Biography, Cork history

Peard family of North East Cork and district

Peard family of North East Cork and district

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

Introduction

The Peard family were substantial landlords in the area of north-east County Cork for near 300 years. There were numerous branches of the family who lived in a number of great houses. Yet today none remain and some of their former homes are in ruins or totally destroyed. The family does not appear in any genealogical publication of note and so this article is an attempt to reconstruct their lives from the pages of the past.

This article is in no way the final finished product but a working document in progress with changes expected as new information comes to hand.

Peard surname in Devon

The ancient records of Devonshire give reference to a number of people with the Peard surname. In 1332 Richard Peard of the parish of Hatherleigh paid 2s in the lay subsidy tax of that year. [Audrey M. Erskine (ed.), The Devonshire Lay Subsidy of 1332 (Devon & Cornwall Record Society, New Series, Vol. 14, 1969), p. 66]

Later records in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries make reference to people with the Peard surname. In 1701 Henry Peard, merchant and apprentice of Malachi Pyne, was made a freeman of Exeter. In 1722 another Henry Peard, hotpressman and apprentice of Samuel Wardell, was made a freeman. In 1754 Thomas Peard, fuller and apprentice of Henry Peard, was made a freeman. In 1757 Henry Peard, tailor, became a freeman in succession of his father, Henry Peard. In 1767 Abraham Peard, fuller and apprentice of Joseph Stephens, was made a freeman of Exeter. [Margery M. Rowe & Andrew M. Jackson (eds.), Exeter Freemen 1266-1967 (Devon & Cornwall Record Society, Extra Series, No. 1, 1973), pp. 206, 232, 281, 282, 293]

In 1733 when Oliver Peard of Tiverton was a clothier and merchant with insured property worth £1,900 (this increased to £6,100 by 1744). [Stanley D. Chapman (ed.), The Devon cloth industry in the Eighteenth Century (Devon & Cornwall Record Society, New Series, Vol. 23, 1978), pp. 122, 138]

In about 1693 to 1707 Oliver Peard of Barnstaple was co-pastor of the United Brethren Assembly with John Hanmer. In 1698 and later years William Peard was a member of the United Brethren Assembly at Exeter. He was the son of Oliver Peard of Barnstaple and succeeded John Hanmer as moderator in 1707 at Barnstaple where he was not the most favoured of ministers. William Peard died in 1716. [Allan Brockett (ed.), The Exeter Assembly: The minutes of the Assemblies of the United Brethren of Devon and Cornwall, 1691-1717 (Devon & Cornwall Record Society, New Series, Vol. 6, 1963), pp. 14, 39, 60, 61, 140, 144]

Early Peard family of Cork in Devon

[101] George Peard (b. 1505, d. 1578)

He was the great grand father of Richard Peard [104] (the first of the family to come to Ireland). [Frank Peard, Records of the Early Peards in Ireland and Their Houses near Fermoy, Co. Cork (2003), p. 2]

[102] John Peard (b. 1525, d. 1574)

He was Chamberlain of Barnstaple in Devon and father of John Peard [103] of Upcott, Devon. [Frank Peard, Records of the Early Peards in Ireland and Their Houses near Fermoy, Co. Cork (2003), p. 2]

[103] John Peard (b. 1559, d. 1632)

John was the father of Richard Peard [104] who came to Ireland. He has a monument in Burnum Church. [Frank Peard, Records of the Early Peards in Ireland and Their Houses near Fermoy, Co. Cork (2003), p. 2]

[104] Richard Peard (b. 1595; d. 1683)

Listed for Coole as a husbandman in the 1641 depositions – married a miss Cole and had three sons; Richard [105], Henry [106] and William [107].

Richard Peard is listed as one of 7 tituladoes for Castlelyons town [Seamus Pender (ed.), A Census of Ireland circa 1659 (Irish Manuscripts Commission, Dublin), p. 237].

In this tomb, erected at the charges of William [107] and Henry [106] Peard, it says here lieth the body of Ensign Richard Peard of Castlelyons, who departed this life February the 28 day anno Dom 1683 aged 88 years and (who) came from Upcott in the parish of Welcombe in Devonshire in England. [Kill-St-Anne tombstone inscription]

It is interesting to note that in the parish register for Welcombe there is no person by the name of Peard at that time but there were a good number of people with the surname of Beard. The two surnames are very near each other – only a slip of the pen in the difference.

peard-tomb

Peard tomb at Kill-St-Anne

[105] Richard Peard (b. 1620, d. 1684)

Here lieth, also, the body of Richard Peard of Coole, gent, eldest son of Ensign Richard [104] Peard, who departed this life November the sixth 1684 aged 54 years. [Kill-St-Anne tombstone inscription] His will was proved in 1689 and from Coole. [Guide to Genealogical Office, p. 241] He married and had one son, William [129] and three daughters. [Frank Peard, Records of the Early Peards in Ireland and Their Houses near Fermoy, Co. Cork (2003), p. 3]

[107] William Peard

He could be the William Peard of Castlelyons who married Miss Wrixon of Cork in October 1762 at Glinfield, the home of Henry Wrixon. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 15, p. 2544] William wrote a series of letters to Francis Price in Wales from 1739 to 1750 about various aspects of life in Castlelyons and across Cork. These are now in the Puleston Papers at the National Library of Wales MS 3577C and MS 3579D. [There are copies on Microfilm at the National Library of Ireland Mic. P. 3,262 and P. 3,263] William Peard is mentioned as a cousin of Redmond Barry of Rathcormac in the latter’s will which was proved on 22 November 1750. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 642]

William Peard had three sons; Henry [133], Richard [134] and Thomas [135].

[106] Henry Cole Peard of Coole (b. 1661; d. 1731)

Henry Cole Peard was a former army captain and in 1698 he lately held the abbey lands of Castlelyons with the impropriator of its rector. [National Library of Ireland, Lismore Papers, MS 6146]

Henry is mentioned as trustee and overseer to the will of his brother-in-law of Christopher Vowell of Ballyorane in 1724. John Harrison of Castlelyons is also mentioned for the same job and is also referred to as brother-in-law of Christopher. Both gentlemen were also to be executors of his will if his wife, Elizabeth, remarried. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 678]

His will was proved in 1738 and he is a gent from Coole. [Guide to genealogical office, p. 241] The will was made on 6 August 1729 with his wife and two sons as executors. He asked to be buried in Castlelyons. The will also mentions his two daughters; Dorcas and Priscilla along with his nephew, Thomas Peard. The guardians appointed by him were; his brothers-in-law, John and Henry Harrison of Castlelyons, Samuel Harrison of Carrigabrick, his cousin Daniel Keeffe of Ballinglinhane and his friend Andrew Crotty. The latter was for many years the Irish land agent for the earl of Cork and lived for sometime at Modeligo House. E. William Troke, Richard Thorne and John Bryan were witnesses to the will. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 677]

He married Priscilla Harrison in 1701 and had two sons; John [108] and Richard [109] along with a daughter Priscilla [110].

[108] John Peard (d. November 1780)

He lived at Ballyclogh House and his will is dated 1785. [Vicars’ index, p. 370] John was trustee with Rev. William Vowell to the lands of Shanakill and that part of Glenatore called Carrow Towreen by will of his brother in 1772. John was trustee, with Richard Moore (heir-at-law of Rev. Vowell), of the marriage of his nephew, John and Margaret Mitchell. [J.C.H.A.S. vol. 52 (1947), pp. 179-81] He died in 1780 without any issue. [Frank Peard, Records of the Early Peards in Ireland and Their Houses near Fermoy, Co. Cork (2003), p. 3]

[110] Priscilla Peard

She was a daughter of Henry Cole Peard [106] of Coole.

[109] Richard Peard (d. 1773)

He married Elizabeth, sister of Rev. William Vowell, vicar of Aghern in 1731. He had issue by her of; Henry [111], Christopher [112] John [113] and Peard Harrison [114] and another eight children. [Conna in History and Tradition, p.194; J.C.H.A.S. vol. 52 (1947), p. 179 for order of sons] He lived at Carrigeen. [Vicars’ index, p. 370] His will was dated 10 May 1772 with his wife and his brother, John, as executors. [J.C.H.A.S. vol. 52 (1947), p. 179]

In 1771, his daughter Ellen married Henry Mitchell of Mitchellsfort, Co. Cork and their daughter and co-heiress Mary Broderick married in June 1795 Grice Smyth of Ballinatray. She married secondly Captain John Irvine, the 7th son of Col William Irvine of Castle Irvine Co. Fermanagh (see Burke 1912). [Burke’s Irish Family records p. 1040] His other daughters were: Elizabeth married William Spread, Ballycannon in the liberties of Cork, at Mogeely church in May 1763 with a dowry of £2,000; [Upper Blackwater, vol 15, p. 2550] Dorcas, wife of Westropp Watkins, late of Old Court, Co. Cork and Priscilla who married Charles Widenham, esq., and attorney-at-law on 20 April 1776 at Carrigeen. [Nick Reddan newspapers, no. 29] see also [J.C.H.A.S. vol. 52 (1947), p. 180]

[111] Henry Peard of Coole (d. 1797)

Henry was appointed a Peace Commissioner for County Cork sometime after 1750. [Charles Smith, ‘The Ancient and Present state of the County and City of Cork’, in Journal Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, vol. 1 (1892), p. 35]

He married Mary Gumbleton in 1764 at Lismore. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 15, p. 2559 and Faulkner’s Dublin Journal 15/9/1764]

He built Coole Abbey with David Duckert around 1765 – he planted 10,000 trees at Coole in 1794. Henry died before 1773. [J.C.H.A.S. vol. 52 (1947), p. 180] He left six children including; Richard [115] and John [116] [Frank Peard, Records of the Early Peards in Ireland and Their Houses near Fermoy, Co. Cork (2003), p. 3]

Henry had a daughter, Charlotte, who in 1807 married Rev. John Lord. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 6, p. 919]

[115] Richard Peard of Coole Abbey (d. 1830)

Richard Peard is mentioned with reminder to Carrigeen and part of Glenatore from his grandfather in a legal petition of his aunt-in-law in 1791. [J.C.H.A.S. vol. 52 (1947), p. 179] He attended the John Anderson creditors meeting on 19 June 1816. [Bill Power, Fermoy on the Blackwater (Brigown Press, Mitchelstown, 2009), p. 51] In 1801 he married Elizabeth Hart and had a son; Henry Hawke Peard [117] and a daughter, Henrietta Maria Peard [118]. Richard had two other children. [Frank Peard, Records of the Early Peards in Ireland and Their Houses near Fermoy, Co. Cork (2003), p. 3]

[118] Henrietta Maria Peard

She married on 2 September 1837, Richard Gifford Campion of Bushy Park as his second wife. They had five sons and two daughters. [Carol Baxter, Drew Family Tree, p. 13; Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 4, p. 257]

[117] Henry Hawke Peard (b. 1804; d. 1858)

He married Elizabeth Cathrow in 1826 and had a son; Richard [119]. Henry Peard had eleven other children included Francis [120]. [Frank Peard, Records of the Early Peards in Ireland and Their Houses near Fermoy, Co. Cork (2003), p. 3]

dsc03300

Coole Abbey

In 1836 Henry H. Peard reported to the Poor Law enquiry that no more than a dozen labourers left the Coole area for the U.S.A. he went on to say that ‘fifty-nine labourers [who] reside in this parish (Coole), all in constant work, besides many more from adjoining parishes’. Henry Peard said that the ordinary diet of the people was ‘potatoes with milk in summer, which is very cheap and in winter those that can afford it, the addition of bacon, salt fish etc., while the article of clothing is beyond belief improved’. Henry Peard further said that since 1815 the ‘condition of the poor is much improved in clothing particularly, you now never see a person without shoes and stockings, which used to be the case, clothing is much cheaper, they are also improved in cleanliness of the house, diet perhaps also improved. The population is about the same’. [Conna in History and Tradition (Conna Community Council, 1998), pp. 66, 68, 71]

As for the wages of the labouring class in Coole, Henry Peard said that ‘including the sale of a couple of fat pigs, fowl, etc., together with constant work, a man can earn about £15 per year’. But the devoutness of many Catholic labourers prevents them from earning more money as they observe too many church holidays and ‘attending stations to confess, [which] take a good deal from what a labourer could earn, there are 11 holidays kept’. Henry Peard estimated that the cost of living ‘as the labourer does, he can procure a full supply of potatoes and milk for about £7 per year, many live on £5’. [Conna in History and Tradition (Conna Community Council, 1998), p. 69]

Henry Peard went on to tell the Poor Law enquiry that “the number employed on roads is very difficult to determine, they being almost in every case, belonging to other parishes, the resident labourers, as I before stated, having constant work. I know they are paid in money”. [Conna in History and Tradition, pp. 82 – 83]

On the houses of the Coole labourers Henry Hawke Peard said that those who owned cabins ‘with the exception of a few tradesmen such as carpenters, blacksmiths etc., they are the labourers of the different farmers in the parish’. The usual rent was ‘with a small patch of garden … from £1 10s to £2’. The conditions of the cabins were better than those at Aghern and were mostly ‘composed of mud walls, thatched [and] in almost all you will find good bed and bedding’. [Conna in History and Tradition (Conna Community Council, 1998), p. 71]

in 1837 Henry Hawke Peard was a subscriber to the large folio volumes of Samuel Lewis Topographical Dictionary of Ireland.

In September 1845 Henry Hawke Peard backed a proposal for a railway between Cork and Fermoy at a meeting in Fermoy courthouse which was attended by many of the great and the good of the district. The proposed Cork and Fermoy Direct Railway Company was to have a share capital of £250,000 in 12,500 shares of £20 each. [T.A. Barry, ‘The Famine: Chronicle of Famine Times’ in The Avondhu newspaper, part 3]

On 16th March 1846 Henry Peard attended a meeting at Fermoy Courthouse, under the chairman of the Earl of Mountcashell, to appoint a relief committee for the Fermoy Poor Law Union. The potato blight which started in 1845 to rot the crops was now causing much distress in the area.

Henry Peard proposed that an estimate of the funds needed until 10th August be made and that the landlords would pay a rational proportion according to the value of their estates. Michael Mackey of Ballyroberts seconded the motion but the Earl of Mountcashel would not put it to a vote. Father Fitzpatrick then proposed a motion of a levy of one shilling in the pound according to the Poor Law Valuation (Griffith’s Valuation) of each rate payer and the money be deducted from the rent.

Both motions caused division, uproar and laughter and the Earl of Mountcashell stood down as chair with Hon. Gen Annesley of Annesgrove taking it. Subsequently both motions were denied a vote. Instead the meeting divided the area into 11 relief districts and left the issue of funding undecided. [T.A. Barry, ‘The Famine: Chronicle of Famine Times’ in The Avondhu newspaper, part 29]

At relief committee was established in Castlelyons at the end of March 1846 but no names of those attending were published. On 1st April 1846 Henry Hawke Peard attended the weekly meeting of the Fermoy Board of Guardian. There were 739 people in the workhouse and the Board had £705 5s 7d in the bank. The Board unanimously resolved to assist everyone within the Poor Law Union. [T.A. Barry, ‘The Famine: Chronicle of Famine Times’ in The Avondhu newspaper, part 31]

On 28th August 1846 Henry Hawke Peard attended the presentment session for the Barony of Barrymore at Watergrasshill. The meeting resolved to employ labourers on the proposed Cork to Waterford railway which would pass through two parts of the Barony. They would further employ people on road maintenance and improvement after a new Government Act was passed to allow for such employment. [T.A. Barry, ‘The Famine: Chronicle of Famine Times’ in The Avondhu newspaper, part 52]

On 26th December 1846 R.G. Campion of Bushy Park attended the Kinnatalloon presentment session at Aghern schoolhouse as agent for Henry Hawke Peard. Mr. Campion reported that the tenants at Coole had their land at a fair rent from Henry Peard and there were no small tenants. Eugene Byrne contradicted this claim by saying that when Henry Peard was at home up to 40 people were employed but when he was away there was much unemployment and that the rent was too dear.

Mr. Campion said the rent was cheap while Byrne replied that the tenants were leaving fast. Campion responded with denial and the meeting fell into confusion and disorder. After order was restored Mr. Campion got £180 to drain 35 acres at Coole. [T.A. Barry, ‘The Famine: Chronicle of Famine Times’ in The Avondhu newspaper, part 69]

On 27th March 1851 Henry’s eldest daughter, Elizabeth married Francis Drew Campion, second son of Robert (or Richard) Gifford Campion of Bushy Park, Co. Cork, at Castlelyons. [Frank Peard, Records of the Early Peards in Ireland and Their Houses near Fermoy, Co. Cork (2003), p. 3]

In 1850 Henry Hawke Peard rented Coole Upper and Coole Lower from James H. Smith Barry. Henry farmed 157 acres directly in Coole Lower of a total of 606 acres and rented out the remained. At Coole Upper, where Coole Abbey was situated (total buildings worth £36) Henry farmed directly 449 acres of a total of 545 acres. [Griffith’s Valuation, Coole, parish Coole, barony of Barrymore]

[119] Richard McCulloch Peard (b. 1829; d. 22 March 1880)

He lived at Coole Abbey. [Slater’s Postal Directory of Munster, 1881, p. 135] He married Ann Corban in 1858 and had a son Henry William [121] [Anna-Maria Hajba, Houses of Cork, vol. 1 – North Cork, p. 78] There was also another unnamed child. Richard died in 1880 and is buried in the Peard mausoleum at Kill-St-Ann. [Frank Peard, Records of the Early Peards in Ireland and Their Houses near Fermoy, Co. Cork (2003), pp. 3, 4]

It is unclear if this was the Richard Peard who was in 1850 landlord of the townland of Kilmagner (637 acres of 765 acres – remained held by Michael Cagney in perpetuity).  [Griffith’s Valuation, Kilmagner, parish Castlelyons, barony of Condons and Clangibbon]

[121] Henry William Peard (b. 1860 – d. 1936)

He lived in Buenos Aires and married Flora Agusta Sewell in 1893 and she died in 1960 aged 86. Henry was a physician and surgeon. Before 1901 he sold Coole Abbey to Orr McCausland. [Anna-Maria Hajba, Houses of Cork, vol. 1 – North Cork (Ballinakella Press, 2002), pp. 78, 126]

[120] Francis Peard (d. 31 January 1864)

This Francis Peard died in 1864 at 84 years and is buried in the Peard mausoleum at Kill-St-Ann. [Frank Peard, Records of the Early Peards in Ireland and Their Houses near Fermoy, Co. Cork (2003), p. 4]

[116] John Peard (b. 1775, d. 1847)

John Peard lived at Towermore. He married Bridget Woodley in 1810 [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 4, p. 257] and had two sons; Henry [122] and John [123] and one daughter Elizabeth [124].

In 1863 John’s widow, Bridget Peard otherwise Woodley late of Rathcormac died. Letters of administration of her estate (valued under £100) were granted at Principal registry to Annie Peard of Brideville, widow and the administratrix of the son of the deceased [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 897]

towermore-house

Towermore house as seen from gate lodge

This John Peard of Towermore was possibly the same John Peard of Castlelyons who in 1847 was a member of the Fermoy Board of Guardians. In that year John complained to the rector about the cost of graves at 18d each at Beechfield. Plans were then in place for a new cemetery beside the workhouse. John Peard proposed an extra story to the fever hospital then under construction to accommodate 30 more patients and this was accepted. [Bill Power, Fermoy on the Blackwater (Brigown Press, Mitchelstown, 2009), p. 101] John Peard died in 1847 and is buried in the Peard mausoleum at Kill-St-Ann. [Frank Peard, Records of the Early Peards in Ireland and Their Houses near Fermoy, Co. Cork (2003), pp. 3, 4]

In 1850 Maria Oliver was the immediate landlord of the two townlands of Towermore Upper (Frederick C. Hayes was chief tenant) and Towermore Lower (John Fouhy was chief tenant). [Griffith’s Valuation, Towermore, parish Castlelyons, barony of Barrymore]

In 1911 associates of John Peard lived at Knocknahorgan in Rathcooney, Co. Cork. They were John Richard Peard (28, bank official) and his brother Francis Woodley Peard (24, bank official) and their two sisters, Ethel Woodley Peard (34 years) and Maud Josephine Peard (29 years) – all unmarried. [http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai001913770/]

[122] Henry Harrison Peard (b. 1810; d. 1918)

He lived at Towermore and died in 1918. [Frank Peard, Records of the Early Peards in Ireland and Their Houses near Fermoy, Co. Cork (2003), p. 3]

[123] John Peard (d. 1876)

It is unclear if this John Peard was the John Peard of Coole mentioned in 1850 as a member of the Board of Guardians of the Fermoy Poor Law Union [Bill Power, Fermoy on the Blackwater (Brigown Press, Mitchelstown, 2009), p. 105], or is there confusion with John Peard [116] above.

