of Cork City, 1710-1841, p. 121

[12] Registry of Deeds, Dublin, Volume 153, Page 515, Memorial 103541, dated 19th December 1751

[13] National Archives of Ireland, Diocesan and Prerogative Marriage Licence Bonds, 1623-1866

[14] National Archives of Ireland, Index to Prerogative Wills, 1536-1810

[15] Caulfield, The Council Book of the Corporation of Cork, pp. 763, 764

[16] Registry of Deeds, Dublin, Volume 246, Page 465, Memorial 158766, dated 4th January 1766

[17] Caulfield, The Council Book of the Corporation of Cork, p. 817

[18] Tenison, ‘The Private Bankers of Cork and the South of Ireland’, in the J.C.H.A.S., Volume I (1892), pp. 221-224, at p. 224

[19] Lenihan, Michael, Hidden Cork: Charmers, Chancers & Cute Hoors (Cork, 2010), p. 165

[20] Lenihan, Hidden Cork: Charmers, Chancers & Cute Hoors, p. 165

[21] Dickson, David, Old World Colony: Cork and South Munster, 1630-1830 (Cork, 2005), p. 166

[22] Tenison, ‘The Private Bankers of Cork and the South of Ireland’, in the J.C.H.A.S., Volume I (1892), pp. 221-224, at p. 224

[23] Dickson, Old World Colony: Cork and South Munster, 1630-1830, pp. 163, 164

[24] Lenihan, Hidden Cork: Charmers, Chancers & Cute Hoors, p. 165

[25] Lenihan, Hidden Cork: Charmers, Chancers & Cute Hoors, p. 166

[26] Ffolliott, Rosemary, ‘Rogers of Lota and Ashgrove’, in the Journal of Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, Vol. LXXII (1967), pp. 75-80, at pp. 78, 79

[27] Lenihan, Hidden Cork: Charmers, Chancers & Cute Hoors, p. 166

[28] Lenihan, Hidden Cork: Charmers, Chancers & Cute Hoors, p. 167

[29] O’Sullivan, William, The economic history of Cork City from the earliest times to the Act of Union (Cork, 1937), p. 203

[30] Lenihan, Hidden Cork: Charmers, Chancers & Cute Hoors, pp. 167, 168

[31] The Gentleman’s and London Magazine or Monthly Chronologer, 1741-1794, 1770, p. 390

[32] Anon, ‘Original Documents: Index Testamentorium olim in Registro Corcagie (1600-1802)’, in the Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, Volume III, Second Series (1897), pp. 194-200, at p. 197

[33] Registry of Deeds, Dublin, Volume 153, Page 515, Memorial 103541, dated 19th December 1751

[34] Burtchaell, G.D., & Sadleir, T.U. (eds.), Alumni Dublinesses (Bristol, 2001), p. 579

[35] National Archives of Ireland, Diocesan and Prerogative Marriage Licence Bonds, 1623-1866, Cork & Ross marriage licence bonds

[36] National Archives of Ireland, Valuation Office books, 1824-1856, House Book, 1849

[37] Griffith’s Valuation, parish of Kilgarriff, townland of Youghals

[38] Burke’s Landed Gentry, 1912, p. 625; Burke’s Landed Gentry, 1846, p. 1189; National Archives of Ireland, Diocesan and Prerogative Marriage Licence Bonds, 1623-1866, Cork & Ross marriage licence bonds

[39] Burke’s Landed Gentry, 1846, p. 1189

[40] Johnston-Lik, Edith, MPs in Dublin: companion to the History of the Irish Parliament 1692-1800 (Belfast, 2006), p. 121

[41] Burke’s Landed Gentry, 1912, p. 625

[42] Casey, A.E., & O’Dowling, Th. (eds.), OKief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 11, p. 1284

[43] Casey & O’Dowling (eds.), OKief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater, vol. 11, p. 1284

[44] National Archives of Ireland, Diocesan and Prerogative Wills, 1595-1858

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Cork history, Maritime History

Kinsale Shipping Company, 1881-1918

Kinsale Shipping Company, 1881-1918

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

The west Cork port of Kinsale conducted a good trade with the Continent in medieval times and was involved in the provisions trade for trans-Atlantic ships in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. But as the eighteenth century progressed so the port of Cork captured an increasing part of the provisions trade so that by the early nineteenth century Kinsale port was much reduced in activity. The second half of the nineteenth century saw a brief increase in trade with the cod fishing boats but when the cod shoals moved westwards as the century neared its closed so the fishing boats went to Baltimore with their catch as that port was nearer to the fish stocks and had a railway track at the pier head to allow the faster transit of the fish to market.[1] In the early 1870s a local coal and grain merchant, Thomas Crowley (his father-in-law, Joseph Hosford, was chairman of the Kinsale harbour board) commissioned William Westacott of Barnstaple to build a number of schooners for his own use.[2] The 1901 census records that Thomas Crowley was 59 years old and a member of the Church of Ireland living in Fisher Street. He was married to Eleanor Hosford Crowley and had one daughter, Marion, and a son, Gerald. Living in the house in 1901 was Thomas’s nephew, Joseph Garde.[3] By 1911 Joseph Garde was managing clerk to the company of Thomas Crowley & Son, corn merchant.[4]

 

Kinsale

Kinsale Harbour (photographer unknown)

In 1881 three families (Acton, Crowley and O’Neill) came together in Kinsale to form the Kinsale Shipping Company to revive the port and increase trade. The company took over ownership of most of the vessels belonging to Thomas Crowley and commissioned a number of its own vessels in the succeeding decades. The Company was mostly involved in the coastal trade between Ireland and Britain with occasional passages to France.[5] In February 1905 Thomas Crowley died and was succeeded as managing director of the Kinsale Shipping Company by his son Joseph Crowley.[6] Thomas Crowley made his son Joseph executor of his will along with Joseph Garde (accountant) and left effects worth £9,144 16s 4d.[7] In 1910 Thomas Crowley of Fisher Street in Kinsale was given as the manager of the Company and Fisher Street was given as the company’s address.[8] In 1915 Joseph Crowley was again the manager.[9] Joseph Hosford Crowley was a member of the Church of Ireland and married to Emma Hall Crowley. He was the father of Allan Crowley and Muriel Crowley.[10] In 1901 he was an estate agent living at Denis Quay in Kinsale.[11]

The Kinsale Shipping Company seems to have prospered well over the years. But the First World War saw a number of its vessels lost to enemy action while other vessels were lost to storms and sea accidents. In 1918 the Company went into liquidation and the Company’s surviving vessels (James O’Neill, Marion, Old Head, and Sidney) were purchased by the Sarnia Shipping Company of Guernsey.[12] The vessels belonging to the Company imported to Kinsale the usual coastal cargoes of coal, clay, iron, cement and salt while exporting pit props, fish and barley. In the good years each vessel visited Kinsale about fifteen to twenty times per year,[13]

List of vessels owned by the Kinsale Company

Colleen (80211): The Colleen was a schooner of 80 tons built at Barnstaple in 1880 by Westacott.[14] In 1882 she was owned by the Kinsale Shipping Company with 95 registered tons.[15] In 1894 she was reduced to 80 registered tons.[16] On 29th February 1904 the Colleen sailed up the River Bride, a tributary of the River Blackwater, to collect pit props and sailed down river on 18th March.[17] In 1913 she had an auxiliary engine installed of 26 horse power. In 1915 her measurements were 85.3ft X 23.9ft X 9ft with tonnage of 104 gross and 83 net tons.[18] In late 1917 the Colleen left Appledore following repairs but went straight into a storm which blew the vessel into Padstow where she remained for October and November 1917. On another passage the Colleen lost her foremast and was driven into Mounts Bay in Cornwall. The crew managed to extract the vessel but were driven onto the rocks near Mullion, north of the Lizard. All the crew were saved but the vessel became a total wreck.[19]

Harlequin (80209): The Harlequin was built at Barnstaple in 1879 with a schooner rig and having 85 registered tons. In 1880 she was owned by Robert Heard of Kinsale.[20] By 1882 she was owned by the Kinsale Shipping Company.[21] In 1892 the Harlequin was reduced in tonnage to 77 tons for some unknown reason.[22] On 26th October 1896 the Harlequin (under the command of William Parker of Braunton) was in collision with the steamer Ouse at Barry Roads in South Wales. The crew were saved but the vessel became a total wreck and was subsequently blown up to clear the channel.[23]

James O’Neill (115120): the James O’Neill was a built at Connah’s Quay in 1903 while another source says it was in 1905.[24] A third source gives 1905 as the year she was built.[25] The builder was that of Ferguson & Baird.[26] The three-masted schooner of 140 tons was described as a beautiful vessel. This vessel was under the command of Captain William O’Donovan until May 1908.[27] In 1906 the vessel was 98 registered tons and in subsequent years.[28] In April 1908 the James O’Neill went aground on Taylor’s Bank in the Mersey while on a passage between Cork and Garston. She was towed to Newferry for repairs and successful went on to Garston to discharge her cargo of timber. More permanent repairs were later conducted at Connah’s Quay.[29] In 1915 the signal hoist of the James O’Neill was JHBC and was registered at Cork like other vessels belonging to the Kinsale Shipping Company as Kinsale wasn’t a recognised port for registration.[30]

In 1918 the James O’Neill was purchased by the Sarnia Shipping Company of Guernsey and in 1920 was sold to W.A. Munn of St. John’s, Newfoundland for use in the cod trade. On 2nd March 1923 the James O’Neill was crushed by ice off St. Pierre and was abandoned by her crew before she went under.[31]