In 1850 John Peard was the immediate landlord of Ballyrobert (169 acres), parish of Castlelyons with Michael Mackey as sole tenant. [Griffith’s Valuation, Ballyrobert, parish Castlelyons, barony of Barrymore]

John Peard left a will under £3,000 at his death on 11th January 1876. On 21st March 1876 letters of administration per estate of John Peard, late of Brideville, Rathcormac, esq., deceased, was granted at Principal registry to Annie Peard also of Brideville, the widow of the said deceased. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 898]

[124] Elizabeth Peard (d. 1867)

Elizabeth Peard died on 23rd June 1867, late of Rathcormac, spinster leaving an estate valued at under £300. On 1st May 1867 letters of administration of per estate were granted at Principal registry to Annie Peard of Brideville, Rathcormac, widow and the administratrix  of John Peard, brother of the deceased [Upper Blackwater, vol 14, p. 897]

[111] Christopher Peard (d. 1775)

Christopher was appointed a Peace Commissioner for County Cork sometime after 1750. [Charles Smith, ‘The Ancient and Present state of the County and City of Cork’, in Journal Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, vol. 1 (1892), p. 35]

He married Ann Cooke of Tallow and lived at Glantore where his house is marked on the Taylor and Skinner map and where he was a J.P. Christopher died intestate in 1775. [J.C.H.A.S. vol. 52 (1947), p. 180] He had two sons and one daughter; William [125], Richard [126] and Mary [127].

Anne Peard filed two draft briefs in 1791 concerning her right to a legacy on various lands at Barranstown, Tallow and Curryglass. [Cork Archive Institute, U290; see J.C.H.A.S. vol. 52 (1947), pp. 179-81 for info on this petition]

[125] William Peard

He lived at Peardmount and is listed in the 1804 tithe books. Mary Boles of Killbree married William Peard of Peardmount. She was the daughter of Thomas Boles, who was son of Thomas Boles, who was son of Thomas Boles of Ballinacurra and the latter was born in 1646 [Burke’s Landed Gentry of Ireland 1899, p. 44 Bowles of Aghern]

He was possibly the William Peard, who transmitted a letter from Jane ____ to Mrs Henrietta Smyth in November 1827 from Dublin to Ballinatray. [National Library of Ireland, Holroyd Smyth Papers, PC 904, box 1, folder (7), 1827-8, Bill Fitzgerald to Mrs Henrietta Smyth, 21 November 1827]

On 7th August 1809 Walter Croker Poole of Ballyanchor, Co. Waterford made his will and it was witnessed by William Peard and Richard Peard. A cordicil made on 4th January 1810 was witnessed by Ann Peard and William Peard. It is unclear if the William Peard of the Poole will was the William Peard of Peardmount. [Eilish Ellis & P. Beryl Eustace (eds.), Registry of Deeds Dublin, Abstract of Wills, Vol. III, 1785-1832 (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1984), no. 502]

In 1814 William Peard was still living at Peardmount, Co. Cork with Tallow, Co. Waterford as the postal town. [Ambrose Leet, Directory of market towns, villages and gentleman’s seats (Dublin, 1814), p. 318] In 1815 Peardmount was mentioned as a seat of the Peard family in the Barony of Kinnatalloon along with Carrigeen and Coole. [Horace Towsend, Statistical survey of County Cork (1815), p. 73]

[126] Richard Peard

It is unclear if this is the Richard Peard of Peardmount mention about 1799 as one of the many commissioners for building a road between Cork city and the bounds of County Tipperary north of Kilworth. [Anon, Statutes passed in the Parlaiments held in Ireland 1799-1800 (Dublin, 1801), p. 46]

[127] Mary Peard

[113] John Peard (d. June 1784)

John Peard married Margaret Mitchell in July 1776 [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 4, p. 257] and lived at Peardmount. Margaret was the daughter and only child of Henry Mitchell and Mary Shears of Mitchellsfort. She remarried in September 1784 to Odell Spread. [Nick Reddan newspapers, no. 29; J.C.H.A.S. vol 52 (1947), p. 180; Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 4, p. 257] By deed made on 10 July 1776, previous to her marriage with John Peard, Margaret became entitled to the charge of £1,500 on Barranstown and other lands of her father. By the will of his father, Richard Peard, John vested a charge of £80 on Glenatore and Shanakill as a jointure for Margaret.

John was obliged, by his father’s will, to pay his brother, Christopher £200 but though he possessed property valued at £300, John was in a poor financial state and despite repeated promises, never paid the amount. John died intestate in 1784 leaving his widow Margaret and very little else as P.H. Peard sold his effects for £130. Peard Harrison Peard entered into possession of Glenatore, Shanakill, a leasehold interest in Tallow and the leasehold of Curriglass because John left no male heirs. [J.C.H.A.S. vol. 52 (1947), p. 180]

[114] Peard Harrison Peard (d. 1798)

In 23 October 1784, he married Arabella Drew, daughter of Francis Drew of Mocollop by his wife, Arabella Godfrey of Kilcolman Abbey, Co. Kerry. [Burke’s Landed Gentry of Ireland, 1904, p. 159] In the same year, his brother, John died and Peard Harrison Peard entered into possession of Glenatore, Shanakill, a leasehold interest in Tallow and the leasehold of Curriglass because John left no male heirs. [J.C.H.A.S. vol. 52 (1947), p. 180] He was the Captain Commandant of the Curryglass Volunteers infantry unit in April 1779. His lieutenant was Stephen Rollston with James Graham as secretary. [Robert Day, ‘Reprint of the Munster Volunteer Registry, 1782’, in Journal Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, vol. III (1894), p. 326] Vicar’s index of wills gives his death for 1799 and an esq. from Carrigeen. [Vicar’s index, p. 370] He had two sons; Henry [128] and Richard Frederick [129] and two daughters along with two other unnamed children. [Frank Peard, Records of the Early Peards in Ireland and Their Houses near Fermoy, Co. Cork (2003), p. 3]

[128] Henry Peard (b. 1791; d. 1832)

He lived at Carrigeen Hall and married Charity Jane Greene (she died 26 March 1841 at 41 years and is buried in the Peard mausoleum at Kill-St-Ann), and had a son; Henry [130] along with three other children. [Frank Peard, Records of the Early Peards in Ireland and Their Houses near Fermoy, Co. Cork (2003), pp. 3, 4]

carrigeen-hall

Entrance to Carrigeen Hall – old house no longer standing

In a court case at Carlow, Henry Peard was “disguised beyond redemption by his exposure of his attempts to deprive his poor dependent younger brother of the ___ of renewal of a small farm”. [National Library of Ireland, Holroyd Smyth Papers, PC 904, box 2, folder 8, (1), 1831, letters to Rd Smyth, Charles Maunsell to Rd Smyth, 14 November 1831]

Henry Peard died in September of 1832 and letters of administration were written on 28 March 1833 at under £300. His wife as executrix of his will should have received the letter but she didn’t. Instead his son Henry got the letter of administration. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 939] He is buried in the Peard mausoleum at Kill-St-Ann. [Frank Peard, Records of the Early Peards in Ireland and Their Houses near Fermoy, Co. Cork (2003), p. 4]

[130] Henry Peard (d. pre 1854)

Henry Peard was living at George Street in Cork city in 1833/34. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 939] He lived at Carrigeen and farm 147 acres there in 1850

In December 1845 Henry Peard gave notice that his farm at Carrigeen Hall was for lease from 1st May 1846. The house, offices and land of 180 acres had a coach house, stables, and walled gardens and was well stocked. The gate keeper at the lower lodge was available to allow people see the property. [T.A. Barry, ‘The Famine: Chronicle of Famine Times’ in The Avondhu newspaper, part 17]

In February 1847 Henry Peard of Carrigeen was named as one of the local landed gentry who did not contribute money to the Kinnatalloon relief fund. [T.A. Barry, ‘The Famine: Chronicle of Famine Times’ in The Avondhu newspaper, part 78]

Henry Peard is said to have married in 1849 to Jane Roch of Woodbine Hill, Waterford, and daughter of George Butler Roch. [Burke’s Landed Gentry of Ireland, 1904, p. 392] Yet as daughter was said to marry in 1854 there may have been an earlier marriage or confusion between the different Henry Peards. His second daughter, Arabella, married at Kinsalebeg in 1854, Rev Mellanus Spread Campion, the second son of Rev Thomas Spread Campion of Knockmourne. [Nick Reddan newspapers, no. 29]

In 1850 Henry Peard was landlord in fee of Carrigeen East (320 acres) and of 30 acres at Carrigeen Hill where he rented out the remaining 320 acres. Henry Peard was also landlord of Castleview where Richard Gumbleton was the chief tenant. Henry Peard was also landlord of Glantore Lower (139 acres) and Glantore Upper (173 acres). [Griffith’s Valuation, Carrigeen, Castleview, Glantore, parish Knockmourne, barony of Kinnatalloon]

Also in 1850 Henry Peard was landlord of Shanakill Lower (244 acres) and Shanakill Upper (244 acres). [Griffith’s Valuation, Shanakill, parish Mogeely, barony of Kinnatalloon]

For more on Shankill townland see = https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2016/02/08/shanakill-townland-in-the-barony-of-kinnatalloon-county-cork-2/

[129] Richard Frederick Peard

Richard Frederick Peard lived at Belvedere House and died in the 1840s. He planted 31,640 trees between 1815 and 1817. In various land deeds, Richard is mentioned as an attorney and solicitor, while one of the deeds was registered by a Francis Peard. [See appendix I, no. (I), (III) and (IV) for land deeds involving Richard Peard in 1828, 1833 and 1842] Richard Peard handled the Heathcote land sale of 1826 with his first cousin, Charles Maunsell, solicitor of Dublin. [National Library of Ireland, Holroyd Smyth papers, PC 904, box 2, folder (6), 1826, letters to Richard Smyth]

belverdere-house-from-mogeely-bridge

Belverdere house from Mogeely Bridge

In 1831, he went to court in Carlow because his brother Henry Peard would not renew a lease on a small farm and Richard Peard was dependent on Henry for his livelihood. [National Library of Ireland, Holroyd Smyth Papers, PC 904, box 2, folder 8, (1), 1831, letters to Rd Smyth, Charles Maunsell to Rd Smyth, 14 November 1831]

He married Maria Maunsell, the daughter of Charles Maunsell of Roseville, Tallow by Grace, daughter of John Green. Charles was great, great, great, grandson of Thomas Maunsell of Berkshire and later of Derryville, Co. Cork, who’s first son was Colonel Thomas Maunsell of Mocollop, who defended it against Cromwell’s forces in 1649. [Burke’s Irish Family Records, 1976, pp. 800-801, 803] The couple were married before 1822 and had two children, a son; John Maunsell [130] and a daughter; Grace. [Anna-Maria Hajba, Houses of Cork, vol. 1 – North Cork (Ballinakella Press, 2002), p. 78]

In 1850 Mrs. Maria Peard held Belvidere (171 acres) from Henry Peard of Carrigeen. She farmed 74 acres where the buildings were worth £15 12s and rented out the remainder. Maria Peard also had 5 acres at Castleview which was rented by Richard Gumbleton. At Glantore Lower Maria Peard rented the townland from Henry Peard and in turn rented the land out to other tenants. At Glantore Upper Maria Peard rented 19 acres from Richard Gumbleton and rented the remaining land (154 acres) from Henry Peard. This land she in turn rented out to others. [Griffith’s Valuation, Belvidere, Castleview, Glantore, parish Knockmourne, barony of Kinnatalloon]

Also in 1850 Maria Peard was the immediate landlord of Blackpool townland (38 acres) where the representatives of Lord Lisle appear to be the senior landlord. Maris Peard was also landlord of about 15 houses in Rosybower and a garden which she rented from the representatives of Lord Lisle. [Griffith’s Valuation, Blackpool, Rosybower, parish Mogeely, barony of Kinnatalloon]

See appendix one below for some lands deeds involving Richard Frederick Peard.

[130] John Maunsell Peard

He lived at Belvedere House. He occupied Vinepark House near Curriglass in 1855. [Anna-Maria Hajba, Houses of Cork, vol. 1 – North Cork, p. 356] On 27 November 1855 his wife had a son at Vinepark. [Nick Reddan newspapers, no. 29 – Faulkner’s Journal] But the child didn’t live to adulthood as John Peard died without issue. [Frank Peard, Records of the Early Peards in Ireland and Their Houses near Fermoy, Co. Cork (2003), p. 3]

[132] William Peard

He was the son of Richard Peard [105] and did not marry. [Frank Peard, Records of the Early Peards in Ireland and Their Houses near Fermoy, Co. Cork (2003), p. 3]

[133] Henry Peard (d. 19 July 1797)

He was the son of William Peard of Castlelyons and is mentioned as one of the three lives in a lease deed of 1750 between James, earl of Barrymore and John Nason of Newtown for property about Castlelyons. Henry Peard was still alive in 1777, but in poor health by 1791 and died 19 July 1797. [J.C.H.A.S. vol. 52 (1947), pp. 183-4]

[134] Richard Peard (d. pre 1729)

He was the son of William Peard [107] of Castlelyons. In the will of his uncle, Henry Peard [106] of Coole, dated 1729, it is mentioned that Richard was deceased. He may be that Richard Peard who made land deeds with a Mr. Croker between 1709 and 1729. [Registry of deeds = 0522803 2 320 481]

Richard Peard married Diana Mitchell in 1709. [‘Index to the marriage licence bonds of the Diocese of Cork and Ross, Ireland’, in J.C.H.A.S., vol. III (1897), p. 101] There is a will dated 1716 for a Richard Peard of Castlelyons and this could be the same person. [Guide to Genealogical office, p. 241; Vicar’s index, p. 370]

[135] Thomas Peard

He was the second son of William Peard [107] of Castlelyons and was mentioned in the will of his uncle, Henry Peard of Coole in 1729.

Twenty-first century Peard members

Darrell W. Peard

He restored the Peard mausoleum at Kill-St-Ann in September-December 2002 at a cost of €9,000. [Frank Peard, Records of the Early Peards in Ireland and Their Houses near Fermoy, Co. Cork (2003), p. 5]

Delphine Adele Peard

She died on 5 July 1909 at 75 years and is buried in the Peard mausoleum at Kill-St-Ann.

[Frank Peard, Records of the Early Peards in Ireland and Their Houses near Fermoy, Co. Cork (2003), p. 4]

029

Peard mausoleum

Eric W.E. Peard

Eric Peard and his brother-in-law Eric Balt entered the Peard mausoleum in 1985 following damaged by a falling tree. There they saw about 15 to 20 broken coffins with of the name plates having rusted away. [Frank Peard, Records of the Early Peards in Ireland and Their Houses near Fermoy, Co. Cork (2003), p. 4]

Francis Peard

He lived in South Africa where his daughter Gitta Brill passed on the family coat-of-arms to Noel Peard. [Frank Peard, Records of the Early Peards in Ireland and Their Houses near Fermoy, Co. Cork (2003), p. 4]

Frank W. Peard

He wrote a short history on the Peard family in Ireland entitled Records of the Early Peards in Ireland and Their Houses near Fermoy, Co. Cork (2003).

Noel P. Peard

Noel inherited a plaque with the Peard coat-of-arms from Gitta Brill, daughter of Francis Peard. [Frank Peard, Records of the Early Peards in Ireland and Their Houses near Fermoy, Co. Cork (2003), p. 4]

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Apart from the Peard family of north-east Cork outlined above, there were other people by the name of Peard living in north Cork in the eighteenth and nineteenth century. These people maybe cousins of the Peard family above but no clear line of connection has been made yet. Information on these, as yet, unconnected Peard people is recorded below.

Peard of Allworth

John Peard of Allworth

John Peard was married to Ellen and they had a son, William Peard who was baptised 4 December 1836. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 306]

Joseph Peard of Allworth

On 16th February 1839 Joseph Peard and his wife Ellen had a son, Matthew Peard baptised. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 306]

Thomas Peard of Allworth

Denis son of Thomas and Frances Peard of Allworth, baptised 28 July 1812 and died on 12th November 1812. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, pp. 297, 319]

On 24th April 1813 —– Peard daughter of Thomas Peard of Allworth, died and on 4th October 1813 Henry Peard, son of Thomas and Frances Peard of Allworth, was baptised. On 29th November 1818 Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas and Frances Peard of Allworth, was baptised while on 15th April 1821 their son Matthew Peard was baptised. On 21st January 1827 Richard, son of Thomas and Frances Peard of Allworth, was baptised. On 4th April 1828 —- Peard, son of Thomas and Frances Peard of Allworth, died. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, pp. 319, 298, 299, 300, 303, 319, 322]

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Peard family of Glountane

[PG110] Henry Peard of Glountane

On 11th October 1838 Thomas Peard [PG111], son of Henry and Elizabeth Peard of Glountane was baptised. On 12th April 1842 Thomas Peard, son of Henry and Elizabeth Peard of Glountane died. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, pp. 306, 325]

On 17th February 1840 Robert Peard [PG112], son of Henry and Catherine Peard of Glountane was baptised. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 307]

On 1st April 1842 Frances Peard, the daughter of Henry and Catherine Peard of Glountane was baptised. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 309]

On 26th July 1846 Elizabeth Peard, the daughter of Henry and Catherine Peard of Glountane was baptised. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 309]

On 5th April 1846 Henry Peard was witness to the marriage of Elizabeth O’Connor (nee Peard), to Laurence O’Connor of Brittas in Kilshannig parish. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 2, p. 20]

On 11th March 1848 Henry Peard was witness to the marriage of Elizabeth O’Connor (nee Peard), to George Dormer in Kilshannig parish. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 2, p. 21]

John Peard of Glountane

On 7th August 1845 John Peard lived at Glountane and married Mary Phillpott of Newmarket by licence. John Peard was 25 years old and a farmer. He was son of Thomas Peard who was also a farmer. Mary was 28 in 1845 and daughter of Robert Philpot of Glantane (farmer). The witnesses were Thomas Peard and Robert Philpot with M. Becker as celebrant. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 2, pp. 20, 340]

Thomas Peard of Glantane

On 4th November 1832 Robert Peard, son of Thomas and Frances of Glountane, was baptised. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 304]

John Peard, the son of Thomas Peard, got married on 7 August 1845. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 2, p. 20 and see above under John of Glantane]

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Peard family of Knockanesweeny

[PK108] Thomas Peard of Knockanesweeny

He married Katherine Callaghan and they had a daughter Katherine baptised on 28 November 1761. Thomas Peard died on 27 August 1786. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 11, p. 1728; Ibid, vol. 14, p. 316]

[PK110] Henry Peard of Knockanesweeny

He and his wife Catherine had a daughter Jane baptised on 27 December 1789. On 4th December 1791 they had a son Thomas Peard [AK111] baptised. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 11, p. 1736]

Henry Peard died on 6 September 1797. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 317]

Richard Peard of Knockanesweeny

On 23rd October 1810 Richard Peard and his wife Mary had a daughter baptised. On 27th December 1812 their son, Denis Peard was baptised and in December 1815 another son called Thomas Peard was baptised. On 12th April 1818 a third son, Richard Peard was baptised. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, pp. 297, 298, 299]

Matthew Peard

He lived at Knockanesweeny and died 13 January 1839 at 68 years. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 324]

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Peard family of Knocknemony

[AKP110] Henry Peard of Knocknemony

He and his wife Katherine had a daughter Elizabeth baptised on 22 June 1794. They had a son John Peard [AKP111] baptised on 2 April 1797. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 11, pp. 1737, 1738]

[AKP111] John Peard of Knocknamoney

His wife Ellen had a daughter Elizabeth Peard who was baptised on 6 March 1835. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 305]

Thomas Peard of Knocknamony

On 25th October 1778 Thomas Peard and his wife Jane had a daughter, Jane, baptised and on 8th October 1779 they had a son Thomas Peard baptised on 8 October 1779. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 11, pp. 1732, 1733]

Thomas Peard of Knocknamoney

Thomas was a shoemaker in Knocknamonee. His daughter, Elizabeth (spinster) was a servant and married in Kilshannig parish on 14 February 1854 to Isaac Jones (servant) of Rockforest and son of Thomas Jones (steward). Thomas Peard and Thomas Peard junior were the two witnesses and H. Swanson was celebrant. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 2, p. 25]

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Peard family of Lombardstown

Catherine Peard of Lombardstown

She lived at Lombardstown and died a widow on 21 October 1836 [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 323]

[PL110] John Peard of Lombardstown

On 2nd November 1825 John Peard and his wife Ellen had a daughter, Catherine Peard baptised. On 6th April 1828 they had a son, Henry Peard [PL111] baptised. On 7th September 1830 they had a daughter, Ellen baptised and on 29th July 1832 another daughter, Jane, was baptised. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, pp. 302, 303, 304]

John Peard was a yeoman and his son Denis Peard [PL112] got married on 16 November 1850 in Kilshannig parish. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 2, p. 23]

[PL112] Denis Peard of Lombardstown

Denis Peard was the son of John Peard of Lombardstown. He was a wood-ranger and married on 16 November 1850 in Kilshannig parish to Bridget Boyle (spinster) of Duclayne and daughter of James Boyle (yeoman). The witnesses were James Berry and Richard Berry with H. Swanson as celebrant. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 2, p. 23]

Denis Peard and his wife Bridget had a son called Henry Peard baptised 28 September 1851. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 310]

Thomas Peard of Lombardstown

In February 1820 Thomas Peard and his wife, Elizabeth had a son, Henry Peard baptised. On 11th January 1822 they had a daughter, Catherine baptised in Kilshannig church. On 14th May 1826 Thomas and Elizabeth Peard had a son, Denis Peard baptised and on 23rd November 1828 another son, Thomas Peard was baptised. On 23rd October 1831 their daughter, Elizabeth, was baptised. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, pp. 300, 302, 303, 304]

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Peard family of Scarragh

Thomas Peard of Scarragh

Thomas Peard and his wife Jane had a son John baptised on 20 November 1763 (he died on 18th December 1763) and a daughter Mary was baptised on 25th August 1773. They had a daughter Mary baptised on 25 August 1773. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 11, pp. 1728, 1731; Ibid, vol. 14, p. 314]

Thomas Peard of Scarragh

On 19th August 1824 Thomas Peard and his wife Frances had a daughter, Celia baptised. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), Upper Blackwater, vol. 14, p. 301]

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Unassigned Peards

In additional to the above a number of people with the Peard surname have appeared for which it is as yet not possible to connect them with any of the Peard families above.

Alice Peard

She married Hercules Jones in 1814. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 4, p. 257]

Anna Maria Peard

She married Joseph Busteed in 1820. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 4, p. 257]

Anne Peard

She married Thomas Williamson in 1811. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 4, p. 257]

Annie Peard

Mrs Annie Peard lived at 4 College View Terrace, Western Road, Cork in 1881. [Slater’s Postal Directory of Munster, 1881, p. 78] She was a widow in 1897 and got letters of administration to the estate of her sister, Sarah Land who died 19 December 1897. Both lived at Woodview, Glanmire. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 2105]

Catherine Peard

She lived in Fermoy and married, in 1832, Rev. Robert Spread Nash. Rev. Nash was a grandson of Rev. William Nash and died in November 1857. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 6, p. 922]

Diana Peard

Diana Peard married John Mowbay in 1717. [‘Index to the marriage licence bonds of the Diocese of Cork and Ross, Ireland’, in J.C.H.A.S., vol. III (1897), p. 101]

Elinor Jane Peard

She married 24 October 1854 her second cousin, Richard Gifford Campion son of Richard Gifford Campion of Bushy Park by his wife, Lucinda Catherine Drew. [Carol Baxter, Drew Family Tree, p. 13]

Elizabeth Peard

Elizabeth Peard was a witness to a marriage in Kilshannig parish on 7 July 1796 and also a witness to another marriage in Kilshannig parish on 10 May 1804 with Thomas Peard. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, pp. 334, 335]

Elizabeth Peard

Elizabeth Peard married Thomas O’Grady of Aghamarta castle and had four sons and one daughter – Louise who in 1891 married George Foott of Carrigacunna castle, Co. Cork. [Burke’s Landed Gentry of Ireland, 1904, p. 345]

Frances Peard

She left a will under £1,500 after her death on 31 January 1864 at Fermoy, Co. Cork. She died a spinster and John Thomas Sherlock, solicitor, Fermoy proved the will. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 11, p. 1517]

Francis Peard

See under Richard Frederick Peard – also Ellen Peard, full age spinster from Curryglass, daughter of Francis Peard, married 9 December 1847, James Wynne, full age bachelor of Curryglass and land steward (son of Richard Wynne, steward) in Mogeely Church by Rev. M.S. Campion. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 2669]

Henry Peard (d. 1773)

From near Castlelyons [Nick Reddan newspapers, no. 29]

Henry Pearde

He married Hannah Dickenson in 1837. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 4, p. 257] She died on 16 October 1868 at Dunkerreen, Bandon, Co. Cork. Letters of administration were granted to her husband and only next of kin. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 11, p. 1626]

Henry Peard of Kilshannig

His daughter Mary died 22 January 1847. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 326]

Henry Peard

He lived a Millview, Fermoy Co. Cork and was party to a number of deeds with the Nash family around 1843 to 1853 and with Catherine Peard, a possible daughter who was wife of Robert Spread Nash of Fermoy, Co. Cork. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 15, p. 2179]

Henry Peard

He was a witness to the will of Jonathan Tanner of Bandon, which was proved on 17 May 1776. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 703]

Henry Peard of Mountpleasant

His will is dated 1805 at Mountpleasant. [Vicars’ index, p. 370]

Jane Peard

She married William Berry in 1834. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 4, p. 257]

Jane Peard

She married James Crothers in 1807. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 4, p. 257]

Jane Peard of Kilshannig parish

On 11th October 1814 Jane Peard married John Farmer of Kilshannig parish by banns. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), Vol. 14, p. 335]

Jane Peard of Youghal

She lived at number 14 Knockaverry, Youghal in the 1901 census with Margaret O’Reilly. [Youghal family roots, p. 7]

John Peard

In 1698, John Peard along with Henry Ellin lately held Coole with its two ploughlands. He shared a fine of £2,000 with Ellin from Charles, earl of Burlington in consideration of their interest there on 4 August 1698 because Charles wished to sell the property to financiers. [National Library of Ireland, Lismore papers, MS 6146]

John Peard

John married Mary Seward in 1732. [‘Index to the marriage licence bonds of the Diocese of Cork and Ross, Ireland’, in J.C.H.A.S., vol. III (1897), p. 101]

John Holmer Harrison Peard

He lived on Western Road, Cork in 1881 and had a veterinary practice at 28½ Princess Street. [Slater’s Postal Directory of Munster, 1881, p. 78]

On 25th June 1922 Henry Holmer Peard, son of John Holmer Harrison Peard of Ashtown House, Castleknock, Co. Dublin, married Fanny McClintock (born 8th May 1902), third daughter of Frederick Foster McClintock of Termonfeckin, Co. Louth. Henry Holmer Peard died on 12th September 1950. [Burke’s Irish Family Record, 1976, p. 753]

John Peard of St. Finbarry

He left a will dated 1782 with an address in St. Finbarry. [‘Index testamentorum olim in Registro Corcagle’, in J.C.H.A.S., vol. III (1897), p. 390]

Mary Peard

In 1774 Mary Peard married John Bennet. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 4, p. 257]

Mary Peard

In 1787 Mary Peard married William Dobbyn. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 4, p. 257]

Matthew Peard

He married Catherine Ring in 1810. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 4, p. 257]

Matthew Peard

Witness the marriage of Elizabeth Peard of Brittas to Laurence O’Connor of Brittas at Kilshannig in April 1846. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 2, p. 20]

Nicholas Peard

He was a witness to the will of John Williams of Cork which was proved on 22 January 1662. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 1452]

Rebecca Peard

Rebecca married Thomas Connaway in 1704. [‘Index to the marriage licence bonds of the Diocese of Cork and Ross, Ireland’, in J.C.H.A.S., vol. III (1897), p. 101]

Richard Peard of Kilshannig

On 25th February 1810 Richard Peard married Mary Lynch. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 335]

Richard Peard of Mallow

His son Richard Peard died 30th July 1820 and on 19th June 1828 his son Matthew Peard died. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, pp. 321, 322]

Richard Peard (living c.1846)

In March 1846 Richard Peard reported on the state of the poor and the condition of the potato crop in the area of Ballyclough, Kilmagner and Knockdromaclough to the Fermoy Relief Committee. [T.A. Barry, ‘The Famine: Chronicle of Famine Times’ in The Avondhu newspaper, part 31]

Richard William Peard

He lived at Butlerstown, barony of Barrymore, Co. Cork and Elizabeth Phair was his wife. He was party to a Phair family deed of 13/8/1857. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 15, p. 2170]

Robert Peard of Roscommon

His will is dated 1794 at the Cottage, Roscommon and a gent. [Vicars’ index, p. 370]

Rosanna Peard

In 1772 Rosanna Peard married George Ward. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 4, p. 257]

Sarah Peard

In 1764 Sarah Peard married George Pearse. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 4, p. 257]

Thomas Peard of Brittas

In April 1846 Thomas Peard of Brittas, farmer, saw his daughter Elizabeth marry at Kilshannig to Laurence O’Connor, a smither of Brittas. Elizabeth was twenty five years old at the time. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 2, p. 20]

In 1848 Thomas Peard was a farmer and his daughter Elizabeth O’Connor (a widow) married in Kilshannig parish on 11 March 1848 to George Dormer (constable), the son of Richard Dormer (weaver). Henry Peard and John Vanston were the witnesses and F. Brady was celebrant. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 2, p. 21]

Thomas Peard of Dromore

William Peard son of Thomas and Frances Peard of Dromore was baptised on 6 March 1831.

Later in 1835 Thomas Peard was witness to Murphy/Buckley land deed of 16/3/1835 in the barony of Duhallow. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 304; Ibid, vol. 15, p. 2202]

Thomas Peard of Keal

On 21st January 1765 Thomas Peard and his wife Jane had a daughter Elizabeth baptised. They had a son Henry Peard baptised on 28 June 1767. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 11, pp. 1729, 1730]

Thomas Peard of Kilshannig parish

On 24th August 1783 Thomas Peard and his wife June had a son Richard Peard baptised. He was witness to marriage in Kilshannig parish on 10 May 1804 with Elizabeth Peard and also on 14 November 1804. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 11, p. 1734; Ibid, vol. 14, p. 335]

On 20th February 1810 Thomas Peard married Frances Lynch of Kilshannig parish by licence. On 23rd November 1810 Thomas Peard son of Thomas and Frances Peard of Allworth, was baptised. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, pp. 296, 335]

On 1st September 1815 Thomas Peard of Kilshannig married Elizabeth Lynch of same parish by banns. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 336]

On 7th January 1823 Thomas Peard was witness to marriage in Kilshannig parish. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 336]

In April 1850 Thomas Peard was a witness to a marriage at Mourne Abbey church. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 15, p. 2495]

Robert Henry Peard was baptised on 2 September 1855 to Thomas and Elizabeth Peard [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 311]

Thomas Peard of Newberry

On 22nd September 1816 Thomas Peard and his wife Frances had a son, John Peard, baptised. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 299]

William Peard

He was brother-in-law of John Mitchell of Mitchellsfort, Co. Cork who died 16th March 1755 and had his will proved on 2nd April 1755 and executor to the will. Among the witnesses were Thomas Browne, John Barry and Henry Peard [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 729]

William Harrison Peard (b. 9 May 1822)

He was born at St. Helier in Jersey and married in 1875 Maude Anna King Palmer. She was born about 1851 and died in 1891. [Frank Peard, Records of the Early Peards in Ireland and Their Houses near Fermoy, Co. Cork (2003)]

The will of Maude Palmer Peard was proved on 27th October 1892 with an address of Riverstown, Co. Cork. The registrar of the will stated that she died 19 September 1891 at the same place. Letters of administration for her will was granted at Cork to William Harrison Peard of same place, gent, and described as farmer and the husband. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 1797]

William Love Peard

Major William L. Peard of Rathbarry sent 29 letters, via his solicitor, G.W. Shannon, to Henry Dennehy, agent of Villiers Stuart, about the lease of a field near Youghal in 1844-48. A legal case resulted which was entitled Peard v Lord Stuart. [P.R.O.N.I. Villiers Stuart papers, T. 3131/G/16/1-29]

Major William Love Peard was chief tenant of Rathbarry (47 acres) which he rented from Rev. R. Gumbleton. [Griffith’s Valuation, Rathbarry, parish Castlelyons, barony of Barrymore]

W. Peard

In 1881 W. Peard lived at Richmond Lodge, Riverstown. [Slater’s Postal Directory of Munster, 1881, p.78]

W. Peard

He wrote a book entitled “A Year of Liberty-Salmon Angling in Ireland, 1867”. [Hamilton Osbourne King, House sale at Ileclash House, Fermoy, Co. Cork, 26 May 1998, lot 389]

William Peard

In 1881 William Peard lived at Skahabeg on the Old Douglas Road. [Slater’s Postal Directory of Munster, 1881, p.78]

William Peard

His will was proved in Cork by John Harris, solicitor, Sullivan’s Quay as one of his executors. William died 14 August 1885 at Duhallow, gent. [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 1568]

William Pearde

Ellen Pearde … effects £2,340 … July 7 … letters of admin … will annexed … per est … late of Kilbrogan Hill, Bandon and wife of William Pearde, died 9 October 1889 at same place and left unadmin by Frances Anne Beamish, sole executor, were granted at Cork to Ellen W. Beamish of Neelin House, Bandon, spinster, attorney of one of the resident legatees [Albert Eugene Casey & Thomas O’Dowling, O’Kief, Coshe Many, Slieve Loughter and Upper Blackwater in Ireland (15 vols. Wisconsin, 1964), vol. 14, p. 1844]

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Appendix I

Some land deeds involving members of the Peard family

(I)        CROKER/HANNA (869/432/578432); barony of east Muskerry; 7/3/1828; indented deed – Walter Croker, Lisnabrin House, Co. Cork, Francis Hanna, Tallow, Co. Waterford, merchant;

Walter Croker made over to Francis Hanna the lands of Upper Rovamore in the barony of East Muskerry; Witnesses; Richard Frederick Peard and John O’Brien, writing clerk; sworn 19/5/1828; registered by Francis Peard. [Upper Blackwater, vol 15, p. 1752]

(II)       PEARD/WESTROPP (866/56/576556) Barony west Muskerry 27/5/1830 – indented deed – Richard Peard. Coole, Co. Cork (eldest son & exec, of last will and testament of Henry Peard), Edward Morgan, Birdstown, co. Cork, Maria Morgan (nee Spread) his wife, Eliza Albina Spread, Ballincollig Co. Cork (spinster – exec of last will & testament of Rev Thomas Westropp, Richard Spread, Ballincollig, Co. Cork, Mountiford Westropp, Westmount, Co. Cork.

In consideration of the marriage of Wm Spread & Elizabeth Peard; Richard Peard, Ed Morgan, Maria his wife & Eliza A. Spread made over to Mountiford Westropp, in trust for Richard Spread, the lands at Ballycannon & Kilbeg – Barony Barretts – Upper and Lower Coolnageragh – Barony Muskerry lands of Behina, Knockaroghery, Lansvaghy, and Carrigatow & £142/17 part of a trust of £1,000. Witnesses; John Lysaght, Richard Pope Hackett (gent); sworn 24/11/1830; reg. Richard Foot [Upper Blackwater, vol 15, p. 2160]

(III)     HANNA/CROKER (1833/15/1911); barony of east Muskerry – 28/5/1833 – indented deed of reassignment by William Hanna, Tallow, Co. Waterford, (?) and Elizabeth O’Hea (widow), Co. Waterford (both administrators and executors of the will of Francis Hanna, deceased merchant) to Walter Croker, Lisnabrin House, Co. Cork

William Hanna and Elizabeth O’Hea reassigned and made over to Walter Croker the lands of Upper Rovamore in the barony of East Muskerry; witnesses; Richard Frederick Peard (attorney) and John O’Brien (writing clerk); sworn; 8/10/1833 and registered by Francis Peard

(IV)     BOWLES/WOODLEY (1842/21/282); barony of East Muskerry – 7/10/1842 – indenture of removal; Catherine Jones Bowles, Mount Prospect, Co. Cork, widow and administrator of George Bowles; Ellen Harman Woodley, Tallow, Co. Waterford, widow and devises of Joseph Woodley and Francis George Woodley, Leads, Co. Cork. Catherine Bowles and Ellen Woodley demised and let unto Francis Woodley, in his actual possession, the lands of Leads East (401 acres), Leads West (354 acres) and Ballyvougane (877 acres) in the barony of Muskerry for life at yearly rent of £110 0s 5d together with 11d per (hereceives) fees, also 1 fat hog at Christmas. Witnessed by William Woodley and Richard Frederick Peard, solicitor; sworn 12/10/1842 and registered by John Cranitch

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Biography

Charles McNeill: editor of manuscripts

Charles McNeill: editor of manuscripts

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

 

An important aid for historians is access to published original documents or knowing where to find unpublished manuscripts. The people who tirelessly work away reading old handwriting in dusty old documents to provide this source material for historians are the unsung heroes of history writing. One of these men who devoted his life to gathering and publishing original documents was Charles McNeill.

Birth and family

Charles McNeill was born on 26th April 1862 at Glenarm in County Antrim.[1] He was one of a large family born to Archibald McNeill, a Roman Catholic working class “baker, sailor and merchant”, and his wife, Rosetta (née McAuley) McNeill.[2] His younger brother, John MacNeill (he later used the first name of Eoin) was a founding member of the Gaelic League, President of the Irish Volunteers, Professor of Early and Medieval history at University College, Dublin, Minister of Education and first Chairman of the Irish Manuscripts Commission. Another brother, James McNeill was second Governor-General of the Irish Free State. The wife of James McNeill, Josephine Ahearne, was a first cousin of my grandfather.

Education

The McNeill family had aspirations for Charles McNeill beyond a life in the Glens of Antrim. Thus he was sent south and was educated at Belvedere College before moving on to becoming a scholar at the Catholic University of Ireland in 1880 shortly before it was renamed the University College, Dublin. At University he was educated by Father William Delany and Father Edmund Hogan among others. When Father Hogan produced his Onomasticon Goidelicum in 1910 Charles McNeill was mentioned for thanks among a small group of former students.[3]

Employment

On 20th December 1880 Charles McNeill entered the Irish Civil Service for a very brief career – he was still at University at the time. He got a job as a clerk in the Collector General of Rates for Dublin City. But Charles McNeill had no desire to be a pin pusher all his life – he had another mission. When the office was dissolved in 1893, Charles McNeill quickly acquired a right to the first of two Civil Service pensions. With this slender source of income Charles McNeill gave up recognised employment and devoted his life to the study and transcription of unpublished Irish manuscripts, particularly those relating to medieval history.[4]

1901 census

In 1901 Charles McNeill was living at Hazelbrook in Malahide with his mother, Rosetta; his aunt Marianne Spenser; and younger brother John MacNeill, then secretary of the Gaelic League and his wife Agnes MacNeill. In the return Charles gives his occupation as “Pensioner Collector General Office”.[5] In the census return the family spelt their name as McNeill but John would later use the surname of MacNeill. In the house and building return Charles McNeill was listed as head of the household while in the household return his mother Rosetta was head of the household. The house was rented from Mary Gaffney.[6] It was the McNeill home from 1893 to 1908.[7]

Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland

Two institutions formed an important part of Charles McNeill’s life, the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland and the Irish Manuscripts Commission. In 1890 Charles McNeill became a member of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. The Society was founded in Kilkenny in 1854 as the Kilkenny Archaeological Society. Over the following years it changed its name a few times before moving to Dublin in 1890 and calling itself the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland.

On 27th January 1914 Charles McNeill attended the Annual General Meeting of the Royal Society of Antiquaries at the Society’s rooms at number 6 St. Stephen’s Green. Also attending as a fellow of the Society was R.A.S. Macalister, later member of the Irish Manuscripts Commission and editor of a number of works. Macalister was President of the Society from 1925 to 1928 and President of the Royal Irish Academy from 1925 to 1931. During the A.G.M. Charles McNeill, then of 19 Warrington Place, Dublin, was elected a fellow of the Society along with eight others. Charles McNeill was proposed by Robert Cochrane, a past President of the Society. Charles McNeill was in 1914 a member of the Council of the Society and attended five of the eleven meetings held that year.[8]

On 31st March 1914 Charles McNeill attended the Council meeting of the Society in St. Stephen’s Green. He was due to present his paper on ‘The Secular Jurisdiction of the Early Archbishops of Dublin’ but due to the lateness of the hour it was postponed the following meeting.[9] The paper was later published in the Society’s Journal in 1915 (Series 6, Vol. V, pp. 81-108, 1915).

During 1914 Charles McNeill became one of the two honorary general secretaries of the Society.[10] He would hold the position until 1920 and again for a short period in 1937 to meet a special emergency.[11]

By 1920 Charles McNeill was one of the Vice-Presidents of the Society representing the Ulster province. During 1920 Charles McNeill attended just three Council meetings out of fifteen held. This was not as bad as it seems as some other Vice-Presidents only attended one meeting. During that time Charles McNeill had been reducing his work load in the Society as he had stepped down as Honorary General Secretary. His successor, H.J. Leask, found the position too much and resigned in July 1920 to be replaced by W.G. Strickland. Charles McNeill was busy at that time processing the work he had done in Malta.