Marion (96108): The Marion was a schooner of 79 tons built at Appledore in 1891 by John Westacott, son of William Westacott of Barnstaple who had built a number of vessels for the Kinsale Shipping Company.[32] In 1900 her signal hoist was MJHN.[33] Captain James Cummins was the master of the Marion before he moved to the James O’Neill in 1908. In May 1897 the Marion was caught in a severe storm in the Bristol Channel and lost her sails. Yet she managed to make it to Newport in South Wales where she stayed for twelve days under-going repairs. After returning to Kinsale the Marion collided with a French vessel on a subsequent passage requiring the Kinsale Shipping Company to pay damages to the French.[34] In 1918 the Marion was sold with other Kinsale Company vessels to the Sarnia Shipping Company of Guernsey and re-registered to there.[35] In January 1921 the Marion disappeared while on a passage from Runcorn to Fowey with no survivors.[36] It was claimed that the Marion was in collision with the SS Rose some distance off Little Mouse in North Wales at the time of her disappearance.[37]

Old Head (76863): the Old Head was a schooner of 97 tons (105 gross tons) that was built at Barnstaple in 1878. She was commanded by Tim Cummins of Kinsale.[38] She was initially owned by Thomas Crowley of Kinsale.[39] By 1882 she was transferred to the newly former Kinsale Shipping Company.[40] In 1910 she was still owned by the Kinsale Shipping Company.[41] In April 1917 the Old Head was attacked by a U-boat off Coningbeg Lightship but was saved by the arrival of the Dusty Miller and towed to Rosslare. In October 1917 the Old Head developed a leak while on a passage from Swansea to St. Brieuc but made it into Padstow where she remained for four months. While at Padstow she had a small engine installed. But her career as an auxiliary schooner was short lived as in February 1918 the Old Head went ashore onto rocks near Gunwalloe, east of Penzance and broke up. Thankfully her crew were all saved.[42] Another account says that the Old Head had a further two years of trading. In 1920 she was owned by the Sarnia Shipping Company of Guernsey.[43] In March or May 1920 (sources differ on which month) the Old Head struck a rock in Shoreham harbour in March or May 1920 while brining stones from Cherbourg and sank.[44]

Sidney (106278): the Sidney was a schooner of 112 gross tons (93 net) built at Appledore in 1897 by R. Cook & Son. In 1914 a new 26hp Bergius engine was installed which reduced her tonnage to 89 tons.[45] She was built for the Kinsale Shipping Company and remained in their ownership until 1918. Captain Sheat was the master of the Sidney. In April 1917 the Sidney was leased to the Royal Navy for eight months at a rate of £1 12s 6d per day.[46] In May 1917 the Sidney (renamed the Glen) engaged the German submarine UB39 with her 12 pounder and 3 pounder guns and succeeded in sinking the U-boat south of the Needles. Other sources say the U-boat sank after hitting a mine. The Sidney went on to later attack four more U-boats.[47] In 1918 the Sidney was sold to the Sarnia Shipping Company of Guernsey along with other vessels belonging to the Kinsale Shipping Company and registered to Guernsey. In 1920 the Sidney was recorded as measuring 89.8ft X 22.6ft X 9.9ft and having 112 gross tons and 85 net tons. Her signal code was JNBD.[48] The Sidney was still registered in 1930 to the Sarnia Company measuring 92 tons but disappeared from the records after that time.[49]

T. Crowley (76857): The T. Crowley was a schooner of 78 tons that was built by William Westacott of Barnstaple in 1877. The two-masted schooner measured 89.5ft X 21.3ft X 9.5ft. Her first passage out of Kinsale was under Captain Robert Fowler.[50] Later the T. Crowley was under the command of Captain Parker. In July 1877 the T. Crowley imported iron to Kinsale from Gloucester to build the new Brandon River Bridge.[51] In 1880 the T. Crowley was still owned by Thomas Crowley of Kinsale.[52] By 1882 ownership of the vessel had passed to the newly established Kinsale Shipping Company.[53] In January 1882 the T. Crowley got stuck fast on Puffin Island near Beaumaris and her damaged looked so severe that she was removed from Lloyd’s Registered. But a few months later the vessel was refloated and repaired and in January 1883 returned to Lloyd’s Register.[54]

On 10th March 1917, while about fifteen miles south of Hook Head, the T. Crowley was torpedoed by a German submarine. The vessel was lost but thankfully all the crews were saved. The Germans claimed the vessel was working for the British navy at the time. It would seem that the Germans had good intelligence but hit the wrong vessel. In April 1917 the Sidney (also owned by the Kinsale Shipping Company) was requisitioned by the Royal Navy for a number of months.[55]

 

kinsale_marina9

Kinsale Marina (photographer unknown)

Vessels claimed as owned by the Kinsale Company

Ellen Dawson (20897): The Ellen Dawson was a schooner built at Kinsale in 1857. She was of 78 registered tons and her signal code was NDCF.[56] It is said that she was once owned by the Kinsale Shipping Company.[57] In 1870 and 1880 she was owned by Joseph Hosford of Mann Street, Kinsale.[58] Hosford was the father-in-law of Thomas Crowley, manager of the Kinsale Shipping Company.[59] The Ellen Dawson doesn’t appear in the records after 1880.

Esmeralda: The Esmeralda was said to be once owned by the Kinsale Shipping Company and was under the command of Captain Greenway.[60] As yet shipping records fail to support this suggested ownership.

George Brown (8456): The George Brown of Cork had a signal code of KCGR and was registered at 88 tons.[61] In 1870 the George Brown was owned by Joseph Hosford of Kinsale.[62] In 1873 the George Brown made a profit of £147 15s on eleven passages carrying coal, corn and wood.[63] As the George Brown was declared a wreck in 1879, two years before the Kinsale Shipping Company was formed, she couldn’t have been owned by the Company but instead was associated through her owner Joseph Hosford with Thomas Crowley of the Kinsale Company like the Ellen Dawson.

Hannah (8354): this vessel was said to have been once owned by the Kinsale Shipping Company.[64] She was of 96 registered tons and her signal code was KBSV. In 1870 the Hannah was owned by Joseph Hosford of Mann Street, Kinsale.[65] Crew lists for the Hannah in the years 1863 to 1877 exist in the national Archives of Ireland.

 

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[1] Thuiller, J., Kinsale Harbour: A History (Cork, 2014), p. 70

[2] Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), p. 91

[3] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai000540259/ accessed on 13 June 2020

[4] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai001960365/ accessed on 13 June 2020

[5] Thuillier, J., Kinsale Harbour: A History (Cork, 2014), p. 70

[6] Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), p. 92

[7] http://www.willcalendars.nationalarchives.ie/reels/cwa/005014914/005014914_00057.pdf accessed on 13 June 2020

[8] Mercantile Navy List, 1910, pp. 735, 891

[9] Mercantile Navy List, 1915, p. 539

[10] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai001960365/ accessed on 13 June 2020

[11] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai000540237/ accessed on 13 June 2020

[12] Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), p. 92

[13] Thuillier, J., Kinsale Harbour: A History (Cork, 2014), p. 70

[14] Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), p. 174

[15] Mercantile Navy List, 1882, p. 234

[16] Mercantile Navy List, 1894, p. 397

[17] Camphire Bridge Log Book, p. f4 (manuscript in private keeping)

[18] Mercantile Navy List, 1915, p. 124

[19] Thuillier, J., Kinsale Harbour: A History (Cork, 2014), p. 71

[20] Mercantile Navy List, 1880, p. 315

[21] Mercantile navy List, 1882, p. 325

[22] Mercantile Navy List, 1892, p. 456

[23] Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), p. 91

[24] Thuillier, J., Kinsale Harbour: A History (Cork, 2014), p. 70 for 1903; Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), p. 174 for 1905

[25] Mercantile Navy List, 1910, p. 736

[26] Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), p. 92

[27] Thuillier, J., Kinsale Harbour: A History (Cork, 2014), p. 70

[28] Mercantile navy List, 1906, p. 658

[29] Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), p. 92

[30] Mercantile Navy List, 1915, p. 826

[31] Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), p. 92

[32] Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), p. 91

[33] Mercantile Navy List, 1900, p. 599

[34] Thuillier, J., Kinsale Harbour: A History (Cork, 2014), pp. 70, 71

[35] Mercantile Navy List, 1920, p. 878

[36] Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), p. 92

[37] Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), p. 103

[38] Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), p. 91

[39] Mercantile Navy List, 1880, p. 449

[40] Mercantile Navy List, 1882, p. 457

[41] Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), p. 174

[42] Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), p. 92

[43] Mercantile navy List, 1920, p. 916

[44] Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), pp. 92, 106

[45] Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), p. 91

[46] Thuillier, J., Kinsale Harbour: A History (Cork, 2014), p. 70

[47] Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), p. 92; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SM_UB-39 accessed on 13 June 2020

[48] Mercantile Navy List, 1920, p. 544

[49] Mercantile Navy List, 1930, p. 1192

[50] Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), p. 91

[51] Thuiller, J., Kinsale Harbour: A History (Cork, 2014), p. 70

[52] Mercantile Navy List, 1880, p. 539

[53] Mercantile Navy List, 1882, p. 545

[54] Scott, R.J., Irish Sea Schooner Twilight: The last years of the Western seas traders (Lydney, 2012), p. 91

[55] Thuillier, J., Kinsale Harbour: A History (Cork, 2014), p. 70

[56] Mercantile Navy List, 1880, p. 262

[57] Thuiller, J., Kinsale Harbour: A History (Cork, 2014), p. 70

[58] Mercantile Navy List, 1870, p. 117; Mercantile Navy List, 1880, p. 262

[59] Thuiller, J., Kinsale Harbour: A History (Cork, 2014), p. 70

[60] Thuillier, J., Kinsale Harbour: A History (Cork, 2014), p. 70

[61] Mercantile Navy List, 1860, p. 320

[62] Mercantile Navy List, 1870, p. 154

[63] Thuillier, J., Kinsale Harbour: A History (Cork, 2014), p. 70

[64] Thuiller, J., Kinsale Harbour: A History (Cork, 2014), p. 70

[65] Mercantile Navy List, 1870, p. 166

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Cork history

Digby Foulke of Youghal

Digby Foulke of Youghal

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

 

Colonel Digby Foulke was a long standing tenant of the Earl of Cork and Burlington at Youghal. He first entered the Earl’s service in the 1660s as a land agent. He continued to serve as an agent in the early decades of the eighteenth century. He fought in the Williamite wars in Ireland. He served as a justice of the peace from 1684 and was High Sheriff in 1695.[1]

Colonel Digby Foulke and Angell Maynard had a daughter in 1686 called Anne Digby Foulke. Mary Foulke, another daughter of Digby Foulke of Youghal, married Richard Davis of Cork City on 25th January 1709.[2] On 3rd February 1714 Digby Foulke granted to his daughter Mary Davis the lands of Moneybricky in the barony of Connelloe, County Limerick.[3] Angell Foulke, a third daughter of Digby Foulke of Youghal, married Edward Denny, son of Barry Denny and Catherine Maynard.

 

tour-temp-2

Youghal Clock tower (photographer unknown)

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[1] Stephen Ball (ed.), Lismore Castle Papers at the National Library (National Library of Ireland, 2007), p. 235

[2] http://members.pcug.org.au/~nickred/deeds/memorial_search.cgi?my_memorial=5902 accessed on 22 August 2013

[3] members.pcug.org.au/~nickred/deeds/memorial_extract.cgi?my_memorial=5902&my_indexer=Roz%20McC accessed on 22 August 2013

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Cork history, Maritime History, Waterford history

Dr. Eaton William Waters of Brideweir

Dr. Eaton William Waters of Brideweir

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

 

Dr. Eaton William Waters was born in Co. Waterford on 17th January 1865.[1] He had an older brother, George Alexander Waters born about 1863.[2] Eaton Waters was the son of another Eaton William Waters and Mary Waters of Tramore, Co. Waterford.[3] Eaton Waters senior was a physician and surgeon.[4] Eaton Waters junior had three sisters, Bessie, Anne and Helen.[5] The family grew up fast as on 14th September 1870 Dr. Eaton Waters senior died leaving Mary a widow with a young family to bring up. His personal effects were worth under £800 so the family were not poor.[6] In 1876 Marys Waters, living in Tramore, was the owner of 67 acres of land.[7] Eaton Waters junior’s grandfather was George Alexander Waters, M.D., who lived at Crobally Upper in the parish of Drmcannon, County Waterford, in the 1850s.[8] George Alexander Waters was a surgeon in the Royal Navy and was born in Cork in 1774 and died in Tramore in October 1858.[9]

Education

Eaton Waters began his education in Waterford High School before moving onto Queens College, Galway, and the Carmichael College of Medicine in Dublin. As the son of a doctor and grandson of a doctor the medical profession was in his blood. In 1886 he obtained a M.Ch. from the Royal University of Ireland and in 1887 got a M.A.O. (Hons.). After qualification he became a Demonstrator of Anatomy at Queens College, Galway before moving to England to pursue his medical career.[10]

Medical doctor

In England, Eaton Waters operated a private practice in Huddersfield and Bolton for many years before returning to Ireland in the early twentieth century.[11]

Census 1911

In the 1911 census Dr. Eaton Waters was living at Brideweir, Knocknagapple, Aghern. He was then aged 46 years and a member of the Church of Ireland. A physician and graduate of the Royal University of Ireland, Eaton Waters could read and write and was a bachelor. In the house with him on census night was Lizzie Griffin, a thirty year old general domestic servant of the Roman Catholic faith. Lizzie could read and write and was single in keeping with the usual marital status for domestic servants.[12] Lizzie was an experience domestic servant. In 1901 she worked for Rev. John Nason, curate of Mogeely, at his house in Ballynoe village where he lived with his widowed mother, Angelina Nason.[13] In 1911 Rev. John Nason was married and living in Glenville with his mother and new wife along with a single domestic servant of the Church of Ireland faith.[14]

Interest in history

Eaton Waters and his elder brother George Waters, both had a great interest in Irish history. In 1920 Eaton Waters was a subscriber to the Succession list of the Bishop, Cathedral and Parochial Clergy of the Diocese of Waterford and Lismore (Dublin, 1920) by Rev. W.H. Rennison. Later Eaton Waters joined the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. In 1939 Eaton Waters was a member of the Council of the Royal Society of Antiquaries.[15] George Waters was a member of the Irish Text Society.[16] In 1939 Eaton’s son Adrian became a member of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society.[17]

 

eaton-waters.jpg

Dr. Eaton Waters (care of Conna in History and Tradition, p. 327)

Cork Historical and Archaeological Society

In 1911 Dr. Eaton Waters was elected a member of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society.[18] He took an active part in the Society, in its proceedings and welfare and was a member of the governing council for a number of years. In the Society journal and on Society outings Eaton waters enjoyed sharing his knowledge of local topography with members and entertaining members on Society tours of north-east Cork.[19] In 1931 Dr. Eaton Waters wrote a history of the Waters family in the Society journal.[20] In 1939-1941 Dr. Eaton Waters was president of the Society.[21]

The Great War

Eaton’s elder brother, George Waters also took up a medical career becoming a surgeon in the Royal Navy. At the start of the Great War in 1914 George Alexander Waters was a fleet surgeon serving aboard H.M.S. Drake at Gibraltar as part of the 5th Cruiser Squadron.[22] When the Gallipoli campaign began in early 1915 George Waters got involved as a fleet surgeon aboard H.M.S. Goliath.[23] On 13th May 1915 he was killed off Gallipoli when the ship was torpedoed.[24]

Life at Brideweir

Brideweir house was built as a vicarage in 1822 by the then vicar of Aghern and Britway, Rev. Ludlow Tonson for £923. The last vicar to live in the house died in 1899 and it was sold as a private residence to Clement Broad.[25] In 1901 Brideweir house was owned by Clement Broad but was unoccupied.[26] In 1905 Dr. Eaton Waters purchased the house and made it his home.[27] In 1911 Brideweir house had five windows in the front of the house and seventeen rooms within.[28] There were eight outhouses made up by one stable, one coach house, one harness room, one cow house, one dairy, one fowl house, one workshop and one shed.[29] In the 1930s Eaton Waters had his own electricity in the house by the use of a water wheel on the river.[30]

Away from Brideweir Dr. Eaton waters invested in the number of house properties in at Chapel Street and Barrack Street in Tallow, Co. Waterford. There he employed a Mr. Conway to collect the rent. But just like the landlords of the nineteenth century the rent was not always forthcoming and some tenants who made improvements to the houses sought to put the cost against the rent. In 1936 Michael Harty of Barrack Street sought such accosts against his rent but Eaton Waters said the costs were unauthorised and Harty was in arrears of rent and was served with an ejectment order. In court Harty’s wife promised to pay the rnet and E. Carroll, solicitor of Fermoy, acting for Eaton Waters, agreed.[31]

Marriage and family

On 11th December 1918 Dr. Eaton Waters married Annie Martin Orr from Bengal in India. They had six children: Helen (d. 18th March 1933), Christopher (d. 20th March 1936), Cicely (wife of Martin Hurley), Adrain, Ormond and Maeve.[32]

In 1919-21 the Aghern area saw action during the War of Independence. On 16th February 1920 the R.I.C. barracks in the village was attacked. One stray bullet with through a window of Brideweir and after hitting off the wall landed on the floor but thankfully the room was unoccupied at the time. After a four hour gun battle, the barracks was not captured but six weeks the police abandoned the building. Two weeks later the empty building was burnt down on a night when the wind blew from the north so as not to burn any of Dr. Waters’ trees.[33] During the War Dr. Waters treated injured soldiers from both sides.[34]

In the summer of 1921 the central arch of Aghern Bridge was blown up. After the Truce it was repaired but during the Civil War the bridge was blown up again. Some of the demolition crew had breakfast at Brideweir by their own invitation.[35]

Death

On 28th February 1945, Dr. Eaton Waters died at his residence, Brideweir, after a protracted illness.[36] He was buried in the nearby Aghern graveyard. Eaton’s son Adrian continued to live at Brideweir until 1954 when he sold the house to Dr. Kevin McCarthy who established a thriving medical practice.[37] Annie Orr Waters moved to New Zealand where she died on 30th March 1969 in Hamilton.[38]

 

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[1] https://www.ancientfaces.com/person/eaton-william-waters-birth-1865-death-1945-ireland/192514554 [accessed on 20 May 2019]

[2] White, G., & O’Shea, B. (eds.), A Great Sacrifice: Cork servicemen who died in the Great War (Cork, 2010), p. 479

[3] White, G., & O’Shea, B. (eds.), A Great Sacrifice: Cork servicemen who died in the Great War, p. 479

[4] http://www.willcalendars.nationalarchives.ie/reels/cwa/005014889/005014889_00643.pdf [accessed on 20 May 2019]

[5] https://www.ancientfaces.com/person/eaton-william-waters-birth-1865-death-1945-ireland/192514554 [accessed on 20 May 2019]

[6] http://www.willcalendars.nationalarchives.ie/reels/cwa/005014889/005014889_00643.pdf [accessed on 20 May 2019]

[7] Anon, Return of Owners of Land on one acres and upwards in the several Counties, Counties of cities and Counties of towns in Ireland (Dublin, 1876), p. 178

[8] Griffiths Valuation, Crobally Upper, Drumcannon parish

[9] https://www.ancientfaces.com/person/george-alexander-waters-birth-1774-death-1858/192545266 [accessed on 20 May 2019]

[10] Anon, Conna in History and Tradition (Conna, 1998), p. 278

[11] Anon, Conna in History and Tradition (Conna, 1998), p. 278

[12] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai001924742/ [accessed on 20 May 2019]

[13] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai000571942/ [accessed on 20 May 2019]

[14] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai001851234/ [accessed on 20 May 2019]

[15] Report of the Council, 1939, in the Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Seventh Series, Vol. 10, No. 2 (Jun. 30, 1940), pp. 103-109, at p. 103

[16] Irish Text Society, Vol. XVI (1914), p. 22

[17] Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, Vol. XLIX, No. 170 (July-December 1944), p. 7

[18] Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, Vol. XLIX, No. 170 (July-December 1944), p. 7