In 1921 Charles McNeill was able to give more time to the Society and attended a number of meetings. On 27th January 1921 Charles McNeill was one of the attendees the A.G.M. of the Society at 63 Merrion Square. On 5th July 1921 and on 13th December 1921 Charles McNeill was one of the attendees at the Quarterly General Meeting of the Society and took the chair for the Quarterly General Meeting held on 20th September 1921.[12]

Over the following years Charles McNeill continued to give time to the Royal Society of Antiquaries through publishing papers and attending meetings. Even when he was overseas Charles McNeill found time for the Society on his return. In 1931 he attended four out of ten meetings of the Council. This was the time when he was doing his major work at the Bodleian Library in Oxford. At that time Charles McNeill was still one of the Vice-Presidents of the Society – representing Leinster.[13] In 1951 the Society elected Charles McNeill as an Honorary Life Fellow for his service over sixty years and he in turn was ‘singularly gratified’ when the Society published his Calendar of Archbishop Alen’s Register.[14]

Early work on editing manuscripts

In the years between 1893 and 1914 Charles McNeill visited many libraries and archives in which he studied and transcribed some manuscripts. In this regard he was a self-taught scholar with no scientific and technical training but with a natural talent for the game he went on to search for the sources of Irish history. One of the manuscripts that he found was the Black Book of Dublin, more commonly known as Archbishop Alen’s Register. But his very elaborate calendar lay unpublished for nearly fifty years until in 1950 when the Royal Society of Antiquaries published the work as a public gratitude for all the help Charles McNeill gave the Society over the years.[15]

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For Charles McNeill it was a delight to see the work finally published but also a time of sadness because others who helped so much with it didn’t life to see the day. When Charles McNeill first applied to Most Reverend Dr. Peacock, then Archbishop of Dublin, to edit the manuscript the archbishop was delighted and readily gave permission. Charles McNeill regretted that the Archbishop didn’t live to receive a copy of the finished work. The death of the Diocesan Registrar, W.H. Robinson, was also one of regret to Charles for all the help he gave.[16]

During World War One Charles McNeill found time to publish his article on the secular authority of the medieval Archbishops of Dublin. In 1930 Herbert Wood described this article as a ‘valuable paper’ on the subject when Herbert edited the Court Book of the liberty of St. Sepulchre.[17] Charles McNeill also found time to help others with their work as in 1917 when he was consulted about the book on Howth castle and its owners, written by Elrington Ball.[18]

In January 1916 Charles McNeill also showed that his life was not just all about dusty old manuscripts when he read a paper on the New Gate of Dublin to the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland (this was published in 1921 in the Society Journal, Sixth Series, Vol. X, 1921, pp. 152-165). The article had its origins in 1915 when Dublin Corporation knocked down an old house that extended over a narrow laneway between Corn Market and Thomas Street. The removed house exposed a circular tower which was part of the medieval New Gate and the later New Gate prison.[19] For many people the removal of an old house by the local authority would not make much difference in their lives but Charles McNeill it inspired him to explored the exposed ruins and search for its history.

Shortly after the end of World War One, Charles McNeill went to Malta. There he spent some weeks transcribing the many references to Irish houses among the records of the Knights of Malta (Knights of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem). On returning to Ireland the work lay unpublished. Later Charles McNeill had the transcripts bound in a volume of fine leather and was one of his treasured possessions. After many years Irish Manuscripts Commission purchased the volume with the intention of having it published but it never happened. Instead the volume was deposited in the National Library where it is available for consultation.[20] In July 1958, after the death of Charles McNeill, the Irish Manuscripts Commission presented a typed copy of McNeill’s notes and abstracts from the Malta archive to the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. This was typed by Rev. Brendan Jennings and runs to over three hundred pages.[21]

The work of editing manuscripts

The job of editing a manuscript is a long and sometimes lonely endeavour that few see. The final published work is enjoyed by historians and acclaimed as a job well done by a few of these. But if an editor was less than perfect in transcribing or translating or relied too much on later copies of the manuscript for the text, a great host of people will pass a negative comment or two. Charles McNeill was very conscious of accessing the original manuscript or the earliest available copy if the original was no longer in existence.

Sometimes a copyist of a manuscript can be too quickly condemned as inaccurate, especially if the scribe says he worked from the original when in fact he merely transcribed from an early copy. The Trinity College copy of Archbishop Alen’s Register (referred to by the letter T and numbered MS 554 in the Library catalogue), was judged to be valueless by commentators like Rev. J.H. Bernard and Dr. H.J. Lawlor. But a later, seemingly valueless copy can be of use in suppling material for missing folios in the original. Charles McNeill found the scribe of the Trinity College MS (T) copy to be honest and had some merits.

In his own editing of the Archbishop Alen’s Register, Charles McNeill acknowledged the comments of earlier writers and commentators on the manuscript and its later copies. But he went back to the original manuscript, known as A1 and said that ‘allowing for its mutilations, we have all the original register, as well as additions by Alen’.[22]

Yet even Charles McNeill was liable to make errors and emissions. The difficulty of reading old handwriting where two words like numinum and immunium can only be distinguished from one another by the number of stokes makes errors unavoidable. In his work on the Liber Primus Kilkenniensis there were a number of such failings. In the 1960s, in preparation for her English translation of the Liber Primus Kilkenniensis, A.J. Otway-Ruthven made a list of these corrections and additions and had them published in Analecta Hibernica, Number 26 (1970), pages 73-87.

Work for the Irish Manuscripts Commission

The second great institution of Charles McNeill’s life was the Irish Manuscripts Commission. In the 1920s Charles McNeill’s brother, Eoin McNeill, campaigned for the establishment of the Irish Manuscripts Commission to promote public and institutional awareness of the need to preserve primary records and where possible, publish these records so that they would be available as the indispensable resource for historians. In November 1928 the Commission was founded and held its first meeting in January 1929.

In the early days of the Irish Manuscripts Commission, members of the Commission and others were invited to submit ideas on where the Commission could find Irish related manuscripts for publication. Richard Best was one of the founding members of the Irish Manuscripts Commission. While some of his colleagues favoured edited Irish language manuscripts or simply publishing pure texts, Richard Best had his eye on manuscripts relating to Ireland at the Bodleian library at Oxford. Edward Gwynn, another founding member of the Commission, also suggested a survey of Bodleian material. Charles McNeill was appointed by the Commission to examine these manuscripts.[23] In May 1930, Charles McNeill was living at Oxenford Hall, Oxford.[24] His work at Oxford produced a number of reports which appeared in a number of issues of Analecta Hibernica. The work at the Bodleian in Oxford was by far the greatest and most detailed inspection of manuscripts undertaken by the Irish Manuscripts Commission in its early years.[25]

Charles’s brother, James McNeill, was of the opinion that the work at Oxford, and also at Lambeth Palace, was too much for Charles to undertake alone and that he needed the help of a younger man who Charles could train in the work of inspection. Richard Best, on behalf of the Commission, said that an assisted, with a degree, could be got later on. James McNeill was unsatisfied with this and in 1929 enclosed £100 of his own income to help Charles McNeill to do the work at Oxford and London. As James asked Charles to take the money “in the interest of Ireland”.[26]

bodleian-librarys

Bodleian Library

In May 1929 Charles McNeill set off for Oxford with a letter of introduction to the Bodleian, a copy of the Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research dealing with editing documents and first class travelling expenses with a subsistence allowance for a first class civil servant and £30 a month remuneration. The initial stay was for two months with a later visit to Cambridge but instead the Oxford visit was extended into a three year labour of vast proportions and Cambridge never happened.[27]

The instructions given to Charles McNeill were without too many restrictions. He was given ‘considerable latitude’ and could ‘excise an independent judgement in dealing with the Manuscript collections’. He was allowed to include in his report anything new in the way of historical facts or items of unusual interest or peculiarities of spelling. It was up to the Commission to make a judgement on which documents should be printed in full or just noted in the report. For the most part the reports furnished by Charles McNeill were to in no way be regarded as ‘superseding the use of the documents themselves or as a substitute for publication at a later time’.[28] Of course as Robert Frost would say in his poem ‘Two roads diverged in a yellow wood … Yet knowing how way leads on to way, I doubted if I should ever come back’.[29] Charles McNeill did have the honour of seeing part of the collection mentioned in his reports making it to full publication such as the Registrum de Kilmainham (this was approved even before the first issue of Analecta Hibernica) but for the most part the reports of Charles McNeill formed the end of publishing for majority of the documents at the Bodleian.

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Charles McNeill began by examining the Rawlinson collection of manuscripts at the Bodleian before moving on to the Carte collection and the Fitzwilliam papers within the Carte collection. In this work Charles McNeill received some assistance from Miss Parker of Oxford with the Gerrard Papers within the Rawlinson collection. From May to October 1930 Charles McNeill examined the Fitzwilliam papers. These collections held numerous documents relating to Irish history and the reports on same filled many of the pages in the first three issues of Analecta Hibernica.[30] After the Fitzwilliam papers Charles McNeill examined other collections in the Bodleian such as the Chichester Papers, Nairne Papers and the Letter-Book of Sir John Perrot.[31]

Although Charles McNeill was kept busy with manuscripts at Oxford he could still see a world beyond the colleges and spires. Charles McNeill had ideas about examining Irish related documents on the Continent. In February 1931 he wrote to the Irish Manuscripts Commission about a survey of documents in the Vatican Archives.[32] Such a survey didn’t happen under his watch but one was later done by Leonard Boyle. The secretary of the Irish Manuscripts Commission was unimpressed with such ideas and in January 1931 pressed Charles McNeill to return his proof for publication ‘as soon as possible as Mr. Blythe (Finance minister) has got worried about our slackness in issuing publication’.[33]

Meanwhile Analecta Hibernica, No. 2 was issued containing more survey material by Charles McNeill in Oxford. The issue was well received. Charles wrote to his brother John MacNeill, Chairman of the Irish Manuscripts Commission, that the issue ‘comes out very well and has made a good impression here (England). I have heard it approved beyond the English Historical Commission’s work for its general appearance, type and paper’.[34]

Shortly afterwards the Irish Manuscripts Commission was invited by G. Wentworth Fitzwilliam to examining the Fitzwilliam Papers at Milton. Charles McNeill had seen the Fitzwilliam papers which form part of the Carte Manuscripts at the Bodleian and reported that there ‘importance for Elizabethan policy in the period leading up to Hugh O’Neill’s war becomes daily more evident’.[35] Charles McNeill was dispatched to report of the collection from 10th to 13th October 1931 and a report was published in 1932.[36] Charles McNeill continued work on the Fitzwilliam collection after 1931 and in 1936 it was questioned by the Department of Finance why he was being paid a fee by the Irish Manuscripts Commission for the work.[37]

By 1932 Charles McNeill desired to return to Ireland and in that year he examined and reported on a collection of seventeenth century documents deposited in the library of the King’s Inns, Dublin, by J.P. Prendergast. In about September 1932 Charles McNeill found time to run across town and examine the Harris Collection in the National Library, Dublin.[38] A report of the Harris Collection was published in 1934.

Editor of books published by the Irish Manuscripts Commission

In 1931 the Irish Manuscripts Commission published the Liber Primus Kilkenniensis under the editorship of Charles McNeill. Louis P. Roche collated the text and compiled the index. The Liber Primus is the most ancient record held by Kilkenny Corporation and was deposited at the Irish Manuscripts Commission office while McNeill worked on it.[39] In 1961 A.J. Otway-Ruthven edited an English translation of the Liber Primus that was based on the edited produced by Charles McNeill with some corrections and additions.[40]

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In 1932 the Irish Manuscripts Commission published another volume of work by Charles McNeill. This was the Registrum de Kilmainham and it was a product of his work in Oxford. The main source for the text was taken from the Rawlinson manuscripts at the Bodleian Library.[41] Other manuscripts that Charles McNeill saw among the Rawlinson Manuscripts at the Bodleian formed the work of later publications. These included Raw. Ms. B.498 (The Register of St. John’s without the New Gate, Dublin, edited by Eric St. John Brooks, I.M.C. 1936), Raw. Ms. B.504 (Register of Tristernagh, edited by Maud Clarke, I.M.C. 1943), and Raw. Ms. B.499 (Copinger’s Transcript of 1526, unpublished). Charles McNeill also saw material relating to Ireland from the thirteenth to fifteenth centuries within the collection known as the ‘Miscellany of Chancery’.[42]

While all this examination and publication of manuscripts was going on, Charles McNeill found time to help others. In 1932 Canon Patrick Power produced an edition of Crichad an Chaoilli with an introduction, translation and notes. In the introduction Canon Power acknowledge the help he had received from Charles McNeill among others.[43]

In 1935 and 1936, Charles McNeill was living at number 7 Pembroke Road, Dublin.[44] In early 1936 Charles McNeill was appointed to a committee consisting of Liam Price, Richard Best and Dr. Con Curran to report on the Public Record Office of Ireland. At the end of 1936 the committee reported that the government should look beyond the destruction of 1922 and see that the modern state records were properly preserved. They recommended the transfer of public documents from all Government departments to the P.R.O.I. on the basis that it was an ‘essential idea of any Public Record Office that it should be a repository of all official documents’. They recommended two departments – one to keep current documents and another for archive material of a historical nature. But the report was just filed away and nothing happened for another five decades.[45]

In the mid-1930s the Irish Manuscripts Commission looked to Spain as a possibly area for surveying and editing of Irish related material. Charles McNeill was the recommended person to go to Spain and was due to leave after the summer of 1936. But in July 1936 the Spanish civil war began and the project was scrapped. In 1939 the project was revisited and Joseph Healy, a lecturer in Spanish at U.C.C., was sent to Spain and made a short report.[46]

In the last years of the 1930s Charles McNeill was at work with a number of different projects including an edition of A Light to the Blind. This manuscript was recently acquired by the National Library from the Earl of Fingall. Sir John Gilbert had published a part of the manuscript in 1892 but the McNeill edition didn’t make it to the printing press.[47]

World War Two and receiving honours

Before 1940, Charles McNeill was at work editing the Tanner Letters along with the Dowdall/Peppard manuscripts. The advent of World War Two placed many restrictions on editors and publishers. Yet despite the restrictions of wartime the Irish Manuscripts Commission continued to publish many works including seven issues of Analecta Hibernica and twenty-one volumes of other works which included the Tanner Letters in 1943 at the height of World War Two.[48] James Hogan described the Tanner Letters as containing ‘many documents of capital importance, belonging to the reigns of Elizabeth and James 1’.[49]

The Dowdall/Peppard collection, housed at the National Library of Ireland, represented an important archive giving a history of land in Co. Louth from the thirteenth century to modern times. The War stopped this work as for safety most of the Dublin libraries and archives deposited their important collections in various places in the countryside – the memory of the Four Courts fire of 1922 was too fresh for comfort. After the War, A.J. Otway-Ruthven and Rev. Aubrey Gwynn completed the editing process of the Dowdall papers. In 1960 the Dowdall Deeds were eventually published by the Irish Manuscripts Commission.[50]

In 1946 Charles McNeill received an honorary doctorate from the National University of Ireland along with R.C. Simington, a member of the Irish Manuscripts Commission and chief editor of the Civil Survey project. The reason for giving the doctorate was for his lifelong devotion to ‘painstaking and most fruitful research in Irish history’. It was said that the I.M.C. was ‘singularly fortunate in having at its service his exceptional equipment in all branches of MSS material’.[51]

Death and legacy

On 25th January 1958 Charles McNeill died when he was nearly ninety-six years old. His legacy in over seventy years of service for Irish historians was to produce much material that would otherwise by difficult to access. An obituary for Charles McNeill was written by Aubrey Gwynn in the publications of the two organisations that had been so apart of his life, namely the Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland for that Society and in Analecta Hibernica for the Irish Manuscripts Commission.[52] As for the man, this is what Aubrey Gwynn had to say about his friend – ‘Today we salute his name and his achievement, with many pleasant and grateful memories of that dry sense of humour and those half-cynical, half-serious comments which made conversation with Charles McNeill a stimulating experience even in his last years’.[53]

The Published Writings of Charles McNeill

In the obituary for Charles McNeill, written by Audrey Gwynn, a full listing of his published works was left out and just the main items were mentioned. The list below is an attempt to record the writings of Charles McNeill. It is most likely that not everything he wrote is mentioned below but ‘Rome wasn’t built in a day’ as they say.

 

1912

The affinities of Irish Romanesque architecture in The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Ser. 6, Vol. II, pp. 140-147, 1912

1915

The secular jurisdiction of the early Archbishops of Dublin in The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland , Ser. 6, Vol. V, pp. 81-108, 1915

1919

The chalices of the West Convent, Galway in The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Ser. 6, Vol. IX, pp. 187-188, 1919

1920

Remarks on the walls and church of Athenry in Journal of the Galway Archaeological and Historical Society, Vol. XI, pp. 132-141, 1920-21

1921

New Gate, Dublin in The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Ser. 6, Vol. XI, pp. 152-165, 1921

1922

Monaincha, Co. Tipperary: historical notes. With architectural notes on the church by Harold G. Leask and some remarks by H. S. Crawford in The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Ser. 6, Vol. X, pp. 19-35, 1920; Vol. XII, p. 81, 1922

Accounts of sums realised by sales of chattels of some suppressed Irish monasteries in The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Ser. 6, Vol. XII, pp. 11-37, 1922

1923

The Suppression Commission of 1539 and religious houses in Co. Louth, 1539 in County Louth Archaeological and Historical Journal, volume V number 3 (1923), pp. 161-165

The De Verdons and the Draycots in County Louth Archaeological and Historical Journal, volume V number 3 (1923), pp. 166-172

Butler’s Journal (scholia to J. Deane’s article in last year’s Journal), in County Louth Archaeological and Historical Journal, volume V number 3 (1923), p. 227

1924

The Hospitallers at Kilmainham and their guests in The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Ser. 6, Vol. XIV, pp. 15-30, 1924

Professor Curtis on Mediaeval Ireland: being a review of Edmund Curtis’ “Mediaeval Ireland from 1110 to 1513” in The Irish Monthly, Vol. LII, pp. 249-259, May, 1924

Some early documents relating to English Uriel and towns of Drogheda and Dundalk 1, the Draycott family; II, The grants to the Hospital of St. John, Thomas Street, Dublin, in County Louth Archaeological and Historical Journal, volume V number 4 (1924), pp. 270-277

1925

The Lumbard inscription in Christ Church, Dublin in The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Ser. 6, Vol. XV, pp. 1-5, 1925

Hospital of St. John Without the New Gate, Dublin in The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Ser. 6, Vol. XV, pp. 58-64, 1925 [Republished in H.B. Clarke (ed.), Medieval Dublin: the living city (Blackrock, 1990), pp. 77-82]

Castletown and Roche, in County Louth Archaeological and Historical Journal, volume VI number 1 (1925), pp. 1-2

History of the Irish State to 1014 by Alice Stopford Green, reviewed by Charles McNeill in Studies: an Irish quarterly review, Vol. XIV, No. 55, pp. 502-505, September 1925

Vicissitudes of an Anglo-Irish family 1530-1800 by Philip H. Bagenal, reviewed by Charles McNeill in Studies: an Irish quarterly review, Vol. XIV, No. 55, pp. 505-508, September 1925

Cleanings from Irish history by William F. T. Butler reviewed by Charles McNeill in Studies: an Irish quarterly review, Vol. XIV, No. 56, pp. 679-681, December, 1925

1926

Dolmen in Glenasmole, Co. Dublin in The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Ser. 6, Vol. XVI, pp. 122-123, 1926

The monastery of St. Mochaoi of Nendrum by H. C. Lawlor, foreword by R. A. S. Macalister; reviewed by Charles McNeill in Studies: an Irish quarterly review, Vol. XV, No. 58, pp. 335-338, June, 1926

1927

Notes on the Liber Primus Kilkenniensis in The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Ser. 6, Vol. XVII, pp. 21-38, pp. 138-149, 1927

The Judges in Ireland 1221-1921 by F. Elrington Ball, reviewed by Charles McNeill in Studies: an Irish quarterly review, Vol. XVI, pp. 346-347, June, 1927

A short bibliography of Irish archaeology, in the Journal of the Bibliographical Society of Ireland, Vol. 3, Issue 10, 16 pages

1928

Some Drogheda gilds and properties, in County Louth Archaeological and Historical Journal, volume VI number 4 (1928), pp. 239-246

1930

Publications of Irish interest published by Irish Authors on the Continent of Europe prior to the Eighteenth century, in the Journal of the Bibliographical Society of Ireland, Vol. 4 (1930), pp. 3-41

Report on Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library, Oxford: recent acquisitions, in Analecta Hibernica, No. 1 (1930), pp. 1-11

Report on Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library, Oxford: Rawlinson Manuscripts (Class A), in Analecta Hibernica, No. 1 (1930), pp. 12-117

Report on Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library, Oxford: Rawlinson Manuscripts (Class B), in Analecta Hibernica, No. 1 (1930), pp. 118-178

1931

Liber primus Kilkenniensis, edited by Charles McNeill (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1931)

Report on Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library, Oxford: Rawlinson Manuscripts (Class C), in Analecta Hibernica, No. 2 (1931), pp. 1-43

Report on Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library, Oxford: Rawlinson Manuscripts (Class D), in Analecta Hibernica, No. 2 (1931), pp. 44-92

Report on Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library, Oxford: Lord Chancellor Gerrard’s Notes of his Report on Ireland, in Analecta Hibernica, No. 2 (1931), pp. 93-291

Report on Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library, Oxford: Rawlinson Manuscripts (Class A), in Analecta Hibernica, No. 3 (1931), pp. 151-21

Report on Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library, Oxford: Rawlinson Manuscripts (Class D), in Analecta Hibernica, No. 2 (1931), pp. 219-224

1932

Registrum de Kilmainham: register of chapter acts of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem in Ireland, 1326-50, edited by Charles McNeill (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1932)

Report on Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library, Oxford: Rawlinson Manuscripts (Class A), in Analecta Hibernica, No. 4 (1932), pp. 1-9

Fitzwilliam Manuscripts at Milton, England, in Analecta Hibernica, No. 4 (1932), pp. 287-326

1933

“La Sculpture Irlandaise pendant les douze premiers siècles de l’Ère Chrétienne” par Françoise Henry, reviewed by Charles McNeill in Studies: an Irish quarterly review, Vol. XXII, pp. 499-503, September, 1933

1934

Harris: Collectanea de Rebus Hibernicis, in Analecta Hibernica, No. 6 (1934), pp. 248-450

1935

Sepulchral slab, Kilcorban Church, Co. Galway in The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Ser. 7, Vol. V, p. 325, p. 327, 1935

1938

Copies of Down Survey Maps in private keeping, in Analecta Hibernica, No. 8 (1938), pp. 419-427

1940

Notes on Dublin Castle in The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Ser. 7, Vol. X, pp. 194-199, 1940

1943

The Tanner Letters, edited by Charles McNeill (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1943)

‘The Perrot papers’, Analecta Hibernica, 12 (1943), pp. 3-65

1950

Calendar of Archbishop Alen’s Register, c. 1172-1534, edited by Charles McNeill (Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Dublin, 1950)

1960

Dowdall Deeds, edited by Charles McNeill and A.J. Otway-Ruthven (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1960)

 

Manuscripts of unpublished material

Extracts made by Dr. C. McNeill in the 1930s from the Prendergast Papers in Kings Inns dealing with the Cromwellian, Restoration and Revolution Eras, = Archive: Dublin: National Library of Ireland

Extracts and notes from the archives of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem at Valetta (Malta) concerning Irish and British members of, and connections with the Order, = Archive: Dublin: National Library of Ireland

Letter of Charles McNeill to Lord Walter FitzGerald enclosing extracts re the Earl of Kildare from The Lismore Papers ed. by Alexander Grosart, also notes on Coillach, Co. = Archive: Dublin: National Library of Ireland

Research notes of Charles McNeill relating to history and archaeology = Archive: Dublin: University College Dublin: Archives Department

Correspondence, notebooks and miscellaneous papers of Charles McNeill, M.R.I.A., including transcripts of manuscripts in the Bodleian Library = Archive: Maynooth: St. Patricks College Library

 

Acknowledgements

The author wishes to acknowledge the obituary of Charles McNeill that was written by Aubrey Gwynn as a framework for this article.

 

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End of post

 

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[1] Aubrey Gwynn, ‘Obituary for Dr. Charles McNeill’, in The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Vol. 88, Part II, 1958, p. 185

[2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eoin_MacNeill accessed on 1 October 2016

[3] Aubrey Gwynn, ‘Obituary for Dr. Charles McNeill’, in The J.R.S.A.I., Vol. 88, Part II, 1958, p. 185

[4] Aubrey Gwynn, ‘Obituary for Dr. Charles McNeill’, in The J.R.S.A.I., Vol. 88, Part II, 1958, pp. 185, 186

[5] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai003669802/ accessed on 1 October 2016

[6] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai003669800/ accessed on 1 October 2016

[7] http://digital.ucd.ie/view-media/ivrla:35427/multi#e297ee7e-c72d-4cb7-92da-161e41164ce8 accessed on 1 October 2016

[8] Proceedings in The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Series 6, Vol. IV, 1914, pp. 84, 86; Michael Kennedy & Deirdre McMahon, Reconstructing Ireland’s past: A history of the Irish Manuscripts Commission (Irish Manuscripts Commission, Dublin, 2009), p. 170

[9] Proceedings in The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Series 6, Vol. IV, 1914, p. 98

[10] Proceedings in The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Series 6, Vol. IV, 1914, p. 100

[11] Aubrey Gwynn, ‘Obituary for Dr. Charles McNeill’, in The J.R.S.A.I., Vol. 88, Part II, 1958, p. 185

[12] Proceedings in The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Series 6, Vol. X, 1921, pp. 85, 89, 90, 100, 189, 191

[13] Proceedings in The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Series 7, Vol. II, 1932, pp. 127, 135

[14] Aubrey Gwynn, ‘Obituary for Dr. Charles McNeill’, in The J.R.S.A.I., Vol. 88, Part II, 1958, p. 185

[15] Aubrey Gwynn, ‘Obituary for Dr. Charles McNeill’, in The J.R.S.A.I., Vol. 88, Part II, 1958, p. 186

[16] Charles McNeill (ed.), Calendar of Archbishop Alen’s Register, c. 1172-1534 (Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Dublin, 1950), p. xii

[17] Herbert Wood (ed.), Court Book of the Liberty of St. Sepulchre within the jurisdiction of the Archbishop of Dublin (Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Dublin, 1930), p. viii, note 2

[18] http://rsai.soutron.net/Library/Catalogues/Results.aspx?RetName=2 accessed on 1 October 2016

[19] Charles McNeill, ‘New Gate, Dublin’, in The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Series 6, Vol. X, 1921, pp. 152, 153

[20] Aubrey Gwynn, ‘Obituary for Dr. Charles McNeill’, in The J.R.S.A.I., Vol. 88, Part II, 1958, p. 186

[21] http://rsai.soutron.net/Library/Catalogues/Results.aspx?RetName=2 accessed on 1 October 2016

[22] Charles McNeill (ed.), Calendar of Archbishop Alen’s Register, c. 1172-1534, p. x

[23] Analecta Hibernica, No. 23 (1966), p. xv; Michael Kennedy & Deirdre McMahon, Reconstructing Ireland’s past: A history of the I.M.C., p. 24

[24] https://www.ria.ie/sites/default/files/upton-catalogue-sp-list-a008.pdf accessed on 1 October 2016

[25] Michael Kennedy & Deirdre McMahon, Reconstructing Ireland’s past: A history of the I.M.C., p. 39

[26] Michael Kennedy & Deirdre McMahon, Reconstructing Ireland’s past: A history of the I.M.C., p. 40

[27] Michael Kennedy & Deirdre McMahon, Reconstructing Ireland’s past: A history of the I.M.C., p. 40

[28] Eoin MacNeill & James Hogan, ‘Introduction’, Analecta Hibernica, No. 1 (1930), p. vi

[29] http://www.bartleby.com/119/1.html accessed on 1 October 2016

[30] Eoin MacNeill & James Hogan, ‘Introduction’, Analecta Hibernica, No. 2 (1931), p. vi

[31] Eoin MacNeill & James Hogan, ‘Introduction’, Analecta Hibernica, No. 3 (1931), p. v

[32] Michael Kennedy & Deirdre McMahon, Reconstructing Ireland’s past: A history of the I.M.C., p. 22

[33] Michael Kennedy & Deirdre McMahon, Reconstructing Ireland’s past: A history of the I.M.C., p. 51

[34] Michael Kennedy & Deirdre McMahon, Reconstructing Ireland’s past: A history of the I.M.C., p. 50

[35] Michael Kennedy & Deirdre McMahon, Reconstructing Ireland’s past: A history of the I.M.C., p. 41

[36] Analecta Hibernica, No. 4 (1932), pp. v, 287

[37] Michael Kennedy & Deirdre McMahon, Reconstructing Ireland’s past: A history of the I.M.C., p. 70

[38] Analecta Hibernica, No. 4 (1932), p. v; Michael Kennedy & Deirdre McMahon, Reconstructing Ireland’s past: A history of the I.M.C., p. 41

[39] Charles McNeill (ed.), Liber Primus Kilkenniensis (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1931), pp. iv, viii

[40] A.J. Otway-Ruthven (ed.), Liber Primus Kilkenniensis (Kilkenny, 1961), p. 4

[41] Charles McNeill (ed.), Register de Kilmainham (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1932), pp. title page, xvi

[42] Michael Kennedy & Deirdre McMahon, Reconstructing Ireland’s past: A history of the I.M.C., p. 41

[43] Canon Patrick Power (ed.), Crichad an Chaoilli (Cork University Press, 1932), p. viii

[44] https://www.ria.ie/sites/default/files/upton-catalogue-sp-list-a008.pdf accessed on 1 October 2016

[45] Michael Kennedy & Deirdre McMahon, Reconstructing Ireland’s past: A history of the I.M.C., p. 75

[46] Michael Kennedy & Deirdre McMahon, Reconstructing Ireland’s past: A history of the I.M.C., p. 76

[47] Eoin MacNeill & James Hogan, ‘Introduction’, Analecta Hibernica, No. 8 (1938), p. iv

[48] Michael Kennedy & Deirdre McMahon, Reconstructing Ireland’s past: A history of the I.M.C., p. 85

[49] James Hogan, The Irish Manuscripts Commission (Cork University Press, 1954), p. 19

[50] James Hogan, ‘Introduction’, in Analecta Hibernica, No. 18 (1951), p. vii; James Lydon (ed.), England and Ireland in the Later Middle Ages: Essays in honour of Jocelyn Otway-Ruthven (Irish Academic Press, Blackrock, 1981), p. 258

[51] Michael Kennedy & Deirdre McMahon, Reconstructing Ireland’s past: A history of the I.M.C., pp. 102, 103

[52] Aubrey Gwynn, ‘Obituary for Dr. Charles McNeill’, in The J.R.S.A.I., Vol. 88, Part II, 1958, p. 185-187; Aubrey Gwynn, ‘Obituary for Dr. Charles McNeill’, in Analecta Hibernica, No. 22, 1960, pp. xv-xvi

[53] Aubrey Gwynn, ‘Obituary for Dr. Charles McNeill’, in The J.R.S.A.I., Vol. 88, Part II, 1958, p. 185

Standard
Biography, Clare History

Margaret Ringrose of Moynoe and her mitochondrial DNA

Margaret Ringrose of Moynoe and her mitochondrial DNA

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

 

Conventional genealogies usually follow the male line of succession but it is the female line which carries the constant gene pool and can help identify ancestors you may have buried in a carpark, like King Richard III. This article follows Margaret Ringrose of Moynoe, Co. Clare and her female ancestors and descendants. These female relations would carry Margaret’s mitochondrial DNA through the gene pool.

Moynoe House once stood about 2km east-northeast of Scariff in County Clare. The eighteenth century two-storey, three bay house was demolished in the second half of the twentieth century. The demolished house had possibly replaced an earlier house on the site. This earlier house was the home of the Ringrose family for many decades before and after 1700.[1]

Margaret Ringrose

Margaret Ringrose was the second daughter of John Ringrose of Moynoe and his wife, Jane Purdon.[2] John Ringrose was High Sheriff of County Clare in 1727 and was possibly the son of Colonel Richard Ringrose who had died about 1707. The latter was a hundred years old when he died and was descendant from a soldier who came originally from Yorkshire.[3]

Jane Purdon, her mother

Jane Purdon was the second daughter of Gilbert Purdon of Ballykelly, Co. Clare, by Alicia his wife, daughter of Right Rev. George Synge, Bishop of Cloyne. Gilbert Purdon was the second son of Sir Nicholas Purdon of Ballyclogh, Co. Cork (M.P. for Baltimore) by Ellis his wife, daughter of Henry Stephens of Broghill, Co. Cork. The Purdon family originally came to County Louth from Kirklington in Cumberland in the time of King Henry VIII.[4]

Gilbert Purdon left four sons and two daughters (Elizabeth and Jane). Elizabeth Purdon married in 1693 to John Wilkinson of Johnstown, Co. Cork and left issue. Her granddaughter married Gerald Blennerhassett of Riddlestown, Co. Limerick. Much of the estate of Gilbert Purdon passed to his eldest son, Nicholas Purdon of Dysert, Co. Cork and later to the family of Richard Graves of Limerick.[5]

Alicia Synge, Margaret’s grandmother

As previously stated, Gilbert Purdon married (December 1665) Alicia, daughter of Rev. George Synge, Bishop of Cloyne by his second wife, Elizabeth Stephens.[6] The first wife was Anne Edgeworth, daughter of Francis Edgeworth of Dublin. She died in 1641 when the ship she was travelling on, going to England, sank. Five of her children also drowned in the same accident.[7]

Bishop George Synge was born at Bridgnorth in 1594 and died there in 1653 and is buried in the local Church of St. Mary Magdalene. In between these years George Synge served as a cleric in challenging times. He was educated at Balliol College, Oxford where he got a M.A. in 1616. George Synge came to Ireland as chaplain of Christopher Hampton, Archbishop of Armagh. On 11th November 1638 George Synge was consecrated Bishop of Cloyne. At the outbreak of the 1641 Rebellion he fled to Dublin and became a member of the Irish Privy Council while his family tried to get to England but never made it as noted earlier. In 1647 George Synge was nominated as Archbishop of Tuam but could not take up the position as Tuam was then under Irish military control. Shortly after 1647 George Synge returned to England where he died in 1653. George’s younger brother, Edward Synge, became successively Bishop of Limerick and after 1663 Bishop of Cork, Cloyne and Ross.[8]

Elizabeth Stephens, Margaret’s great, grandmother

In Burke’s Irish Family Records, the second wife of Bishop George Synge is given as Elizabeth Stevens and sometimes as Elizabeth Stephens but unfortunately her father’s name is not printed.[9] Other sources that mention Elizabeth Stevens also do not give her parents’ names; particularly her mother’s name for it is her mother’s DNA that is the search of this article.[10]

Margaret’s brother

Margaret Ringrose had one brother, Richard Ringrose who went to England to study law. Richard Ringrose was living at the Temple, London when he died unmarried. The cause of his death was mistake poisoning.[11] With the death of her brother Margaret Ringrose became co-heir to the Ringrose estate of her father.

Alice Bowerman, Margaret’s sister

Margaret’s co-heir was her elder sister, Alice Ringrose who married John Bowerman of Cooline, Co. Clare.[12] Alice Ringrose inherited Moynoe House on her father’s death and her son Ringrose Bowerman was living there in the 1770s. At that time Ringrose Bowerman was involved in law concerning the estate and legacy of John Bowerman.[13]

Margaret’s family

Margaret Ringrose was born on 28th June 1698 and married on 28th January 1718 Francis Drew of Drewscourt, Co. Limerick.[14] In 1718 Francis Drew was High Sheriff of County Limerick. Francis Drew was the eldest son of Barry Drew of Ballyduff, Co. Waterford and Drewscourt, Co. Limerick by his second wife, Ruth Nettles, daughter of William Nettles of Tourin, Co. Waterford, by Mary his wife, sister of the celebrated healer, Valentine Greatrakes.[15]

Margaret Ringrose and Francis Drew had five sons and four daughters. The five sons were Francis (died without issue), John (died without issue), Barry (descendants died out in 1845), Ringrose (descendants still living) and George (left four sons). The four daughters were Alice, Jane, Ruth and Margaret Drew and they each inherited Margaret’s mitochondrial DNA.[16] The land which Margaret Ringrose inherited from her father formed the later estate near Scariff known as Drewsborough. Ringrose Drew and his descendants lived there until it was sold in the 1850s to Michael Skehan, an Irish immigrant to Australia who returned home after making a fortune from mining.[17] It was later the childhood home of writer Enda O’Brien.[18]

Margaret Ringrose Drew died on 25th November 1755.[19]

Drewsboro

Drewsboro house

Alice O’Neill, Margaret’s first daughter

Alice Drew married Charles O’Neill, M.P. for Clonakilty.[20] This marriage happened about September 1747. Charles O’Neill was the son and heir of John O’Neill of Shandrum, Cork according to one source.[21] Another source says Charles O’Neill was the son of Charles O’Neill of Shane’s Castle, by Catherine, daughter of Rt. Hon. St. John Broderick.[22] In 1749 Charles O’Neill was admitted to the Middle Temple in London and in 1754 he entered the King’s Inn, Dublin.[23] Charles O’Neill sat as M.P. for Clonakilty 1784-1790. In 1790 he was elected both for Clonakilty and Castlemartyr and opted to continue to sit for the former until 1797. Charles O’Neill practised as a barrister in Dublin and lived in Ely Place and subsequently at Monkstown Castle.[24] Alice Drew and Charles O’Neill had four daughters.

The eldest daughter was called Alice O’Neill and in September 1788 she married her cousin, Henry Knight as his second wife. Henry Knight was the fourth son of James Knight of Newtown, Co. Cork. Henry Knight died in Edinburgh in 1808 without leaving any children by Alice O’Neill.[25]

Another daughter of Alice Drew O’Neill was Charlotte O’Neill and she married Thomas Prendergast of Kildare Street, Dublin. Thomas Prendergast was son of Thomas Prendergast by Jane, daughter of Samuel Gordon. The family was long settled at Newcastle, Co. Tipperary. Thomas Prendergast, junior, was called to the Irish bar in 1787 and served as a commissioner of bankruptcy. Thomas Prendergast, junior, sat as M.P. for Castlemartyr, 1796-7 and for Clonakilty, 1797-1800, i.e. in succession to his father-in-law. Charlotte O’Neill and Thomas Prendergast had issue.[26]

Jane Nettles, Margaret’s second daughter

Jane Drew married in 1773 Rev. Robert Nettles as his second wife but had no issue. Rev. Robert Nettles was a relation of Jane Drew on a number of fronts. As noted earlier Ruth Nettles married an ancestor of Jane Drew, namely; Barry Drew of Ballyduff, Co. Waterford and this Ruth Nettles was a sister of the grandfather of Rev. Robert Nettles. A more immediate connection was that first wife of Rev. Robert Nettles was Jane Bowerman who was the eldest daughter of John Bowerman of Cooline, Co. Cork. This John Bowerman had married the elder sister of Jane Drew’s mother as noted earlier. The second daughter of John Bowerman, Catherine, married the elder brother of Rev. Robert Nettles, John Ryves Nettles in 1738. Jane Bowerman Nettles died in 1762 leaving two daughters by Rev. Robert Nettles, namely; Jane Nettles who married her cousin William Nettles and Elizabeth Nettles who married Kilner Baker in 1783.[27] As Jane Drew and Rev. Robert Nettles had no children the trail of female descendants of Margaret Ringrose stops with Jane.

Ruth Hall, Margaret’s third daughter

Ruth Drew married Joseph Hall of Dublin.[28] In 1729-30 Joseph Hall was mentioned in the will of his brother, John Hall, gent, of Dolphin’s Barn.[29] In March 1756 Joseph Hall witnessed the will John Willington of Killoskehane, Co. Tipperary and in June 1760 he witnessed the will of William Phineas Bowles of Dublin.[30] In 1773 the will of Joseph Hall of Dolphin’s Barn, Dublin was made and proved.[31] It is reported that Ruth Drew and Joseph Hall had two sons and three daughters but their names and biography are unknown to this author.[32]

Margaret Nash, Margaret’s fourth daughter

In September 1752 Margaret Drew married Andrew Nash of Brinny, Co. Cork.[33] Andrew Nash was the second son of Llewellyn Nash of Farrihy, Co. Cork. He was admitted into the King’s Inn, Dublin and was an attorney at the Exchequer. In November 1767 Andrew Nash died.[34] Margaret Drew and Andrew Nash had two sons and four daughters (Margaret, Jane, Helena and Catherine).[35] Further information on the four daughters is as yet undiscovered.