[19] Holland, M., ‘Obituary, Eaton W. Waters, M.B., M.Ch., M.A.O., F.R.S.A.I.’, in the Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, Vol. L, No. 171 (January-June 1945), p. 68

[20] Martin, J., ‘Annual Report for 1931’, in the Journal of the County Louth Archaeological Society, Vol. 7, No. 3 (Dec., 1931), pp. 444-449, at p. 444

[21] http://corkhist.ie/about-chas/past-presidents-of-the-society/ [accessed on 20 May 2019]

[22] Irish Text Society, Vol. XVI (1914), p. 22

[23] White, G., & O’Shea, B. (eds.), A Great Sacrifice: Cork servicemen who died in the Great War, p. 479

[24] Anon, Conna in History and Tradition (Conna, 1998), p. 278

[25] Anon, Conna in History and Tradition (Conna, 1998), p. 277

[26] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai000571710/ [accessed on 20 May 2019]

[27] Anon, Conna in History and Tradition (Conna, 1998), p. 278

[28] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai001924720/ [accessed on 20 May 2019]

[29] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai001924722/ [accessed on 20 May 2019]

[30] Anon, Conna in History and Tradition (Conna, 1998), p. 330

[31] Dungarvan Observer, 19 December 1936, page 3; For the purchase of Tallow town by Dr. Waters from the Duke of Devonshire (1904-1932) see Waterford County Archive, Lismore castle papers, IE/WCA/PP/LISM/512

[32] Anon, Conna in History and Tradition (Conna, 1998), p. 278

[33] Anon, Conna in History and Tradition (Conna, 1998), pp. 101, 102

[34] Anon, Conna in History and Tradition (Conna, 1998), p. 101

[35] Anon, Conna in History and Tradition (Conna, 1998), p. 102

[36] Holland, M., ‘Obituary, Eaton W. Waters, M.B., M.Ch., M.A.O., F.R.S.A.I.’, in the Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, Vol. L, No. 171 (January-June 1945), p. 68

[37] Anon, Conna in History and Tradition (Conna, 1998), p. 278

[38] Anon, Conna in History and Tradition (Conna, 1998), p. 278

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Cork history, Military History

William Henry Collis of Castlelyons

William Henry Collis of Castlelyons

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

 

Introduction

Captain William Henry Collis died on 9th May 1917 from wounds received in battle. He was at the time a captain in the 7th Battalion, Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers. He was buried in La Laiterie Military Cemetery at Heuvelland, Belgium. Captain William Collis was the eldest son of Lieutenant Colonel William Gun Collis of Barrymore Lodge, Castlelyons.[1]

William’s younger brother, John George Collis (born 2nd March 1895), served in the Queen’s Royal West Surrey Regiment and survived the Great War.[2] William Henry Collis was born on 4th June 1892 as the eldest son of William Gun Collis by his wife Mabel Robson.[3]

 

Barrymore Lodge

Barrymore Lodge, Castlelyons

William Collis of Kerry

The earliest ancestor of William Henry Collis was William Collis of Lisedoge, Co. Kerry. The second son of William Collis, John Collis, married Elizabeth daughter of Peter Cooke of Castle Cooke, near Kilworth, Co. Cork. They were the parents of Rev. William Collis (died 25th May 1754), Rector of Church Hill, and Kilgobben, Co. Kerry, who on 22nd November 1750 married his cousin, Martha, daughter and co-heiress of Thomas Cooke, of Ahada, and Castle Cooke.[4]

Thomas Cooke of Castle Cooke

Thomas Cooke of Castle Cooke was the eldest son of Peter Cooke by his wife (married 23rd April 1696) Elizabeth Mitchell. Peter Cooke was the son of Thomas Cooke of Dungallane, (renamed Castle Cooke), a Quaker and merchant in Cork City and grandson of Thomas Cooke, an officer in Lord Broghill’s Regiment in the Confederate War.[5]

Thomas Cooke succeeded his father to Castle Cooke and married Dorothy, daughter of Robert Sheilds, of Wainstown, Co. Meath, and niece of Clotworthy Wade, of Clonebraney, Co. Meath. They had three children, namely, Elizabeth who married (as his 1st wife), Sir Thomas Blackall, of Dublin, second son of Thomond Blackall, of Littlerath, Co. Kildare and died without issue on 6th July 1752; Martha who married Rev. William Collis and Anne who married William Cosgrave.[6]

With no male heirs Thomas Cooke was succeeded at Castle Cooke by his brother, Rev. Zachery Cooke. Rev. Zachery Cooke died unmarried and was succeeded at Castle Cooke by his niece, Martha, wife of Rev. William Collis. The eldest son of Martha Collis, Rev. Zachery Collis took the additional name of Cooke upon succeeding to the Castle Cooke estate and thus became Rev. Zachery Cooke-Collis.

Rev. Zachery Cooke-Collis was archdeacon of Cloyne from 1810 to 1834 when he was succeeded by Rev. William Ryder.[7] In 1834 both clerics tried to collect tithes dues in the parish of Gortroe which was attached to the archdeaconry of Cloyne. Their efforts met with resistance as this was the period of the Tithe War in which there was widespread resistance to the tithe across the country. When, on 18th December 1834, they tried to get tithes from the widow Ryan confrontation between the local people and the military force which accompanied the clerics led to the massacre of Gortroe in which nine people were killed and forty-five injured.

The younger brother of Rev. Zachery Cooke-Collis was William Collis of Richmond, Co. Waterford and Mountfort Lodge, near Fermoy, Co. Cork.

William Collis

William Collis (died 22nd April 1839) was a Barrister-at-Law. Before 1793 William Collis married Jane, eldest daughter of Peter Carey of Careysville, Co. Cork. William and Jane Collis had five sons and one daughter. The second son was Peter Collis of Mountfort Lodge.[8]

Peter Collis

Peter Collis was born 4th July 1793 and lived at Mountford Lodge near Fermoy, Co. Cork. Peter Collis was a Captain in the 95th Regiment. On 19th June 1843 Peter Collis married Elizabeth Mitchell (died Dec 1884), daughter of John Carey, of South Cregg, Fermoy, Co. Cork. On 28th January 1871 Peter Cooke Collis died. Peter and Elizabeth Collis had three sons and one daughter. The eldest son of Peter and Elizabeth Collis was William Gun Collis of Castlelyons.[9]

William Gun Collis

William Gun Collis of Barrymore Lodge, Castlelyons was born on 16th April 1845. William Collis served as a Lieutenant Colonel in the Queen’s Royal West Surrey Regiment, the same Regiment his second son served in during the Great War.[10] On 23rd December 1864 William Gun Collis was made an ensign or Second Lieutenant. On 1st July 1871 he was promoted to Lieutenant and on 21st July 1880 was made a Captain. On 25th March 1885 William Gun Collis was promoted to the rank of Major. In 1890 William Gun Collis was a Major in the Surrey Regiment and an adjutant to the 2nd Volunteer Battalion. In 1890 the 2nd Battalion was based in Umballa in Bengal. By 1890 William Gun Collis had served twenty-six years in the army.[11]

On 4th December 1890 William Gun Collis married Mabel Katherine, daughter of Captain G.L. Robson (5th Dragoon Guards), of Altwood, Berkshire. They had two sons and one daughter, the eldest son of whom was the William Henry Collis killed in the Great War.[12]

In the 1901 census William Gun Collis (aged 55) lived at Castlelyons with his wife Mabel (aged 40) and their three children, William (8), Marjorie (6) and John (5). The two eldest children could read and write but John could not read. They had four servants in the house, namely, Kate O’Connor (18) housemaid, Norah Cullinane (20) cook, Mary McCarthy (23) parlour maid and James Houghton (26) groom and domestic servant. William Gun Collis gave his occupation as Lieutenant Colonel (retired). In 1901 Mabel Collis gave her place of birth as Staffordshire while in 1911 she said it was in Berkshire. In 1901 Barrymore Lodge had 9 windows in front and 14 rooms used by the family along with 11 outbuildings.[13]

In the census of 1911 William Gun Collis (aged 65) lived at Castlelyons with his wife Mabel (aged 50) and two servants. These servants were Ellen Lynch (31), cook and domestic servant, and Bridget Murray (25) domestic servant. William Gun Collis gave his occupation as a retired army colonel and all declared that they had no infectious diseases. Barrymore Lodge had 9 windows in front and 12 rooms used by the family along with 15 outbuildings.[14]

William Henry Collis

William Henry Collis was born in Hampshire on 4th June 1892 as the first child of William and Mabel Collis. In the 1901 census he lived at Castlelyons with his parents and was described as a scholar. when war broke out in 1914 scholarly activities were left behind and people joined up to defend the Empire and countless other reasons. In 1917 William Henry Collis was with the 7th Battalion, Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers. In October 1914 the 7th Battalion had joined the 49th Brigade as part of the 16th Irish Division. In August 1917 the 7th and 8th Battalions of the Inniskillings formed one battalion because of a shortage of soldiers to fill both. During the War the 16th Division suffered more than 28,000 casualties and had to return to England in June 1918 after taking a battering in the German spring offensive.[15] It is not clear where Captain William Henry Collis received his wounds from which he died on the 9th May. After the Great War Lt. Col. William Collis and his wife Mabel moved to Cheltenham in England.

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[1] Gerry White and Brendan O’Shea (eds.), A Great Sacrifice: Cork Servicemen who died in the Great War (Echo Publications, Cork, 2010), p. 209

[2] Burke’s Irish Family Records, 1976, p. 259

[3] Burke’s Irish Family Records, 1976, p. 259

[4] Burke’s Irish Family Records, 1976, p. 259

[5] Burke’s Irish Family Records, 1976, p. 259

[6] Burke’s Irish Family Records, 1976, p. 259

[7] Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling (eds.), OKief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 6, p. 838

[8] Burke’s Irish Family Records, 1976, p. 259

[9] Burke’s Irish Family Records, 1976, p. 259

[10] Burke’s Irish Family Records, 1976, p. 259

[11] http://www.mocavo.com/Harts-Annual-Army-List-1890/151785/227 accessed on 11 September 2015

[12] Burke’s Irish Family Records, 1976, p. 259

[13] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/pages/1901/Cork/Castlelyons/Killsaintann_s_South/1143897/ accessed on 11 September 2015

[14] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/pages/1911/Cork/Castlelyons/Kill_St__Anne_South/412228/ accessed on 11 September 2015

[15] Gerry White and Brendan O’Shea (eds.), A Great Sacrifice: Cork Servicemen who died in the Great War (Echo Publications, Cork, 2010), pp. 72, 74

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Cork history, Maritime History, Waterford history

The Hope of Cork

The Hope of Cork

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

 

In 2008, I wrote in Blackwater and Bride: Navigation and Trade, 7000 BC to 2007 that the Claggan of Barrow, purchased by David O’Keeffe of Tallow in 1912, was just the latest in a number of vessels owned by O’Keeffe over his long business career.[1] One of these other vessels owned by O’Keeffe was the Hope of Cork.

 

179786_499441156796443_949584805_n

 

The Hope was built in 1858 at Ulverston as a wooden schooner. Ulverston was then in Lnacastershire but is now in Cumbria. The Hope’s original port of registration was Lancaster and so she was called the Hope of Lancaster.[2] The vessel’s dimensions were given as 71 X 19.6 X 8.9 feet.[3] The Hope had 75 net registered tons. Her official number was 20484 and she displayed a signal hoist of NBJP.[4]

In 1860 the Hope was owned by Petty & Co. of Ulverston who operated the vessel as a coaster and J. Pernic was her master.[5] Petty & Co. was a private bank founded in Ulverston in 1804 under that name of Petty & Postlethwaite. In 1863 the bank was purchased by the Wakefield, Crewsdon & Co. bank of Kendal.[6] Petty & Co. was involved in building and owning ships since the 1810s.[7] By 1865 the Hope was still owned by Petty & Co. of Ulverston who continued to operate the vessel as a coaster while M. Wilson was her new master.[8]

Later in 1865 Matthew Wilson of Ulverston was given as the owner of the Hope.[9] As her former master he must have liked the vessel sufficiently to purchase her. But Matthew Wilson didn’t long enjoy the Hope of Lancaster as by 1867 the vessel was owned by John Bell of Ulverston[10]. In about 1876 the Hope of Lancaster was sold to James Geldart of Barrow in Lancastershire.[11]

In 1889 the Hope sailed up the Blackwater to Cappoquin, Co. Waterford, with a cargo for John Stanley. Her captain on that occasion was named Dalton. In the same year, the Hope exported three cargos of timber for David O’Keeffe of Tallow and another two cargos for John Stanley. The Hope sailed up the Bride, a tributary of the Blackwater, twice in 1890 and again in 1895 to export oats (948 barrels). The vessel sailed up the Blackwater once in 1890 and twice in 1891. Captain Allin was her master in 1891.[12]

After seeing the Hope in 1889 David O’Keeffe of Tallow liked the vessel so much that her brought her and re-registered the Hope at Cork. Although David O’Keeffe is listed as the owner and manager it is unlikely that he was the actual master of the Hope. David O’Keeffe was a large coal, timber and grain merchant in west Waterford/east Cork and would have little time to sail merchant vessels and little training. Later, during the Great War, David O’Keeffe was the owner of the Claggan of Barrow.[13]

 

David

David O’Keeffe

But owning and operating a sailing merchant vessel was a specialist activity. By 1891 David O’Keeffe decided to sell the Hope yet still use her to carry his cargoes as in 1893 the vessel exported oats for O’Keeffe from the Bride River.[14]

Between 1891 and 1897 the Hope of Cork was owned by Mrs. Emma Nance of Placetenton Place, Cardiff and Horatio Nance of Dock Chambers, Cardiff was the master.[15] Horatio Nance was born about 1849 in Cornwall and in 1881 was living in Glamorgan. His wife was Emma Nance but it is not clear if it was Emma Nance of Placetenton Place or another woman of the same name.[16] The purchase of the Hope by the Nance family must have given them hope for a better future as in October 1888 Horatio Nance and his partner William Edwin Nance (merchant, ship brokers and coal agents) were in the Cardiff bankruptcy court.[17] By 1896 Horatio Nance was the owner of a coal mine at West Llantwit, near Beddau, Pontypridd. The mine was managed by David Thomas and had 12 workers underground and 3 on the surface.[18] In 1898 and 1899 the Hope of Cork was owned and manged by Ellis Roberts of Port Dinorwic, Carnarvon.[19]

After 1899 the Hope of Cork disappeared from the records and its fate is unknown.

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[1] O’Brien, N., Blackwater and Bride: Navigation and Trade, 7000 BC to 2007 (Ballyduff, 2008), p. 397

[2] Mercantile Navy List, 1889

[3] Lloyd’s List, 1865

[4] Mercantile Navy List, 1889

[5] Lloyd’s List, 1860

[6] Orbell, J., & Turton, A., British Banking: a guide to historical records (Abingdon, 2017), p. 522

[7] https://www.liverpool.ac.uk/~cmi/books/storm1826.html [accessed on 2 March 2019]

[8] Lloyd’s List, 1865

[9] Mercantile Navy List, 1865

[10] Mercantile Navy List, 1875

[11] Mercantile Navy List, 1885 & 1889

[12] Cork City & County Archives, Youghal Port Records, U138, Import & Export Returns, 1870-1912; O’Brien, Blackwater and Bride: Navigation and Trade, 7000 BC to 2007, p. 414

[13] Mercantile Navy List, 1890; O’Brien, Blackwater and Bride: Navigation and Trade, 7000 BC to 2007, pp. 268, 270, 271

[14] Cork City & County Archives, Youghal Port Records, U138, Import & Export Returns, 1870-1912;

[15] Mercantile Navy List, 1891 & 1897

[16] https://www.ancestry.co.uk/search/categories/1881uki/?name=_Nance&pg=5&count=50&name_x=_1 [accessed on 2 March 2019]

[17] South Wales Daily News, 4th October 1888 https://newspapers.library.wales/view/3669790/3669791/2/LIVERPOOL [accessed on 2 March 2019]

[18] http://projects.exeter.ac.uk/mhn/1896-59.htm [accessed 2 March 2019]

[19] Mercantile Navy List, 1898 & 1899

Standard
Cork history, General History, Maritime History, Waterford history

Blackwater and Bride book: ten years on

Blackwater and Bride book: ten years on

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

 

In December 2008 (ten years ago this month) I published my history book (and to date, December 2018, my only history book) entitled Blackwater and Bride: Navigation and Trade, 7000 BC to 2007. The book ran to 562 pages including numerous illustrations and tables. The vast majority of historians first attend college, then write a few articles for various historical journals and then publish a book or two as the culmination of their gathered knowledge. I kind of did the sequence of stages in reverse – firstly publishing a book, then writing articles for various historical journals and then, in 2017-19, attending the University College Cork education course, entitled: Diploma in Local and Regional Studies.

As the preface of the book recounted (reprinted below) the book originally began as a project for an article in Decies: the journal of the Waterford Archaeological and Historical Society, in the summer of 2002. Having finished the article on navigation on the Rivers Blackwater and Bride, I asked Mike Hackett of Youghal was there anything else to know relating to the subject. Before I could say ‘Hop, skip and jump’, the word had travelled around the historian community of east Cork and west Waterford that I was writing a book about the two rivers. I tried repeatedly to tell them that I was just writing an article for a historical journal but eventually just gave up. In 2002 the Rivers Blackwater and Bride were just noted fishing rivers and the present of numerous quays marked on the Ordinance Survey maps was possibly just done in the hope of river traffic rather than responding to a substantial level of river traffic in former times. I was confident that the book would be 100 pages at most and, like the Great War, be finished by Christmas. It was to be six years later before the book was done – ah the foolishness of youth.

 

179786_499441156796443_949584805_n

 

The official launch of the book in the Walter Raleigh Hotel, Youghal, 9th December 2008, was a nervous affair as I was then an unknown historian. The dust jacket of the book said that I had ‘written a number of articles in various historical journals’. This was a stretch of the truth. Up until 2008 I had only published two articles – one in a historical journal and another in a school history book. But to help promote the book I wrote off two articles during 2008 for two journals – Niall O’Brien, ‘The Earl of Desmond’s Navy’, in the Journal of the Kerry Archaeological and Historical Society, Series 2, Vol. 8 (2008), pp. 87-96 and Niall O’Brien, ‘The Estate of Maurice Brown of Rathmoylan: Its Origins and Descent’, in Decies, No. 64 (2008), pp. 41-46. The choice of these two journals was that they include a biography of the author and thus I could write in these biographies that I published the Blackwater and Bride book. The article in Decies did result in a direct sale of a copy of the book but I am not sure did it do much more.

In total 1,000 copies of the Blackwater and Bride book was produced of which 127 copies were sold at the book launch. It then took another 4 years to sell most of the books mainly through shops in Fermoy, Dungarvan and Youghal. The slow rate of sales, the end of Heritage Council funding of book publication and other distractions for my funds has meant that the Blackwater and Bride is so far my only book although the number of articles published in historical journals has increased to over sixteen.

The Blackwater and Bride book not only recorded the navigation and river trade on the two rivers and the Lismore canal but helped generate an appreciation of the two rivers among the communities along its banks. The river boating services offered by Denis Murray and Tony Gallagher acquired more customers. The Gathering 2013 festival in Knockanore used the river to boat people between Youghal and Cappoquin as an important part of its programme. A number of people have explored the idea of a restaurant river boat service on the Blackwater and the Bride. In 2016 the Villierstown community has established a boating service that includes a special boat for wheelchair people. Recently, the various communities along the Blackwater between Clashmore and Lismore have come together to develop the economy of the region with the river as a central theme. Before 2008 people along the two rivers had mostly forgotten about the river as they drove their cars to destinations away from the rivers. Since 2008 the two rivers have once again become a linkage between the communities.