Further female descendants of Margaret Ringrose

Margaret Ringrose had at least six granddaughters to carry on her mitochondrial DNA but their names and heirs have not yet been found. This is one the big stumbling blocks in search for the female blood line as the usual genealogy sources follow the male line and often omit the names of the female children. Thus in the search for the mitochondrial DNA of Margaret Ringrose (1698-1755) we could go as far back as her great, grandmother and no further and down to her own granddaughters and no further. In all six generations of mitochondrial DNA. Maybe in some future time we could expand the number of generations but for the moment that is where we must leave the story of Margaret Ringrose.

IMG_0002

Outline chart of the female relations of Margaret Ringrose

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End of post

 

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[1] Hugh W.L. Weir, Houses of Clare (Ballinakella Press, Whitegate, Clare, 1999), p. 203

[2] James Grove White, Historical and Topographical notes, etc. on Buttevant, Castletownroche, Doneraile, Mallow and Places in the Vicinity (Guy & Co. Cork, 1905), vol. 1, p. 135

[3] Hugh W.L. Weir, Houses of Clare, p. 203

[4] James Grove White, Historical and Topographical notes on Buttevant & Places in the Vicinity, vol. 1, pp. 134-5

[5] James Grove White, Historical and Topographical notes on Buttevant & Places in the Vicinity, vol. 1, p. 135

[6] James Grove White, Historical and Topographical notes on Buttevant & Places in the Vicinity, vol. 1, p. 135

[7] Burke’s Irish Family Records, 2007, p. 1086

[8] Tim Cadogan & Jeremiah Falvey, A biographical dictionary of Cork (Four Courts Press, Dublin, 2006), pp. 321-2

[9] Burke’s Irish Family Records, 2007, p. 1086

[10] http://thepeerage.com/p36860.htm#i368599 accessed on 19 November 2014

[11] James Grove White, Historical and Topographical notes on Buttevant & Places in the Vicinity, vol. 1, p. 135

[12] James Grove White, Historical and Topographical notes on Buttevant & Places in the Vicinity, vol. 1, p. 135

[13] Hugh W.L. Weir, Houses of Clare, p. 203

[14] Drew family tree by Carol Baxter, online pdf (2011), p. 17; James Grove White, Historical and Topographical notes on Buttevant & Places in the Vicinity, vol. 1, p. 135

[15] Burke’s Landed Gentry of Ireland, 1904, p. 159

[16] Burke’s Landed Gentry of Ireland, 1904, p. 159

[17] Hugh W.L. Weir, Houses of Clare, p. 108

[18] http://www.clarechampion.ie/ednas-birthplace-ideal-as-writers-retreat/ accessed on 4 June 2016

[19] Drew family tree by Carol Baxter, online pdf (2011), p. 17

[20] Burke’s Landed Gentry of Ireland, 1904, p. 159

[21] Drew family tree by Carol Baxter, online pdf (2011), p. 23; http://members.iinet.net.au/~nickred/trees/Drew.pdf accessed on 20 November 2014

[22] C.M. Tenison, ‘Cork M.P.s, 1559-1800’, in the Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, vol. II (1896), p. 137

[23] Drew family tree by Carol Baxter, online pdf (2011), p. 23

[24] C.M. Tenison, ‘Cork M.P.s, 1559-1800’, in the J.C.H.A.S., vol. II (1896), p. 137

[25] Drew family tree by Carol Baxter, online pdf (2011), p. 23

[26] C.M. Tenison, ‘Cork M.P.s, 1559-1800’, in the J.C.H.A.S., vol. II (1896), p. 179

[27] Burke’s Landed Gentry of Ireland, 1899, p. 125

[28] Burke’s Landed Gentry of Ireland, 1904, p. 159

[29] P. Beryl Eustace (ed.), Registry of Deeds, Dublin: Abstracts of wills, Vol. 1, 1708-1745 (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1956), no. 419

[30] P. Beryl Eustace (ed.), Registry of Deeds, Dublin: Abstracts of wills, Vol. 2, 1746-1785 (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1954), nos. 272, 389

[31] Sir Arthur Vicars, Index to Prerogative Wills of Ireland 1536-1810 (Edward Ponsonby, Dublin, 1897), p. 210

[32] Drew family tree by Carol Baxter, online pdf (2011), p. 24; http://members.iinet.net.au/~nickred/trees/Drew.pdf accessed on 20 November 2014

[33] Burke’s Landed Gentry of Ireland, 1904, p. 159

[34] E. Keane, B.P. Phair & T.U. Sadlier (eds.), King’s Inn Admission Papers, 1607-1876 (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1982), p. 360

[35] http://www.corkpastandpresent.ie/places/northcorkcounty/grovewhitenotes/fairyhilltokanturkcastle/gw3_103_119.pdf accessed on 4 June 2016

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Biography, Carlow History

Lord Walter Bagenal and Bagenalstown

Lord Walter Bagenal and Bagenalstown

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

Introduction

Lord Walter Bagenal of Dunleckney, Co. Carlow restored his family’s fortunes in the first quarter of the eighteenth century and founded the modern town of Bagenalstown on the River Barrow, modelling it on Versailles, France. This article is an outline history of the man.

Ancestors

Walter Bagenal was the eldest son of Colonel Dudley Bagenal and Ann Matthew, daughter of George Matthew of Thomastown, Co. Tipperary.[1] His father was descended from an earlier Dudley Bagenal, younger son of Sir Nicholas Bagenal, founder of the Irish Bagenals. Nicholas Bagenal fled England for Ireland about 1539 after he had killed a man in a brawl. In about 1552 Nicholas Bagenal was granted Newry castle and other lands. In 1585 Nicholas Bagenal purchased a large estate in the Barony of Idrone, Co. Carlow for his second son, Dudley Bagenal.[2]

One of the grandchildren of Dudley Bagenal was Walter Bagenal of Dunleckney. Walter Bagenal was governor of County Carlow in 1641 and was a Colonel in the Leinster army of the Confederate Catholics. Walter Bagenal was sentence to death by the Cromwellian High Court of Justice in 1652.[3]

DUNLECKNEY-MANOR43

The 19th century Dunleckney manor built on older foundations 

Walter Bagenal’s eldest son, George Bagenal was killed in a skirmish in 1650 and so at the restoration of Charles II it was Walter’s second son, Dudley Bagenal who was restored to the family estates. In 1688 Dudley married Ann Matthew and served as MP for Old Leighlin and Carlow in the Irish Parliament. In 1690 Dudley Bagenal was a Colonel in the army of James II and subsequently had his lands forfeited. Dudley Bagenal followed King James into exile and served as a Gentleman Usher at the exile court in St. Germaine. He died at Bruges in 1712.[4]

Walter Bagenal

The Lord Walter Bagenal of this article was born in 1670 as the eldest son of Dudley Bagenal. Walter Bagenal had three younger brothers who all died without heirs in exile on the Continent. Of Walter’s four sisters two became nuns in France while the other two got married and had children.[5]

Converting to Protestantism

The Bagenal family had for centuries supported the Catholic cause but on 21st July 1725, Walter Bagenal converted to the Protestant religion in order to secure his family’s estate. He was living in Dublin at the time and his conversion was enrolled on 5th August 1725.[6]

As P.H. Bagenal wrote in 1925, “Walter Bagenal, with his experience of the penal laws and an eye on the future of his estates, decided to marry a Protestant and become one himself, and accordingly we find him in 1725 wedded to a second Eleanor (his first wife was Eleanor Barnewall), daughter of John Beauchamp of Ballyloughan Castle, and granddaughter of the Rt. Rev. B. Vigors, Bishop of Ferns and Leighlin”.[7]

Of course his conversion also had to do with more personal ambitions. Only Protestants could become Members of Parliament and Walter Bagenal had his eye on a seat when a bye-election occurred in Carlow. But Walter Bagenal was unsuccessful and also failed to win a seat for Gowran in Kilkenny. The Protestant community was shocked at the actions of Walter Bagenal and on 22nd November 1725 the Irish Parliament passed a resolution that no convert “could be admitted to Parliament until seven years had lapsed”.[8]

Foundation of Bagenalstown

After Walter Bagenal gained restoration of the family estates in Carlow he proceeded to develop it in line with the sweep of estate development that was the story of the eighteenth century. To add to the commercial potential of his estate Walter Bagenal took the small settlement of Moneybeg on the River Barrow and developed it into the central urban settlement of the Bagenal estate.

An early settlement was established at Moneybeg by Henry Rudkin who had leased the site from Dudley Bagenal. Henry Rudkin built a mill around 1680 and houses for the workers. From his experience in France Walter Bagenal wanted to recreate a version of Versailles in Ireland. Indeed the initial new name for Moneybeg was to be Versailles but this was later changed to Bagenalstown as Versailles was too French and Catholic for a recent convert to Protestantism. Observers have pointed out the regular layout of the town as a testament to Bagenal’s formal scheme.[9]

Yet the town’s layout is not in a perfect grid pattern. Regent Street on the north and Church Street on the south are two straight east-west streets connected with four north-south streets. These connecting streets are from the west side, Long Range, Barrett Street, Fair Green West, Church Road and Kilree Street. Long Range and Church Street differ from the other streets as they do not join Regent Street and Church Street at right angles but are slanted towards the north-west. The two main streets at Versailles are straight south-west to north-east parallel streets joined by three right angle streets but with four connecting streets that join at an angle much like at Bagenalstown. If we take the east-west flow of the River Barrow and place the Palace of Versailles in that same position in relation to the town then the connection with Versailles may have more to do with the street layout than a version of grand public buildings.

Whatever was Lord Walter Bagenal’s true ideas the project proved all too burdensome and the only architectural gem constructed was the town’s imposing court house, or so says folklore.[10] Other sources report that the courthouse with its Ionic portico was built about 1835 by Scottish born architect Daniel Robertson (c.1775-1848) and so can have no association with Walter Bagenal of the early eighteenth century.[11] Observers have questioned how the portico faces away from the Main Street and looks out over the River Barrow. But early maps show the court house to have no restricted access from Bachelor’s Walk and only in the later nineteenth century were houses built on Bachelor’s Walk which give the false impression of a building turned the wrong way.

IMG

Street plan of Bagenalstown and Versailles 

The title of Lord Walter Bagenal

Though sometimes referred to as Lord Bagenal, it seems that Walter Bagenal did not in fact have a title. The title of Lord Bagenal is currently (2015) the name of a restaurant and hotel in Leighlinbridge, Co. Carlow.

Family life

Walter Bagenal married twice and left children by both. He first married Eleanor Barnewall, daughter of James Barnewall of Bremore and Drimnagh, Co. Dublin, and they had two daughters, Mabel and Mary. Mabel married Nicholas Staplton of Carlton in Yorkshire and left no issue. Mary Bagenal married Jarrard Strickland of Ogleford as his first wife. On 9th April 1744 Mary Bagenal died after leaving issue. Jarrard Strickland died on 1st September 1791.[12]

Shortly after his conversion Walter Bagenal married for a second time. His new wife was Eleanor Beauchamp, daughter of John Beauchamp of Ballyloghan Castle, Co. Carlow. By Eleanor Beauchamp alter Bagenal had a son, Beauchamp Bagenal (born c.1735) and four daughters. Two of the daughters subsequently died as infants. Of the other daughters, Eleanor married James Carroll of Ballymore, Co. Wicklow, while Catherine married Maurice Keating of Narraghmore, Co. Kildare.[13] The possible father of Maurice Keating, also called Maurice Keating of Narraghmore married Elizabeth Waller, granddaughter of Sir Hardress Waller, one of the judges who sat at the trail of King Charles the first. Catherine Keating, a daughter of the elder Maurice Keating, married in 1719 to Nicholas Aylward of Shankill, Co. Kilkenny.[14]

Death of Walter Bagenal and selling the family lands

The so called Lord Walter Bagenal died in 1745, the year of the second Jacobite rebellion.[15] His son and heir, Beauchamp Bagenal became a legend in his own lifetime as a politician, landlord, duellist and libertarian. But the expense of the estate development of Walter Bagenal left enormous debts. Soon after inheriting the family estates, Beauchamp Bagenal had to sell large parts of it. David la Touche purchased 10,000 acres and the Marquess of Waterford brought 6,000 acres. In all Beauchamp Bagenal sold 32,000 acres.[16]

Legacy

It is now 270 years since the death of Walter Bagenal yet his memory lives on in the name of a hotel among other things. The Bagenal estates which he recovered from the new Protestant state were his pride and joy. His conversion to Protestantism was to secure those lands for the future even if he was unsuccessful at getting into Parliament, the more immediate reason for his conversion. Yet all these activities are now long forgotten. The enduring legacy of Walter Bagenal is his version of Versailles which stands in the Carlow countryside, a place we know today as Bagenalstown.

017

Church Street, Bagenalstown 

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[1] Burke’s Irish Family Records London 1976, p.46

[2] Burke’s Irish Family Records London 1976, p.45

[3] Eileen O’Byrne (ed.), The Convert Rolls (Irish Manuscripts Commission, Dublin, 2005), p. 292

[4] Jimmy O’Toole, The Carlow Gentry: What will the neighbours say! (author, Carlow, 1993), p. 11

[5] Burke’s Irish Family Records London 1976, p.46

[6] Eileen O’Byrne (ed.), The Convert Rolls, p. 4

[7] P.H. Bagenal, Vicissitudes of an Anglo-Irish Family, 1530-1800 (London, 1925), p. 144

[8] D.W. Hayton (ed.), Letters of Marmaduke Coghill, 1722-1738 (Irish Manuscripts Commission, Dublin, 2005), p. 30

[9] Various, An introduction to the Architectural Heritage of County Carlow (Duchas, the Heritage Service, 2002), p. 8

[10] Jimmy O’Toole, The Carlow Gentry: What will the neighbours say!, p. 12

[11] Various, An introduction to the Architectural Heritage of County Carlow, p. 11

[12] Burke’s Irish Family Records London 1976, p.46

[13] Burke’s Irish Family Records London 1976, p.46

[14] Burke’s Landed Gentry of Ireland, 1899, pp. 14, 466, 467

[15] Burke’s Irish Family Records London 1976, p.46

[16] Jimmy O’Toole, The Carlow Gentry: What will the neighbours say!, pp. 12, 15

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Biography, Waterford history

Thomas Harriot and Molana Abbey

Thomas Harriot and Molana Abbey

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

In 1580 the English courtier and adventurer, Sir Walter Ralegh, was planning his expedition to the New World, specifically to an inlet north of the Carolinas which in 1585 received the name of Virginia and his friend, Dr. John Dee was there to advised. The Welsh magician’s chief advice to Ralegh was that to tackle navigation he needed to get a good mathematician. But Ralegh did little on the matter until in 1583, with his expedition nearly ready to sail, he went in search of his mathematician and found Thomas Harriot.[1]

Desmond rebellions

Between 1579 and 1583 the Earl of Desmond and his supporters waged a fierce rebellion across the Province of Munster against the increasing control of the English government. This rebellion was costly in lives and money for the government of Queen Elizabeth of England. It followed from an earlier rebellion in 1569 to 1572 led by one of the chief supporters of the Earl of Desmond. At the end of this second rebellion the English government decided to take advantage of the death of the Earl in 1583 to forfeit all his lands and those of his chief supporters and give the land to English settlers in what was termed the Plantation of Munster.

Sir Walter Ralegh was initially given the maximum amount of 12,000 acres like the other large undertakers but when two undertakers pulled out of the Plantation scheme Ralegh had the connections to secure their shares and add them to his own. Thus Sir Walter Ralegh came to acquire an estate of 42,000 acres, the largest by far of the any in the Munster Planation.

Sir Walter Ralegh and Molana Abbey

One of the properties Ralegh acquired was the former estate of Molana Abbey. The Molana estate was given by King Henry VIII to the Earl of Desmond following the Dissolution of the Monasteries. After the First Desmond rebellion the estate was forfeited to the crown. On 8th February 1572 it was leased to John Thickpenny for twenty-one years with a renewed lease in 1577.[2] John Thickpenny was victualler for the Munster army in the 1570s and into the 1580s. Following the death of John Thickpenny in 1583 his widow, Ann Holton, acquired his crown lease on Molana Abbey.

But the government believed a woman was unsuited to protecting the English interest in Munster and pressure was put on to get Ann Holton out of Molana. By 1587 the government won and a new lease was given to Sir Walter Ralegh on 2nd July 1587.[3] Like in other places across his vast estate Ralegh leased Molana Abbey to an English settler and his family. The settler who came to Molana was Thomas Harriot.

220px-ThomasHarriot

Thomas Harriot

Early life of Thomas Harriot

Thomas Harriot was born in County Oxford in 1560 to a family of unrecorded lineage. While his father is mentioned as a commoner and records note a married sister along with relations in Berkshire, virtually no other genealogical information is known. Yet the innate genius of Thomas Harriot was noticed by somebody such that he got a place at Oxford University. There he matriculated as a commoner in St. Mary’s Hall in 1577 and graduated with a BA in July 1580.

While at Oxford Thomas Harriot was befriended by the geographer Richard Hakluyt and the astronomer, Thomas Allen. Hakluyt is said to have introduced Harriot to Walter Ralegh who was then studying at Oriel College, Oxford.[4] From about 1583 to 1595 Thomas Harriot installed his scientific instruments in Durham House where he taught Ralegh’s sea captains the practical mathematics and its application to the problems of navigation. Durham House was one of the great palaces of London and Ralegh got a lease on much of it from the government in 1583.[5]

Thomas Harriot was on the 1585 expedition to Virginia funded by Sir Walter Ralegh and led by Sir Ralph Lane. Raleigh’s expedition was not original. Fishermen were for century’s crossing over to the Grand Banks; Spanish sailors were crossing the Atlantic two or three times a year; there were maps of the North American coastline available and Spanish cities were growing across the Americas. What made Ralegh’s expedition stand out was the work done by Thomas Harriot as he catalogued everything he saw and recorded everything in minute detail.[6]

The colony on Roanoke Island, Virginia

When the fleet of ships arrival in Virginia Thomas Harriot made a study of all he could see. He also learnt some words of the native Indians which further added to his research. Harriot’s inaction with the Indians, playing tricks with lenses and magnets among other things, was vital to the English settlers as they relied almost totally on the Indians to provide food. The leader of the Roanoke Island colony, Sir Ralph Lane, was a military man and most of the settlers were soldiers earning wages. There were few among them who knew farming.[7]

The Indians were not farmers in the European sense, producing a surplus and stock piling food. Instead they just grew enough and lived on shellfish, roots and berries between harvests. The job of feeding over a hundred English was beyond their capabilities. Sir Richard Grenville had left for England at the end of August 1585 and was due to return to Roanoke Island in the spring of 1586 with supplies. But war between England and Spain prevented his immediate return. A fleet under Sir Francis Drake dropped off supplies while heading home from the Caribbean but bad weather also arrived and the ship Drake left for the colonists took opportunity to turn for England instead of going inshore to Roanoke Island. The colonists were unsure if Ralegh would be able to send a relief fleet and so they decided to all return to England in June 1586 with Drake. Two days later Ralegh’s supply ship arrived to find only Indians on Roanoke Island.[8] Although the first English colony in North America had ended the work of Thomas Harriot would prove that the end was but a brief interruption.

Thomas Harriot spent over a year writing a book of his Virginia survey work with illustrations by John White = A Briefe and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia = which book opened the Americas to the world and inspired future settlement for over a century.[9]

The English speaking New World promoted by Thomas Harriot and others attracted many English and Scottish settlers in Ireland to leave for the New World in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Towards the end of the eighteenth century Irish Catholics began to settle in the area known as the Thirteen Colonies. Following American independence more Irish Catholics headed across the sea. At the start of the nineteenth century increasing numbers of Irish went to the United States of America. Some went of their own means but many were aided by assisted passage by their landlord or from relatives who were already in America.

When the Great Famine forced one million people to leave Ireland, many thousands went to America assisted again by their landlords or relatives or the charity organisations. Without the work of people like Thomas Harriot these immigrants would possible be going to a Spanish speaking America. The exploration, promotion and colonisation by Thomas Harriot of Molana Abbey and others the area now known as the United States of America became English speaking.