On a personal level, the Blackwater and Bride book generated invitations to give history talks about the rivers and trade in Youghal, Tallow and Waterford city, which would not previously happen. The book further generated an invitation to write an article on the history of the Irish timber trade for the journal, Irish Forestry, which was nice to do and also opened my eyes to other places to publish history rather than keeping it too local.[1]

A further development by the book was the establishment of a Facebook page, entitled, Sailing Merchant Vessels, which records the history of various sailing vessels and accounts of sailing history that is today long gone.[2] The page has (December 2018) over 2,300 followers and it is hoped to continue to develop the site with more maritime history.

Hopefully someday I will get a chance to publish another book if I don’t get too distracted with articles in historical journals, or by two history blogs[3] or by two history pages on Facebook[4] as well as the fun of life, work and family. Should be good fun as the Blackwater book was even with all the work involved.

 

 

 

============

Contents

 

Preface

 

Acknowledgements

 

Chapters

 

  1. Early years of travel, 8,000 B.C. – 1600                               1
  2. The Rivers 1580 – 1700                                                          17
  3. Tidal river traffic 1700 – 1800                                              37
  4. Opening the river 1700 – 1850                                             53
  5. The ferries                                                                                67
  6. Lismore canal                                                                          81
  7. Tidal river traffic 1800 – 1900                                              98
  8. Shipbuilding by the river                                                     128
  9. Passenger traffic and steamboats                                       135
  10. The Bride River 1902 – 1922                                                145
  11. Blackwater dredging and river improvements              159
  12. River quays and bridges                                                      165
  13. Rowing, coting and yachting                                               187
  14. Tidal river traffic 1936 – 1958                                             196
  15. Bride and Blackwater vessels                                              213
  16. Conclusion                                                                              272

 

Bibliography                                                                                     274

 

Appendices

 

Appendix I

Partial returns of trade on the Lismore canal                      283

Appendix II

Local corn and flour mills from Griffith’s Valuation           284

Appendix III

Personalities of the river in the nineteenth century           285

Appendix IV

Types of vessels on the river                                                   286

Appendix V

Time table of the Blackwater Steamer Company                287

Appendix VI

Coastal trade at Youghal 1866 to 1879                                  288

Appendix VII

Some mallow canal accounts for 1761                                   289

Appendix VIII

Figures by Musgrave to get £10,000 savings on river traffic 291

Appendix IX

Notes on the Youghal Harbour records                                  292

Appendix X

Notes on the Lismore Canal Lockage accounts                     293

Appendix XI

Miscellaneous trade on the two rivers 1879 to 1898           294

Appendix XII

Line drawings of a Blackwater market boat                          296

 

Index of people and places                                           200

 

Index of ships                                                                317

 

====================

 

Preface

 

 

Today when we think of travel, we mention cars, buses, trains and planes. But for an island nation we often fail to mention ships. Yet to people in the past, ships would be their first choice. The Blackwater and Bride are today noted all over the world as rivers for good fishing. For our forefathers, they were the super highways of their time. If we want to go to England, France or Australia, many hours in a car and at an airport would have to be endured. Our grandparents just had to go down to the bottom of the garden and board a ship which would take them there direct.

The first river navigators came to do shopping and find accommodation. The Irish of the early medieval period used the rivers to export their agriculture surplus as did the later Normans while importing luxury items from across the globe.  The seventeenth century saw a great expansion in river traffic with the influence of the new English and the happy survival of more documents than the medieval period. After such activity, the first haft of the eighteenth century was one of rest until 1750 when the Mallow Canal and the growth of the corn trade brought an increase in traffic. From this time until the 1950’s, the corn trade provided varied levels of river activity, along with imports of coal and exports of timber. Such trade was carried on the river lighters and after1884 principally on the merchant schooners. Facilities such as the many river quays and warehouses were constructed while many of the fishing weirs were removed to aid navigation. The two rivers saw some of the first navigators to Ireland and had visits from some of the last merchant schooners at the end of sail.

The origin of this book was a request by Patrick Grogan that I write an article on west Waterford for the Waterford Archaeological and Historical Society journal, Decies. Navigation on the Suir had been well written about in Decies and I felt a little balance to marine affairs in Waterford would do no harm. Therefore I wrote a piece on the opening of the Blackwater River above Lismore from 1700 to 1850 (which now forms chapter four).

Having finished the proposed article in just a few months, I felt really happy with myself. This article encompassed the whole picture of Blackwater navigation, as I supposed it to be. But just to make sure that I had covered all the aspects of the subject, I wrote a letter to Mike Hackett of Youghal, asking was there anything else to be learnt on the subject. Mike had written so many books on Youghal and the Blackwater that he seemed like a good fellow to ask (he also happen to be the only marine person I knew at the time). Mike replied that Frank Mills of Knockanore was the person to ask. He wisely never let on that only the tip of the iceberg had been touched. So I rang Frank in February 2003 and five years later, this book is the bigger picture. Even Frank was amazed at the amount of information available.

But despite the bigger picture, this book does not tell the full story. People may find the use of notes to be excessive. I apologize if the notes break the flow of your reading and enjoyment. The subject of navigation on the Blackwater and Bride Rivers has never been written in book form before. Some aspects like the Mallow Canal and the passenger steam boats of the nineteenth century have appeared in articles of historical journals or in a chapter of a book, but not the full story. Therefore this book not just corrects this lacking but also forms an information source for future research and publications. Hence the excessive notes are I hope an aid to the next voyage of discovery.

I could even have spent more time on further research. We didn’t consult old newspapers. What! Didn’t consult newspapers; what scandal. Yea well some people are full of scandal. To do so would postpone publication for two or three more years. As the living memory of navigation is fast leaving us with the last vessel having left the Blackwater in 1958, it was felt that further postponement would deprive of us all of giving acknowledgement to the men (they were mostly men), who sailed the Blackwater and Bride where now only fish and ducks travel.

In such a work there have been high and low points. Meeting Frank Mills and the legendary Dick Scott was a joy and pleasure which long years will never diminish. Johnny McGrath looking into a skip full of papers in Dungarvan, from where he pulled out the bridge log books of Camphire (for 1902 to 1956), and of Youghal (from 1936 to 1958) was an invaluable piece of salvage. Some would express disappointment that he didn’t pull out more papers, but without those log books the navigation story would certainly be the poorer. Finding the log books for the Lismore Canal in Dublin and, in greater number, at Dungarvan was great. The disappointment came with only one book for before for the fifty four years before 1851 (and that book only covering three years).[5] Further sorrow arrived with the Youghal harbour books only surviving for the period after 1878, made establishing the level of trade on the two rivers extremely hard. Thankfully the harbour books after 1878 gave us wonderful information. Chapter seven and fifteen are based heavily upon these books.

Dr. Johnson once wrote to Charles O’Connor on his “Dissertations on the History of Ireland” that “I hope you will continue to cultivate this kind of learning, which has too long lain neglected, and which if it be suffered to remain in oblivion for another century, may, perhaps, never be retrieved.” This book is slightly late in time to retrieve much of the living folklore, but I trust, not too late to tell this remarkable story, and keep it from oblivion.

If there any errors or omissions, I hope they are few and that if readers note any, we can correct same in a further edition. With this proviso, hopefully you will find the result of this book to be worthwhile and enjoyable, fascinating and interesting.

 

 

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[1] O’Brien, N.C.E.J., ‘Timber exports in the south east’, in Irish Forestry, Vol. 74, Nos. 1 & 2 (2017), pp. 168-190

[2] https://www.facebook.com/sailingmerchantvessels/?ref=bookmarks [accessed 30 December 2018]

[3] http://celtic2realms-medievalnews.blogspot.com/ [accessed on 30 December 2018] covering medieval history and https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/ [accessed on 30 December 2018] covering modern history.

[4] https://www.facebook.com/MallowFermoyLismoreWaterfordRailwayBranchLines/?ref=bookmarks [accessed on 30 December 2018] and https://www.facebook.com/sailingmerchantvessels/?ref=bookmarks [accessed 30 December 2018]

[5] Since the writing of the preface in 2007 the National Library of Ireland completed a new catalogue of the Lismore Papers by Stephen Ball in which additional information on the Lismore canal before 1851 was discovered. MS 43,786/1 is an Account for the Lismore Canal with Samuel Kenah & Co. (1816-9), returns of lockage received (1828-49), and return of proceeds of lockage from the Lismore Canal (1855-7), 6 items; MS 43,786/2 is entitled Lockage account book for the years 1828 to 1840, 1 item

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Cork history, Maritime History

Youghal vessels in 1860

Youghal vessels in 1860

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

Introduction

The following article is just a brief biography of the vessels registered to the port of Youghal in 1860. The port of Youghal is situated at the mouth of the Munster Blackwater in east Cork in southern Ireland. Its seafaring tradition extends back to the thirteenth century and beyond. Peter de Paris, a merchant of the town, was appointed commander of the English fleet which took part in the war on Scotland around 1300.

Albion: The Albion was built in 1834 in Nova Scotia with a barque rig. She had 313 net tons. In 1840 the Albion was owned by W. Delap of New Brunswick while Mr. Carpenter was her master.[1] In 1853 she had repairs and was partially rebuilt with iron bolts. In 1855 further repairs were carried out. By 1855 the Albion was owned by Pim & Co. of Youghal with S. Hanlan as master. She was involved in the Youghal/Mediterranean trade.[2] In 1860 she was still owned by Pim and Son of Youghal while S. Hanlan was her master.[3] The Albion does not appear in the 1865 Lloyd’s Register and her fate is unknown.