In 1589 Thomas Harriot began to survey the Irish estates of Sir Walter Ralegh. Nine years later he was still working on the survey. Unfortunately no records of the survey survive. In between doing the survey Harriot continued his other activities and frequently crossed over to England. Yet Molana provided a peaceful setting to complete his Brief and True report and other studies. He was at Molana in 1593 when the plague struck London. In November 1594 Sir Walter Ralegh granted Thomas Harriot the Molana estates to “hold forever”. In 1598 Harriot mortgaged the property to Sir William Floyer for £220. In 1601 Thomas Harriot sold Molana to William Floyer.[10]

Other activities of Thomas Harriot

Thomas Harriot was a friend of the playwright, Christopher Marlowe, and perhaps provided the intellectual character that was Dr. Faustus.[11]

In the dozen or so years that Thomas Herriot taught Ralegh’s sea captains the mathematical calculations needed for navigation and how to chart the stars he was also teaching himself. Such was his fame that Johannes Kepler, one of the most important and influential astronomers of the seventeenth century, sought advice from Harriot on optics.[12]

In 1608-9 Thomas Harriot used his intellectual appetite for optics to beat one of the greatest astronomers of his time, or of any time, Galileo. In September 1608 Hans Lippershey, a spectacle maker of Middelburg in Zeeland patented a working telescope, then called a spy-glass. Lippershey saw the invention as a device that would be useful for shipping. His patron, Count Maurice of Nassau saw the spy-glass as a good invention for war and wanted to keep the technology secret. But news of the telescope quickly spread across Europe and people started to develop their own versions to circumvent Lippershay’s patent.[13] In England Thomas Harriot saw the telescope as a good device for looking at the night sky. On 26th July 1609 Thomas Harriot was the first person to make a drawing of the Moon through a telescope, over four months before Galileo. Although Thomas Harriot was well known in academic circles across Europe, and corresponded with the leading scientists of the day, he did not become as famous as Galileo. Instead Harriot did his observations and left fame to others.[14]

As an astronomer, Thomas Harriot formulated the theory of refraction, and as a mathematician, he developed algebra. His algebra book Artis Analyticae Praxis (1631) was published posthumously in Latin. But the editors did not understand much of the text and removed the parts they did not comprehend such as the negative and complex roots of equations. Because of this and other reasons a full annotated English translation of the Praxis was not completed until 2007.[15]

Another contemporary mathematician was Robert Hues who studied at Oxford the same time as Thomas Harriot. Over the years Hues and Harriot worked together on astronomical and mathematical studies. Hues was a student of Harriot in Durham House before he went off to circle navigate the world with Thomas Cavendish, another person who had gone on the1585 voyage to Virginia. When Robert Hues was writing his book, Tractatus de Globis, Thomas Harriot was there to help.[16]

Long friendship of Ralegh and Harriot

The friendship developed between Sir Walter Ralegh and Thomas Harriot extended across the good times and the bad times. They both had a strong intellectual enquiry to discover and understand. Thomas Harriot was one of the principal assistants to Sir Walter Ralegh when the latter was preparing his book, History of the World. Thomas Harriot was a frequent visitor to Ralegh’s home in the country, Sherborne House. Thomas Harriot was named as one of the overseers of Ralegh’s estate in the latter’s will.

When Sir Walter Ralegh was sent to the Tower of London, Thomas Harriot didn’t disown him but instead became a regular visitor. In fact Harriot’s friendship with the Earl of Northumberland and Sir Walter Ralegh would cost him some jail time. After the latter two were connected to the Gunpowder Conspiracy Thomas Harriot was sent to jail. But Harriot’s direct connection with the Plot was not proven and he was soon set a liberty. Yet in the winter of 1605-6 Thomas Harriot voluntarily took up residence in the Tower of London to be near Sir Walter Ralegh.[17] During that winter they must have talked about the New World and the future for Virginia among other subjects. Could they have imagined the vast number of people who would eventually settle in Virginia and the wider United States of America and Canada and make two great nations in that New World.

DSC08741

The view from Molana across the River Blackwater – a view which reminded Harriot of Virginia

The New World and the Gathering

Many centuries after Ralegh and Harriot, one of these settlers who went to America was William Myers from the parish of Kilcockan. He was the son of Denis Myers and Rachel Myers. He was born in May 1854 and went to America in 1871. William Myers settled in Woonsocket, Rhode Island where he married a local girl (Margaret Fitzpatrick) of Irish parents (James Fitzpatrick and Bridget McKenna)[18] and had at least three sons.[19] Away in America, trying to make a new life, William Myers did not forget Ireland and the land around Knockanore. When his mother died on 24th December 1892 William did not forget her but send money home so that a headstone could be erected in the Kilcockan graveyard to her memory and that of her family.[20] William Myers died on 9th January 1933 still living at Woonsocket, Rhode Island.[21]

Conclusion  

This talk [on 2nd August 2013] began the history of medieval Knockanore on a small island in the River Blackwater called Dair Inish which became the site of Molana Abbey. The history of medieval Knockanore ended on that island in the 1580s when Thomas Harriot opened the New World and the modern age. The work of Harriot and others allowed Irish people somewhere to go when Ireland had ceased to bring hope to their lives. At this Gathering Festival, and other such festivals across Ireland in 2013, we gather to bring the diaspora home.

In conclusion I would like to thank the Knockanore Heritage Group, the Gathering Festival Committee, the various landowners for allowing access to the medieval sites and thank you to you the audience for staying on past eleven o’clock and wish everyone a great Gathering Festival 2013.

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[1] Robert Lacey, Sir Walter Ralegh (Phoenix Press, London, 2000), p. 60

[2] Rev. Patrick Power, ‘The abbey of Molana, Co. Waterford’, in the Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Vol. LXII (1932), p. 145; John T. Collins, ‘Fiants of Queen Elizabeth relating to the City and County of Cork’, in the Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, Vol. XLIII (1938), p. 13

[3] John T. Collins, ‘Fiants of Queen Elizabeth relating to the City and County of Cork’, in the Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, Vol. XLV (1940), p. 130

[4] Donal Brady, Waterford Scientists: preliminary studies (published by author, 2010), p. 11

[5] Robert Lacey, Sir Walter Ralegh, pp. 52, 60

[6] Robert Lacey, Sir Walter Ralegh, p. 61

[7] Robert Lacey, Sir Walter Ralegh, pp. 80-81

[8] Robert Lacey, Sir Walter Ralegh, pp. 69, 81-2, 85

[9] Robert Lacey, Sir Walter Ralegh, pp. 88-91

[10] Donal Brady, Waterford Scientists: preliminary studies (published by author, 2010), p. 16

[11] Robert Lacey, Sir Walter Ralegh, p. 61

[12] Robert Lacey, Sir Walter Ralegh, p. 61

[13] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans_Lippershey accessed on 5 December 2014

[14] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Harriot accessed on 5 December 2014

[15] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Harriot accessed on 5 December 2014

[16] Robert Lacey, Sir Walter Ralegh, p. 112

[17] Robert Lacey, Sir Walter Ralegh, pp. 61, 180, 182, 246, 314, 319, 320

[18] https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/F8H8-SM8 accessed on 18 September 2013

[19] https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/M9W7-F6M accessed on 18 September 2013

[20] Information from the inscription on the grave headstone at Kilcockan graveyard

[21] https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/F8H8-927 accessed on 18 September 2013

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Biography, France history

Léon Foucault and the Pendulum

 

Léon Foucault and the Pendulum

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

     On the left bank of the Seine, high over the Latin Quarter and the city of Paris stands the Pantheon, the temple of the French nation. Within its walls are images of the great people of France while in its underground crypt the tombs of many famous people lie in peace and honour. The building is designed like a Greek cross with four equal sides capped by a large colonnaded dome. Beneath this dome, in the central crossing of the building, hangs a twenty-eight kilogramme pendulum on a sixty-seven meter cable. This is Foucault’s pendulum where the rotation of the Earth on its axis is measured.

Foucault

Jean Bernard Léon Foucault

Early life

     The inventor of this pendulum that bears his name was Jean Bernard Léon Foucault. He was born in Paris on September 18, 1819.[1]Foucault was the son of a male prostitute in the city. After an education received chiefly at home, he studied medicine, which he abandoned in favour of physics due to a fear of blood. He first directed his attention to the improvement of L. J. M. Daguerre’s photographic processes. For three years he was experimental assistant to Alfred Donné (1801–1878) in his course of lectures on microscopic anatomy.[2]

Experiments with Light

     From this work Foucault developed an interest in the properties of light and the movements of the Earth. In September 1855 he discovered the existence of eddy currents. These are produced in a conductor moving in a magnetic field.[3] Foucault observed that the force required for the rotation of a copper disc becomes greater when it is made to rotate with its rim between the poles of a magnet, the disc at the same time becoming heated by the eddy current induced in the metal.[4]

     Foucault continued his scientific studies. In the seventeenth century, a Dutch physicist, Christian Huygens had studied the polarization of light and proposed a wave theory for the movement of light. During the early 1800s, two physicists, Thomas Young of England and Augustine J. Fresnel of France did much to prove Huygens’s theory. By the mid-1800s Foucault was working with another French physicist, Armand Hippolyte Louis Fizeau on measuring the speed of light.[5]  Their collaboration was encouraged by another French physician, François Arago. In 1838 Arago had proposed an experimental method of calculating the speed of light but different circumstances prevented him from conducting practical experiments. By 1850 Arago was ready to implement his theories but his poor eye sight failed him. It was left to Foucault and Fizeau to make the dream a reality.[6] Foucault and Fizeau were both Parisians of the same age (both born in September 1819) and had a shared interest in the properties of light.[7] Also like Foucault, Hippolyte Fizeau’s name appears on the Eiffel Tower honour list of scientists.[8] Using a revolving mirror they made accurate measurements of its speed. In 1862, Foucault determined the speed of light to be 298,000 km/s. This was 10,000 km/s less than that obtained by previous experimenters and only 0.6% off the currently accepted value.[9]

     In 1850 Foucault proved that light travels more slowly in water than in air. He further showed that the speed varies inversely with the index of reflection.[10] This work, using what became known as the Foucault-Fizeau apparatus, dismissed Isaac Newton’s corpuscle theory of light; a French victory over the English.[11]

     This experience with mirrors allowed Foucault to make improvements in the mirrors used in reflecting telescopes.[12] In 1857, he invented the polarizer which bears his name, and in the following year he devised a method of testing the mirror of a reflecting telescope to determine its shape. The so-called “Foucault knife-edge test” allows the worker to tell if the mirror is perfectly spherical or has non-spherical deviation in its figure. Prior to Foucault’s publication of his findings, the testing of reflecting telescope mirrors was a “hit or miss” proposition.[13]

Earth’s rotation

     In 1851 Foucault wanted to prove the Earth’s rotation. For this he needed a large pendulum for as he said “since the arc of a pendulum’s swing is fixed in relation to the atmosphere, the rotation of the earth will be rendered visible by a rotation of the arc of the swing.”[14] Foucault’s friend, François Arago had in 1819 used the pendulum to take measurements of the Earth and this was a source for exploration.[15]

     It was many centuries before Foucault’s time that the pendulum as a time measuring instrument was discovered. Galileo Galilei from Italy is credited with that discovery. One day as a young man he was attending service in the Cathedral of Pisa and noticed a lamp hanging from the roof was swinging slowly to and fro on its chain. Using his own pulse he observed that no matter how much or how little it swung, the action was perfectly regular. From that time the pendulum was developed to measure time in clocks.[16]  

    But where to place what would have to be a large pendulum. An outside location would not do as the wind would move the pendulum and so give a false reading. Foucault needed a tall building and the Pantheon was perfect for the job. After some debate he got permission to conduct his experiment there. In the centre of the building, under the great dome, where the reliquary of Saint Genevieve was once supported by four caryatids, Foucault installed his pendulum. A weight of twenty-eight kilogrammes, called a bob, was suspended from beneath the dome using an iron cable sixty-seven meters long.[17]

 

DSC03199

    The pendulum in the Pantheon 

 

     Foucault understood that a pendulum does not just swing back and forth at a constant rate but it does so through a small arc. Using this he concluded that as the Earth turns on its axis, the plane of swing of a pendulum rotates because of the heavy bob’s inertia resistance to change of its absolute direction, until it has returned to its original orientation. Foucault also found that this rotation of the pendulum is not uniform. Rather its rotation depends on its latitude. For example, in London it rotates in thirty hours.[18]

    The experiment was a success and there after a pendulum used to determine the rotation of the Earth was called a Foucault pendulum. Numerous visitors were attracted to the Pantheon to see this wonder of physics. In 1855, he received the Copley Medal of the Royal Society for his ‘very remarkable experimental researches’. Earlier in the same year he was made physicist at the imperial observatory at Paris.[19]But if Foucault had successfully timed the rotation of the Earth, his political timing was way off the mark.

Changing political climate

     Many years before in 1816 Louis XVIII signed a decree conferring the Pantheon in its totality back to the Catholic Church. In the period 1806 to 1815 the building had a dual function with the upper part as a religious church and the crypt as a ‘hall of fame’ to the great figures of France. Thus the French Revolution’s home of heroes became a religious church again as it had been up to 1791. The relics of Saint Genevieve were restored and buildings decorations were changed to reflect its new function.[20]

     Thus the Church of Saint Genevieve remained until July 1830. The three day revolution of that month ended the reign of the Bourbons and Charles X was replaced by Louis-Philippe d’Orleans. The new regime initially supported the revolutionary values of the people and on August 26, 1830 a decree once again turned the Church of Saint Genevieve into the Pantheon. But that was as far as Louis-Philippe was prepared to go. Throughout his reign the building remained unused, the crypt was closed to the public and no pantheonizations took place.[21]

     In February 1848 Louis-Philippe abdicated the throne and the Second Republic was declared. The provisional government designated the Pantheon as the “Temple of Humanity” and planned a major redecoration project. Towards the end of 1848 the government became more conservative in its outlook and the big project was slowly abandoned.

 

DSC03188

The Pantheon, ex Church of Saint Genevieve

     When Léon Foucault arrived in 1851 to use the Pantheon for his experiment the building was in need of something new to revive its duping spirit. The numerous visitors showed that the building could not just honour the great people of France who were dead but show case the great people still living. Yet it was not just Foucault’s pendulum that was swing in the year of 1851. The political pendulum was also moving.

     The president of the Republic, Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte, was elected in December 1848 with 5,434,226 votes out of 7,327,345 votes casted to serve a four year term. Yet from the outset the president faced a delicate relationship with politicians in the National Assembly and even hostility from within his own cabinet.[22] Thus as Louis-Napoleon faced elections in 1852 he was very conscious that his famous surname was not enough to secure victory and he needed the support of powerful lobby groups.

     One such group that the president sought was the Catholic party, an important political party of the time who could rally a large vote come the election day. The Catholic party had long opposed Foucault’s experiments as coming too near to realising a world where God was only a small part and science was the new creator.[23] Events now moved at a faster pace than Foucault’s pendulum. On December 2, 1851, Louis-Napoleon staged a coup d’état. The heads of the Republican and Monarchical parties were arrested and the National Assembly was dissolved. Troops stationed across Paris sternly repressed any attempts of a popular uprising. Later in that December a plebiscite was organised to elect a president for ten years.[24] In return for the political support of the Catholic Party, Louis-Napoleon had ordered the discontinuation of the Foucault pendulum at the Pantheon on December 1st. On December 6, a decree was issued returning the Pantheon to the church of Saint Genevieve and elevating it to a “National Basilica.”[25] On December 21, Louis-Napoleon was re-elected president of France for ten years.[26]

The pendulum without a home

      Léon Foucault had now no home for his pendulum experiment and placed it in storage. His mind on the other hand was far from storage. Necessity is the mother of invention and so in 1852 Foucault invented a gyroscope to continue to demonstrate the Earth’s rotation. He used the word gyroscope for this new invention because it comes from two Greeks words: gyros, meaning revolution and skopein which means to view. Thus a gyroscope means to view the revolutions of the Earth.[27]

     Foucault continued with many other experiments. In 1865 his papers on a modification of Watt’s governor appeared, upon which he had for some time been experimenting with a view to making its period of revolution constant, and on a new apparatus for regulating the electric light. In the year Foucault showed how, by the deposition of a transparently thin film of silver on the outer side of the object glass of a telescope, the sun could be viewed without injuring the eye.[28] In this latter work he collaborated with his old friend Armand Fizeau. Together they took the first clear photograph of the sun.[29]

     For these and other works his contemporaries recognised his ability. In 1862, he was made a member of the Bureau des Longitudes and an officer of the Légion d’Honneur. In 1864 he was made a member of the Royal Society of London, and the next year a member of the mechanical section of the Institute.[30]

The new home of the pendulum

     In later times Foucault’s pendulum came out of storage and found a home in the Musée National des Arts et Métiers.[31] Today it is suspended from the chancel ceiling of the church of Saint Martin des Champs which is attached to the Musée. This chancel was built between 1130 and 1140 and shows the transition from Romanesque to Gothic. The church was part of the larger abbey of Saint Martin des Champs, established in 1061 and reconstructed in the 13th century.[32]

France after 1870

     Meanwhile the political pendulum was changing again. After the battle of Sedan, on September 2, 1870, the Second Empire collapsed and the Third Republic was declared. But the war with Prussia continued. During the siege of Paris, the dome and other parts of the Church of Saint Genevieve were damaged. Following a harsh armistice the people of Paris revolted against their government and formed the Paris Commune. The Church of Saint Genevieve was one of their chief strong holds and one of the last places to surrender. Further damage was done to its dome, arches and exterior walls. The Paris Commune was ruthlessly suppressed in May 1871 and the new National Assembly was governed by a conservative Catholic royalist party.

     For a time it appeared that the republican ideas of the various revolutions would just fade away in the new order which was referred to as the Ordre moral. But the royalist majority in the National Assembly could not agree on who should be the next king of France. The Republicans slowly gained numbers in the Chamber of Deputies. On January 30, 1879 President Patrick McMahon resigned and a Republican majority government was formed. But the new government procrastinated as much as the previous government. It took the death of the ardent republican, Victor Hugo in May 1885 to move the pendulum to full change. The Church of Saint Genevieve again became the Pantheon.[33]

The death of Léon Foucault

     Sometime afterwards a replica Foucault pendulum was installed under the dome of the Pantheon where it fascinates visitors to this day. Foucault did not live to see that day of honour. Léon Foucault died on February 11, 1868 from what was probably a rapidly developing case of multiple sclerosis. He was buried in the Cimetière de Montmartre.[34]

Later honours for Léon Foucault

     Far above the Pantheon and beyond planet Earth Léon Foucault is remembered by having a moon crater named in his honour. TheFoucault is a small lunar impact crater that lies along the southern edge of Mare Frigoris, to the southeast of the crater Harpalus. The outer perimeter of Foucault forms a somewhat irregular circle, with slight outward bulges to the south and northeast. The inner wall of the rim is not notably terraced, and slopes down directly to the uneven floor.[35]

     More closer to home Foucault is named among the scientists and engineers upon the Eiffel Tower. His named is on the south-east side between Poinsot and Delaunay under the first floor balcony.[36]

Further reading

The following books cover the life and work of Léon Foucault. Amir D. Aczel, Pendulum: Léon Foucault and the Triumph of Science (Washington Square Press, 2003); Umberto Eco, Foucault’s Pendulum (Secker & Warburg, 1989);William Tobin, Perfecting the Modern Reflector (Sky & Telescope, October 1987);William Tobin, Léon Foucault (Scientific American, July 1998); and William Tobin, The Life and Science of Léon Foucault: The Man who Proved the Earth Rotates (Cambridge University Press, 2003).