Caroline: The Caroline was built in 1856 on Prince Edward Island. She was a brigantine rig vessel with 115 net tons. The Caroline was constructed using black beech and oak with iron bolts. Also used were spruce, pine and juniper with maple. In 1858 she was owned by W. Parker of Youghal and E. Sheehan was her master.[4] In 1860 she was still owned by W. Parker of Youghal and was involved in the Youghal coasting trade.[5]

The Caroline does not appear in the 1865 Lloyd’s Register. Yet in 1865 she was owned by W. Parker of Youghal with a signal hoist of SMVF and having a registration number of 39094.[6] She was still owned by W. Parker in 1870.[7] By 1872 John Evans of Youghal was the owner of the Caroline.[8] The Caroline seems to disappear from the records in 1878.

Ceres: The Ceres was an old schooner in 1860 as she was built in 1826 at Youghal by Mr. McCarthy.[9] The Ceres was 27 gross ton (16 net tons) and in 1860 was owned by M. MacCarthy.[10] The Ceres does not appear in the 1865 Lloyd’s Register. Yet in 1865 she was owned by C. McCarthy of Youghal. In that year her signal hoist was JLMH and her registration number was 5871.[11] The Ceres is last seen in the records in 1868 and disappears after that.[12]

Countess of Durham: The Countess of Durham was a barque rig vessel built in 1838 at Truro in Nova Scotia. She was 324 net tons. In 1846 she had repairs at White’s shipyard in Waterford.[13] In 1848 she had some further repairs in which she was sheathed in yellow metal. In 1850 she was owned by Barns & Co. of Waterford and was involved in the Waterford to Quebec trade. Rowlands was her master.[14] In 1849-50 the Countess of Durham earned £149 on the Quebec sailings.[15] In 1850 and again in 1855 there were some repairs done to the vessel. By 1855 the Countess of Durham was owned by T. Strangman of Waterford and W. Dalton was her master. The vessel was then involved in the Waterford to Cadiz trade.[16]

In 1858 she was owned by J. Pim of Youghal and was involved in the Youghal to America trade.[17] In 1860 she was owned by J. Pim of Youghal and was involved in the Youghal coastal trade. Her master in 1860 was W. Dalton.[18] In 1865 she was still owned by Pim.[19] In 1868 the Countess of Durham was still owned by J.W. Pim of Myrtle Grove, Youghal.[20] Myrtle Grove was given that name by Sir Lawrence Parsons after 1616. Sir Walter Raleigh is said to have lived in the house in 1588 and in 1602 it is referred to as the Warden’s house of Youghal College but the exact age of the house is unknown.[21]

In 1868 the Countess of Durham’s signal hoist was RCJQ and her registration number was 32966 and her registered tonnage was 298 tons.[22] The Countess of Durham does not appear in the 1870 Lloyd’s Register but was still owned by J.W. Pim.[23] In 1878 she was still owned by J.W. Pim but disappears from the records after that.[24]

 

Youghal

Youghal Harbour (photo by Niall O Brien)

 

Eliza O’Keeffe: The Eliza O’Keeffe was built in 1856 at Youghal by P. Kidney using iron bolts. P. Kidney was a builder of several schooners and brigantines for the Mediterranean fruit trade. The Eliza O’Keeffe was his most famous vessel.[25] The Eliza O’Keeffe was rigged as a brigantine and had 120 net tons. In 1858 she was owned by O’Keeffe of Youghal and Eastaway was her master.[26] In 1860 she was still owned by O’Keeffe of Youghal and was involved in the Youghal/Mediterranean trade with Eastaway was her master.[27]

In 1865 the dimensions of the Eliza O’Keeffe were 85.6 feet X 22.1 X 11.1 feet and she was still owned by O’Keeffe.[28] In 1870 the Eliza O’Keeffe was sold to Clifford’s and Co. of Waterford. She then was involved in the Cork/France trade. S. Clifford took over as master from J. Walsh.[29] In 1898 she was still owned by Clifford’s. Her dimensions were given as 85.6 feet X 22.1 11.1 feet. Her official number was 14647 and her signal host was LPBK.[30] In March 1900 she was wrecked in Dungarvan Bay.[31]

Ellen: The Ellen was a schooner rigged vessel built in 1842 in Sackville, New Brunswick, using iron bolts. She 109 gross tons and 81 net tons. In 1845 the Ellen was owned by O’Keeffe of Youghal and was involved in the Youghal to London trade. R. Hanlon was her master.[32] In 1855 the Ellen was restored. By 1858 the Ellen was owned by D. O’Keeffe of Youghal and E. Kennedy was her master.[33] In 1860 she was still owned by D. O’Keeffe of Youghal and was involved in the Youghal coastal trade. E. Kennedy was still the master of the Ellen.[34]

The Ellen does not appear in the 1870 Lloyd’s Register yet she was still owned by David O’Keeffe of Youghal. In 1870 her registration number was 19031 and her signal hoist was MQGR and she had 87 registered tons.[35] In 1872 the Ellen was owned by Thomas Leonard Barber Edgecome of 24 Brunswick’s Square in London.[36] By 1874 the Ellen was back in Youghal ownership in the hands of John McCarthy and he still owned her in 1887 but the vessel disappeared from the records after that.[37]

Industry: The Industry was a schooner rigged vessel built in 1848 in Sackville, New Brunswick, using iron bolts like the Ellen. In 1850 the Industry was owned by John & Co. of Milford and was involved in the Milford coastal trade. She had 76 net tons and J. John was her master.[38] In 1855 she was still owned by John & Co.[39] By 1858 the Industry was owned by Walsh & Co. of Youghal and was involved in the Cork coastal trade.[40] In 1859 the Industry had some repairs. In 1860 she was owned by Walsh & Co. of Youghal and D. Llewellyn was her master. She had 69 net tons.[41] In 1865 she was still owned by Walsh & Co. and her dimensions were given as 68.4 feet X 17.1 X 9 feet.[42] In 1870 the Industry was owned by Thomas Curtin, junior, of Youghal. Her registration number was 11462 and her signal hoist was KSRC with 70 registered tons.[43] The Industry does not appear on the 1872 Lloyd’s Register. In 1874 Thomas Curtin still owned the Industry but the vessel disappeared from the records after that time.[44]

Jersey Tar: The Jersey Tar was built in 1837 in Jersey using some iron bolts. She had a Brigantine rig. The vessel was noted for its figurehead of a sailor with a naval cap and collar.[45] In 1845 the Jersey Tar was owned by J. du Caen of Jersey. She was involved in the Liverpool to Cadiz trade. J. de Caen was her master and she had 143 gross tons and 135 net tons.[46] The Jersey Tar does not appear in the 1850 Lloyd’s Register.

In 1853 and again in 1856 the Jersey Tar had some repairs. In 1858 the Jersey Tar had a new bottom installed.[47] In 1855 she was owned by McCarthy and J. McCarthy was her master. The port of registration was not given.[48] By 1858 she was owned by Walsh & Co. of Youghal with J. Sheppard as her master.[49] In 1860 the Jersey Tar was still owned by Walsh & Co. of Youghal while Donovan was her master. In 1860 she had 118 net tons.[50]

In 1865 the Jersey Tar was still owned by Walsh & Co. while Donovan was still her master. Her dimensions were given as 72.5 feet X 18.5 X 12.6 feet.[51] In 1872 the Jersey Tar was owned by J. Curtin of Youghal with Donovan as her master. She was then involved with the coastal trade.[52] In 1883 the vessel was owned by John McGrath of Youghal with Donovan as her master. She was involved in the coastal trade.[53] In 1885 the Jersey tar was still owned by John McGrath. Her registration number was 26767 and her signal hoist was PMLJ and she had 118 tons.[54] She disappeared in the records by 1887.

The Jersey Tar does not appear on the 1889 Lloyd’s register. It was possibly about that year that the Jersey Tar collided in fog with another vessel while on a passage from Cardiff to Youghal with coal. The Jersey Tar lost her job-boom and her bow was smashed to pieces but she managed to make it to Youghal. There the vessel was judged to be uneconomic to repair and local boat-builder, Dan Ahern, brought the spars and canvas. The Jersey Tar was towed to the ship’s graveyard by Green’s Quay.

A few years later the hulk of the Jersey Tar was towed out again into the harbour. The Blackwater Tourist Board operated a steamer service on the River Blackwater between Cappoquin and Youghal. But the Board had trouble berthing the steamer at Youghal at low tide. The Board had the idea of using the hulk of the Jersey Tar as a pontoon between the steamer and the quay wall but it was found unsuitable. To recover the cost of buying the Jersey Tar, the Board sold the hulk for scrap metal to Paddy Dunne, captain of the steamer. Paddy Dunne had expected to recover firewood and scrap-iron but instead got copper and brass all over. The holding bolts between the keel and the keelson were nearly three feet solid brass by one-and-a-half inch thick. Paddy Dunne made a small fortune and soon had his own fishing fleet and became a member of the Urban District Council.[55]

Later years: Youghal merchants, seamen and locals didn’t stop owning sailing vessels after 1860 but the records are more difficult to extract as Youghal lost its independent port of registration and came under the port of Cork instead. Later vessels owned by Youghal people include the B.I., Dart, Emily, Express, Nellie Fleming, and the Kathleen & May among a host of other vessels.

 

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[1] Lloyd’s Register, 1840, page 20

[2] Lloyd’s Register, 1855, page 21

[3] Lloyd’s Register, 1860, page 12

[4] Lloyd’s Register, 1858, page 75

[5] Lloyd’s Register, 1860, page 81

[6] Mercantile Navy List, 1865, p. 58

[7] Mercantile Navy List, 1870, p. 61

[8] Mercantile Navy List, 1872, p. 147

[9] O’Brien, N., Blackwater and Bride: Navigation and Trade, 7000 BC to 2007 (Ballyduff, 2008), p. 232

[10] Lloyd’s Register, 1860, page 86

[11] Mercantile Navy List, 1865, p. 63

[12] Mercantile Navy List, 1868, p. 67

[13] Irish, B., Shipbuilding in Waterford 1820-1882: A historical, technical and pictorial study (Bray, 2001), p. 102

[14] Lloyd’s Register, 1850, page 98

[15] Irish, Shipbuilding in Waterford 1820-1882: A historical, technical and pictorial study, p. 57

[16] Lloyd’s Register, 1855, page 105

[17] Lloyd’s Register, 1858, page 100

[18] Lloyd’s Register, 1860, page 108

[19] Lloyd’s Register, 1865, page 128

[20] Mercantile Navy List, 1868, p. 85

[21] Hayman, Rev. S., The hand-book of Youghal (Youghal, 1896, reprint Youghal, 1973), pp. xiv, xv

[22] Mercantile Navy List, 1868, p. 85

[23] Mercantile Navy List, 1870, p. 84

[24] Mercantile Navy List, 1878, p. 209

[25] O’Brien, Blackwater and Bride: Navigation and Trade, 7000 BC to 2007, p. 233

[26] Lloyd’s Register, 1858, page 131

[27] Lloyd’s Register, 1860, page 142

[28] Lloyd’s Register, 1865, page 161

[29] Lloyd’s Register, 1870, page 162

[30] Lloyd’s Register, 1898, page 129

[31] O’Brien, Blackwater and Bride: Navigation and Trade, 7000 BC to 2007, p. 233

[32] Lloyd’s Register, 1845, page 139

[33] Lloyd’s Register, 1858, page 138

[34] Lloyd’s Register, 1860, page 149

[35] Mercantile Navy List, 1870, p. 117

[36] Mercantile Navy List, 1872, p. 199

[37] Mercantile Navy List, 1874, p. 210; Mercantile Navy List, 1887, p. 307

[38] Lloyd’s Register, 1850, page 204

[39] Lloyd’s Register, 1855, page 215

[40] Lloyd’s Register, 1858, page 207

[41] Lloyd’s Register, 1860, page 220

[42] Lloyd’s Register, 1865, page 243

[43] Mercantile Navy List, 1870, p. 186

[44] Mercantile Navy List, 1874, p. 278

[45] Hackett, M., Sailors and Characters of Youghal (Youghal, 1996), p. 12

[46] Lloyd’s Register, 1845, page 224

[47] Lloyd’s Register, 1860, page 239

[48] Lloyd’s Register, 1855, page 234

[49] Lloyd’s Register, 1858, page 224

[50] Lloyd’s Register, 1860, page 239

[51] Lloyd’s Register, 1865, page 263

[52] Lloyd’s Register, 1872, page 269

[53] Lloyd’s Register, 1883, page 438

[54] Mercantile Navy List, 1885, p. 389

[55] Hackett, Sailors and Characters of Youghal, pp. 12, 13

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Cork history, Dublin History, General History, Political History

The road to an Irish national bank

The road to an Irish national bank

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

Up until the end of the seventeenth century banks were often establishments that were attached to another principal business such as a merchant business. The first stand-alone bank was founded in Cork in 1680 by Edward and Joseph Hoare. The Hoare brothers were city merchants who were extensively involved in overseas trade and foreign exchange.[1]

About the same time a Huguenot refugee, David Digues La Touche settled in Dublin. There he developed a successful cloth dealership and merchant business. In the early 1690s David La Touche opened a bank with other partners. Through David’s business contacts the bank grew beyond its Dublin base.[2]

But this growing banking sector was without a head. In 1694 the Bank of England was established as the national bank of that country. This was followed in 1695 by the Bank of Scotland as the national bank of that country. Although great efforts were made in 1695 to establish a national bank in Ireland no such institution was founded.[3]

In 1692 the Irish House of Commons claimed ‘sole right’ to initiate financial legislation.[4]

In the years since 1680 many of the newly formed banks in Dublin, Cork and half a dozen other towns were both innovative and versatile in their business accruement. Among the activities of the banks was the remitting of large sums of money around the country, and between Ireland and England for merchants, landlords and government agencies. The banks also provided much needed short-term credit to merchants by issuing their own bank notes for bills of exchange prior to maturity.[5]

One characteristic of the early eighteenth century banks was their embodiment of merchant and landlord interest in mutual benefit.[6] The forthcoming debate on a national bank would test this mutual involvement.

Beginning in 1719 another attempt was made at forming a national bank. In 1720 about thirteen members of the House of Commons held senior positions within the Irish revenue service.[7] In December 1721 Lord Chancellor Midleton described a group of MPs as being ‘dependents on the Custom house’ during the final days of the national bank debate.[8] But the monetary interest in setting up a national bank was not as strong as the landed gentry block in the House of Commons.

On 9th December 1721 the Irish House of Commons voted on the issue of a national bank. The proposal for a national bank was defeated but the margin of the defeat is in some dispute. Two documents among the Rosse Papers give different votes. One document claims that one hundred and fifty members voted against and eighty voted for the bank but the other document said that one hundred and fifty-two voted against with ninety-eight for the proposal.[9] The divisional list among the Midleton papers at the Surrey History Centre (MS 1248/5, ff 105-6), records a different vote, but the same result.[10]

 

Parliament house dublin

Parliament House, Dublin and later HQ of the Bank of Ireland

The defeat of the national bank proposal was a telling display of the landed gentry’s dominance of parliament. There was no countervailing ‘moneyed interest’ as at Westminster.[11]

The failure to establish a national bank in Ireland was highlighted in a big way in 1722 with the granting of a royal patent to William Wood to coin copper halfpence pieces.[12] William Wood, a Wolverhampton manufacturer, was licenced to produce £100,800 worth of coins.[13] Lord Justice King and the Irish revenue commissioners separately wrote to the government with strong objects. They warned that the patent would be strongly opposed in Ireland because such a large production of copper coins would destroy the Irish economy.[14]

The political establishment in Ireland united in near one voice in opposition to the Wood patent. Both Houses of Parliament passed resolutions against it and members of the Privy Council and the revenue commissioners refused to use the coins in official receipts and payments.[15] When the Irish Parliament met in September 1732 opposition had become so strong that nobody would defend the patent in public. Even the government’s chief parliamentary manager, Speaker William Connolly, refused to defend the government’s position.[16] The London ministry of Sir Robert Walpole promised to reduce the amount of coins to £40,000 but the opposition remained firm. The patent was eventually cancelled in September 1725.[17]

In 1757 the Irish Parliament passed the Banking Act. One of the Act’s chief provisions was the exclusion of wholesale merchants from the business of private banking. This Act was possibly a reaction of fear by many Protestant landlords at the growing number of prosperous Catholic merchants across the country. Yet even after decades of economic growth by 1775 less than a third of Dublin merchants were Catholic and less the a quarter were so in Cork.[18] But, as in many other times and issues, perception is always a more powerful mover in times of fear than hard facts.

A consequence of this Act was that the surviving older banks and the small number of new banks founded after 1757 were primarily ‘conservative money-moving agencies’ and very reluctant providers of merchant credit.[19]

The old proposal for a national bank resurfaced amidst the economic crisis of 1778-1780. In 1778 three leading Dublin banks had gone bankrupt. Yet the supporters of the new proposal view the established of the bank as a patriotic measure. By 1781 the government came to see the national bank, along the lines of the Bank of England, as a necessary economic measure. In contrast to the 1720 proposal the landed gentry supported the 1780 scheme.[20] The pockets of the gentry had suffered during the crisis of 1778-1780 and money or even the lack of it always talks and persuades the most reluctant of people.

In 1783 Ireland finally got a national bank when the Bank of Ireland was established by royal charter. One of the Bank’s perks was that it was the only bank within a 50-mile radius with a licence to print its own bank notes. The Bank soon became the government’s banker as well as forming a number of public and commercial functions. Yet it did not establish branches within or outside Dublin.[21] After the Act of Union of 1800 ended the independent Irish parliament, the Bank of Ireland purchased the disused parliament building in College Green for its own headquarter. Yet a fully fledged central bank did not come into existence until 1943 with the formation of the Central Bank of Ireland.[22]

 

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[1] Ollerenshaw, P., ‘Banking’, in Connolly, S.J. (ed.), The Oxford companion to Irish History (Oxford, 1998), p. 36

[2] Ollerenshaw, ‘Banking’, in The Oxford companion to Irish History, p. 36

[3] Ollerenshaw, ‘Banking’, in The Oxford companion to Irish History, p. 36

[4] McNally, P., Parties, Patriots & Undertakers: parliamentary politics in early Hanoverian Ireland (Dublin, 1997), p. 191 accessed 3rd March 2014

[5] Dickson, D., New Foundations: Ireland 1660-1800 (Dublin, 2000), p. 135

[6] Dickson, New Foundations: Ireland 1660-1800, p. 135

[7] McNally, Parties, Patriots & Undertakers, p. 114

[8] McNally, Parties, Patriots & Undertakers, p. 114

[9] Malcomson, A.P.W. (ed.), Calendar of the Rosse Papers (Dublin, 2008), pp. 235-38

[10] Malcomson (ed.), Calendar of the Rosse Papers, p. 235

[11] Dickson, New Foundations: Ireland 1660-1800, p. 86

[12] McNally, Parties, Patriots & Undertakers, p. 127

[13] Anon, ‘Wood’s Halfpence controversy (1722-5)’, in Connolly, S.J. (ed.), The Oxford companion to Irish History, p. 598

[14] McNally, Parties, Patriots & Undertakers, p. 127

[15] Anon, ‘Wood’s Halfpence controversy (1722-5)’, in The Oxford companion to Irish History, p. 598

[16] McNally, Parties, Patriots & Undertakers, p. 127

[17] Anon, ‘Wood’s Halfpence controversy (1722-5)’, in The Oxford companion to Irish History, p. 598

[18] Dickson, New Foundations: Ireland 1660-1800, pp. 86, 134

[19] Dickson, New Foundations: Ireland 1660-1800, pp. 86, 135-6

[20] Dickson, New Foundations: Ireland 1660-1800, pp. 184-5

[21] Ollerenshaw, ‘Banking’, in The Oxford companion to Irish History, p. 36

[22] Ollerenshaw, ‘Banking’, in The Oxford companion to Irish History, p. 37

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