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[1][1] R.T. Ellickson, “Jean Bernard Leon Foucault”, in The World Book (Chicago, 1981), vol. 7, p. 368

[2] www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leon_Foucault = access on 30 June 2011

[3] R.T. Ellickson, “Jean Bernard Leon Foucault”, in The World Book (Chicago, 1981), vol. 7, p. 368

[4] www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leon_Foucault = access on 30 June 2011

[5] Brian J. Thompson, “Optics”, in The World Book, vol. 14, pp. 613-4

[6] www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francois_Arago = access on 3 July 2011

[7] Anon, “Armand Hippolyte Louis Fizeau”, in Joy of Knowledge (1981), fact index, p. 266

[8] www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hippolyte_Fizeau = access on 3 July 2011

[9] www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leon_Foucault = access on 30 June 2011

[10] R.T. Ellickson, “Jean Bernard Leon Foucault”, in The World Book, vol. 7, p. 368

[11] www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leon_Foucault = access on 30 June 2011

[12] R.T. Ellickson, “Jean Bernard Leon Foucault”, in The World Book, vol. 7, p. 368

[13] www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leon_Foucault = accessed on 30 June 2011

[14] Alexia Lebeurre, The Pantheon: Temple of the Nation (Paris, 2000), p. 32

[15] www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francois_Arago = accessed on 3 July 2011

[16] Anon, “The early astronomers”, in The Pictorial Knowledge, edited by H.A. Pollock  (London, 1940), vol. 7, pp. 304-305

[17] Alexia Lebeurre, The Pantheon: Temple of the Nation (Paris, 2000), p. 32

[18] Anon, “Foucault pendulum”, in Joy of Knowledge (1981), fact index, p. 274

[19] www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leon_Foucault = accessed on 30 June 2011

[20] Alexia Lebeurre, The Pantheon: Temple of the Nation (Paris, 2000), pp. 25, 28

[21] Alexia Lebeurre, The Pantheon: Temple of the Nation (Paris, 2000), p. 30

[22] Ernest D’Hauterive (ed.), The Second Empire and its Downfall: correspondence of Emperor Napoleon III and his cousin Prince Napoleon (London, 1930), p. 52 

[23] Alexia Lebeurre, The Pantheon: Temple of the Nation (Paris, 2000), p. 32

[24] Ernest D’Hauterive (ed.), The Second Empire and its Downfall, p. 56

[25] Alexia Lebeurre, The Pantheon: Temple of the Nation (Paris, 2000), pp. 32-3

[26] Danielle Chadych & Dominique Leborgne, Paris: the story of a great city (London, 2010), p. 80

[27] C.A. Frische, “Gyroscope”, in The World Book, vol. 8, p. 438

[28] www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leon_Foucault = accessed on 30 June 2011

[29] Anon, “Armand Hippolyte Louis Fizeau”, in Joy of Knowledge (1981), fact index, p. 266

[30] www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leon_Foucault = accessed on 30 June 2011

[31] Alexia Lebeurre, The Pantheon: Temple of the Nation (Paris, 2000), p. 32

[32] Giovanna Magi, Paris: a complete guide for visiting the city (Firenze, 1994), pp. 128-9

[33] Alexia Lebeurre, The Pantheon: Temple of the Nation (Paris, 2000), pp. 34, 37

[34] www.wikipedia.org/wii/Leon_Foucault = accessed on 30 June 2011

[35] www.wikipedia.org/wiki/foucault_(crater) = accessed on 30 June 2011

[36] www.wikipedia.org/wiki/list_of_the_72_names_on_the_Eiffel_Tower = accessed 30 June 2011

Standard
Biography, Oxford History

Some notes on Garbrand Harks and family of Oxford

Some notes on Garbrand Harks and family of Oxford

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

 

Foreword

This article is a follow on from a previous article entitled “No garden games in Tudor Oxford”. [link to article = https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/06/27/no-garden-games-in-tudor-oxford-4/] One of the people featured in the article was Garbrand Harks. Initially I wrote six A4 pages on the person and family of Garbrand Harks using source books published by the Oxford Historical Society. Haven gone that far, I found on the internet that a gentleman in New England, Ernest Flagg, had written extensively about the family in his book, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England: My Ancestors Part in that Undertaking, published in 1928.

After seeing this publication I was thinking of scrapping my own efforts and going off to write something original. But the internet display of Ernest’s book does not show every page of relevance concerning the Harks family. Therefore I pressed on and wrote this following article using the material I gathered and the material in Ernest’s book.

Garbrand Harks; early years and comes to England

The family of Garbrand Harks came from the Low Countries in the second quarter of the sixteenth century. They were a strong Calvinist family.[1] Garbrand Harks, also spelt as Harkes or Harckes, was born about 1510 in Holland. He learnt the stationer’s trade which included the art of scribe, limner, binder, and printer as well as the business of dealing in books and manuscripts. Such activity exposed the young Garbrand Harks to knowledge and new ideas. Garbrand Harks adopted the new Protestant religion as the true church. This was not a wise move in Catholic controlled Holland and he was persecuted for it. In 1638 Garbrand Harks fled to England where the Reformation of King Henry VIII was a welcome home to Protestant refugees.[2]

Garbrand Harks at Oxford

Garbrand Harks settled at Bulkeley Hall in St. Mary’s Parish, Oxford and opened a shop as a bookseller.[3] Another source says that he settled in the parish of St. Mary Magdalene. He was certainly living in Oxford by 1539 as he was charged with eating meat during Lent without licence. This charge did not set back his progress and by 1542 Garbrand Harks was binding books in the library of Magdalene College. In the following year he was living in the south-west ward of the city as an alien when he was charged tax of 20 pence on goods worth £5. Garbrand Harks soon after took out English citizenship and in the tax records of 1546 was listed as an Englishman and charged 15 pence on goods worth £15. The increase in Garbrand’s personal wealth was helped by the dissolution of the monasteries. The vast and ancient libraries of the monasteries came on the market and Garbrand Harks succeeded well as a dealer. His standing improved so much that Garbrand Harks was made official stationer to the University, a post his family held for three generations.[4]

 

Magdalene college by John Carter

Magdalene College, Oxford by John Carter – early workplace of Garbrand Harks

It could be surmised that one of the reason for Garbrand Harks coming to Oxford first day was to be in position to take advantage of this previously closed market. It is also possible that Garbrand Harks was invited to Oxford by a friend. The Oxford book trade in the first quarter of the sixteenth century was dominated by foreigners. A later writer described Garbrand Harks as the “most important Oxford bookseller of the Reformation”.[5]

Garbrand Harks in the Oxford Apprentice Book   

Despite this strong connection with the book trade when Garbrand Harks first appears in the Oxford Apprentice Book, in 1554, it is as a mercer when he took on Robert Gerret of Oxford as an apprentice for eight years. Robert Gerret was the son of the late James Gerret, yeoman and seems to have been a young person in 1554 as an extra year was added to the term of apprenticeship so that Robert could be twenty-one at the end of the term.[6] It would seem that Robert Gerret did not establish a business in Oxford after his apprenticeship.

By 1562 Garbrand Harks had moved on in trade to become a bookbinder. Garbrand Harks not only bound books but was also described as a book-seller. The job of a bookbinder and book seller was a nice number in a university town like Oxford where books, and the repair of books, were always in demand. The trades of bookseller and stationer also came under the protection of the University and were termed “privileged persons”. Their status often led to disputes between the University and the town. In 1562 Garbrand Harks took on Joseph Barnes, son of Thomas Barnes, husbandman of Long Wittenham, Berkshire, for a ten year term of apprenticeship.[7] As with Robert Gerret, Joseph Barnes appears not to have taken up business in Oxford after his apprenticeship. Perhaps Garbrand Harks made such a condition of the apprenticeship to avoid future competition.

During the 1560s Garbrand Harks used his circle of friends to get a job for his third son, John Harks, later known as John Garbrand. Garbrand’s friend, John Jewel (bishop of Salisbury since 1560) came up trumps with a canonry for John at Salisbury. John Jewel was a member of the Puritan sector of the Protestant faith. During the time of Queen Mary he lived in exile in Frankfort. John Jewel returned to England on the succession of Queen Elizabeth and was made Bishop of Salisbury. In his early years John Jewel studied at Oxford and during the 1540s was a public orator for the University.[8] It may be at that time that the friendship between Garbrand Harks and John Jewel developed over talks about books, study and religion.

In 1568 Garbrand Harks was still described as a bookbinder when he took on Robert Parker as an apprentice for nine years. Robert was the son of John Parker, gent, of Barnwood, Gloucestershire.[9] Much later in the 1580s Garbrand Harks is said to have taken on Francis Harris as an apprentice in the vintner trade (Garbrand Harks was granted a licence to sell wine in 1566).[10] This Francis Harris was the father of Francis Harris, mayor of Oxford 1633-34.[11]

Garbrand Harks and the Borough Council

In 1550 Garbrand Harks took Elizabeth Clare to the Chancellor’s Court because Elizabeth Clare described Garbrand’s wife, Elizabeth, as an “arrant heretic and Flemish harlot”. Elizabeth Clare denied the charge yet admitted to other offences. This was before the reign of the Catholic Queen Mary and thus the comments of Elizabeth Clare can only be described as racist rather than purely religious differences.

Despite this event by 1555 Garbrand Harks had become more English than the English themselves and was accepted into Oxford society. His activities in commerce and his work for the University had increased his public profile. In 1555 Garbrand Harks is first listed as a member of the Borough Council. In 1557 he became one of the key holders of the city. In the same year and in 1558 Garbrand Harks was chamberlain (treasurer) of the city. On 16th September 1562 he was elected one of city Associates.[12]

During the 1550s as Garbrand Harks ascended in the borough politics in Oxford his friends descended into the basement of Garbrand’s house. In the reign of Queen Mary, Garbrand Harks allowed the leading Protestants of Oxford to have service in his basement.[13]

Garbrand Harks and his property portfolio

In 1572 Garbrand Harks had a lease on a garden south of the Divinity School from Balliol College. In October of that year the garden, along with two adjoining gardens were granted to Exeter College by Balliol in exchange for a messuage and garden and a house rent elsewhere in the city. Garbrand Harks had only taken the garden a short time before as it was held by John Lewis in 1570.[14]

In 1589, Garbrand Harks held a tenement from Oriel College on the south side of High Street.[15] This tenement continued in the Harkes family until the late seventeenth century and is today a corner shop (number 108) where High Street meets King Edward Street.[16]

In 1593 Garbrand Harks increased his property portfolio when he acquired five shops, two cellars and two acres of meadow (Botley Meadow) in the parishes of All Saints and St. Thomas. These were acquired from Edmund Denton.[17]

Garbrand Harks left four sons and four daughters by his wife Elizabeth. These included Thomas, William, John, Richard, Amy and Christian Garbrand. These children took the first name of their father, Garbrand Harks, to become their surnames and so you get Thomas Garbrand instead of Thomas Harks. Amy Garbrand married John Halloway (their fourth child, George Halloway settled in York County, Virginia) while Christian Garbrand married Rev. Robert Chaloner.[18]

Thomas Garbrand

Thomas Garbrand was a son of Garbrand Harks and was born about 1539. In 1551 Thomas was a chorister of Magdalen College and a fellow of the College from 1557 to 1570. On 9th November 1558 Thomas Garbrand got a B.A. and an M.A. on 10th July 1562. In 1568 Thomas Garbrand was awarded a Bachelor in Civil Law.[19]

After the death of his brother John, Thomas Garbrand succeeded to the rectory of North Crawley on the presentation of his father. Thomas Garbrand had previously been presented by Sir William Dormer in 1570.[20]

William Garbrand

William Garbrand was another son of Garbrand Harks. William Garbrand was at Magdalen College from 1566 where he got a B.A. on 23rd October 1570, and an M.A. on 19th June 1574. William Garbrand was a fellow of Magdalen College from 1570 to 1577.[21]

Rev. John Garbrand

The third son of Garbrand Harks of Oxford was born in 1542 and was named John Harks. He later took on the name of Garbrand as his surname to become John Garbrand. This article will refer to him by his later name. John Garbrand began his education at Winchester College in 1566 before moving on to New College, Oxford in 1560.[22] John Garbrand served as a fellow of New College from 1560 to 1567. On 22nd April, 1563 he got a B.A. and on 25th February 1567 John Garbrand got a M.A. John Garbrand continued his later studies at Cambridge with an M.A. in 1568.[23] On 5th July 1582 John Garbrand got a Bachelor and Doctorate in Divinity from Oxford. 5 July, 1582.[24]

While still a student at New College, Oxford, John Garbrand became a canon of Sarum (Salisbury) in 1565. Bishop John Jewel was friends of his father, Garbrand Harks.[25] In 1566 he became rector of North Crawley, Buckinghamshire on the presentation of Sir William Dormer and served until his death in 1589. In 1571 John Garbrand became a canon at Wells Cathedral.[26] John Garbrand kept the Wells position until 1578.[27] In the following year of 1572 he became rector of Farthingston, Northamptonshire and served until 1589.[28]

On 17th November 1589 John Garbrand died at his rectory at North Crawley, aged 47 years. He was buried in the parish church where a memorial described him as a “benefactor of the poor”.[29] After the death of Rev. John Garbrand on 17th November 1589, Garbrand Harks presented Rev. Roger Hacket to the position. Rev. Roger Hacket remained the rector until his death in 1621. Rev. Roger Hacket was a brother of Sir Cuthbert Hacket, Lord Mayor of London (1626-7), and was a cousin of Anne Ferrar, daughter-in-law of Garbrand Harks.[30] Other sources give the impression that Thomas Garbrand, brother of John, succeeded for a time to North Crawley.[31]

Despite his time in Buckinghamshire and Northamptonshire, Rev. John Garbrand did not forget Salisbury and his patron Bishop John Jewel. When Bishop Jewel died in 1571 he bequeathed his papers to John Garbrand. Over the next decade John Garbrand edited the papers and between 1582 and 1583 published their content in three volumes.[32] The volumes contained many of Bishop Jewel’s sermons of the strength of the Protestant faith and the Puritan tradition.

John Garbrand of Oxford

John Garbrand was the son of Rev. John Garbrand of North Crawley and was born about 1580. In February 1604 he entered New College, Oxford and on 15h June 1608 received a B.A. Like his grandfather John Garbrand took up employment as a bookseller.[33]

It appears that John Garbrand lived in the parish of St. Mary in Oxford. In 1616 Walter Hardwell of Great Milton, Oxfordshire, agreed in court to take charge of John Smyth (aged 6½ years), son of the late John Smyth, innkeeper of the Swan in Oxford. The parish of St. Mary was to pay Walter Hardwell 12 pence per week until John Smyth was of sufficient age to become an apprentice. John Garbrand paid Walter Hardwell a month’s allowance of 4 shillings at the court.[34]

About the year 1618 John Garbrand died.[35]

Richard Garbrand, alias Harks

Richard Garbrand, alias Harks, was another son of Garbrand Harks. Richard Harks succeeded his father in the book business sometime in the 1590s. In 1600 Richard Garbrand was described as a stationer in Oxford.[36] Richard Harks established his business as a stationer yet changed his surname to that of his father’s Christian name and thus became Richard Garbrand. Richard Garbrand had at least two sons, Edward and Tobias, who are noted separately below.

In 1569 Richard Garbrand was one of the churchwardens of St. Mary’s, Oxford.[37]

Richard Garbrand succeeded to his father’s tenancy of the tenement from Oriel College on High Street. By 1618 Richard Garbrand was dead and the tenement in High Street was held by his widow.[38] Richard Garbrand also succeeded to advowson of North Crawley in Buckinghamshire and by his will of 1602 gave the advowson to his son John Garbrand.[39]

Elsewhere Richard Garbrand held a tenement off High Street in 1587 wherein Roger Stevens lived.[40] The tenement is now under the Rhodes Building of Oriel College.[41] Across the road from the Rhodes Building Richard Garbrand held another tenement on Catte Street which was also occupied by Roger Stevens. This tenement was later held (1656) by John Garbrand (see below).[42]

Further along Catte Street Richard Garbrand held another tenement in 1578 bounded on the south by a tenement held by Henry Miles, carpenter. This tenement was held by Richard Garbrand in 1594 and by John Garbrand, possible son of Richard, in 1609.[43]

In 1578 Richard Harks married Anne Ferrar, sister of John Ferrar, Principal of New Inn Hall (1593-1609), as his second wife. Richard Harks died in January 1602 and was buried in the church of St. Mary Magdalene. He left at least one child, John, by his first wife and eleven children by his second wife, Anne Ferrar. These children were called Tobias, Elizabeth, Bysse, Ambrose, Edmund, Richard, Joan, Susan, Anne, Harks and Nicholas. Anne Ferrar Harks continued to operate the bookshop until her death in 1609 when she was buried beside her husband in the church of St. Mary Magdalene.[44]

John Garbrand

This John Garbrand was the son of Richard Garbrand, alias Harks by his first wife. By the will of his father in 1602 John Garbrand succeeded to the advowson of North Crawley, Buckinghamshire and to the lease of Sidlie Close that was once held by his grandfather, Garbrand Harks.[45] Other sources say that Richard Garbrand gave the advowson of North Crawley to Tobias Garbrand and not to John.[46] It is difficult to judge without more information which was the correct story. Sometime in the reign of James I the advowson was acquired by Roger Hackett, the rector of the parish mentioned earlier.[47]

Tobias Garbrand

Tobias Garbrand was the first child of Richard Garbrand and Anne Ferrar. Tobias Garbrand was born about 1579, a year after the marriage of his parents. From 1591 to 1605 Tobias Garbrand attended Magdalen College. On 13th December 1602 he received a B.A. and on 12th June 1605 he got a M.A. Tobias Garbrand was a fellow of Magdalene College between 1605 and 1619. On 1st December 1613 Tobias Garbrand received a Bachelorate in Divinity and was given a licence to preach on 10th December, 1617. In 1619 Rev. Tobias Garbrand became vicar of Findon, Sussex, 1619 as Tobias Harks. In 1638 Rev. Tobias Garbrand died.[48]

Bysse Garbrand

Bysse Garbrand was the third child of Richard Garbrand and Anne Ferrar. Little is known about Bysse Garbrand as the page showing his biography is excluded from that internet version of Ernes Flagg’s book. It is noted that on 26th September 1611 Bysee Garbrand married Martha Ballam at Chenies, Buckinghamshire. Martha Balam was sister-in-law of the then rector of Chenies, Rev. Peter Allibone. After the death of Bysse Garbrand, Martha Garbrand married Rev. Christopher Rogers, Principal of New Inn Hall (1626-1643).[49]

Bysse Garbrand left two children at the time of his death, Tobias (whom see) and Mary. Apart from the birth of Mary Garbrand in 1615 we know little else about her.[50]

Tobias Garbrand

Tobias Garbrand was baptised on 19th September 1612.[51] On 25th January 1631 Tobias Garbrand received a B.A. from New Inn Hall and on 24th October 1633 got a M.A. from same. On 22nd October 1639 he got a Bachelor in Medicine degree.[52] Following all these academic achievements Tobias Garbrand continued to live in Oxford. In December 1642 he held the tenement on High Street which his mother held from Oriel College. Even after Tobias Garbrand moved to Abingdon in Berkshire he continued to keep this tenement until at least 1683. His heirs held the tenement after the death of Tobias Garbrand and are noted as tenants in 1692. By 1702 a new tenant held the tenement.[53]

In the English Civil War Tobias Garbrand supported the side of Parliament. This was a brave thing to do, especially for a person living in Oxford, as the city was the capital for King Charles and his court. Yet as the war changed in favour of Parliament Tobias Garbrand was well positioned to reap some rewards.

 In 1647 John Maplett was nominated Principal of Gloucester Hall by the Chancellor, the Marquess of Hertford, but within a few months both he and Maplett were ejected and Tobias Garbrand, M.D., was nominated by the Parliamentary Visitors. Yet Gloucester Hall was not much of a reward. The fortunes of Gloucester Hall had been declining for many years. A document in 1649 said that there was within the Hall, the Principal, three Masters of Arts, and one bachelor, along with two ‘readers’ in the hall and other officials and little else. The Government had to give Tobias Garbrand £50 to augment his income. Nevertheless Tobias Garbrand held the position at Gloucester Hall from 1647 to 1660.[54]

On 14th April 1648 Tobias Garbrand obtained a Doctorate in Medicine.[55] Thus in a lease of 1655 Tobias Garbrand was described as Doctor in Physics and Principal of Gloucester Hall. This lease was on a tenement at 38 Cornmarket Street in Oxford from Christ Church College. As part of the lease Tobias was to pitch, pave and amend the pitching and ground before the tenement as far as the street gutter. Tobias Garbrand was also to pitch with good stone and gravel the laneway beside the tenement. A charge of 2 shillings 6 pence was on the property to pay the local church wardens. The rent on the tenement was 6 shillings 8 pence per year with 40 years for the term of the lease.[56]

 

Gloucester Hall

Worcester College, Oxford – once known as Gloucester Hall

At the Restoration in 1660 Tobias Garbrand resigned the position of Principal of Gloucester Hall and the previous Principal, John Maplett returned to the position. But in 1662 John Maplett also resigned, and Byrom Eaton, D.D., was nominated. He held a number of livings along with prebendal income as archdeacon at Stowe and Leicester and was not dependent on the profits of Gloucester Hall for his livelihood. He treated the hall as a convenient place of residence.[57]

After getting his Doctorate in Medicine Tobias Garbrand moved out of Oxford to take up his practice as a medical doctor at Abingdon in Berkshire. Tobias Garbrand stayed in Abingdon for the rest of his life yet he maintained some property interests in Oxford for a time. In the rentals of Christ Church, Tobias Garbrand continued to hold the tenement in Cornmrket Street in 1660, 1666, 1676, and in 1686.[58] On 9th May 1679 he renewed the lease on the tenement in Cornmarket Street for another 40 years at the same rent of 6 shillings 8 pence. The new lease described Tobias as a Doctor in Physics and late of the University of Oxford. Yet within seven months Tobias Garbrand surrendered the lease to William Walker, perrywig maker of Oxford.[59]

On 7th April 1689 Tobias Garbrand died at Abingdon. He was buried in the nearby church of St. Helen.[60] Tobias Garbrand left four sons and two daughters by his unnamed wife. These were Susanna (born c. 1645), John (see below), Daniel, Samuel, Judith and Tobias.[61]

John Garbrand

John Garbrand was a son of Tobias Garbrand, M.D., of Abingdon, Berkshire and was born about 1647. On 16th July 1664 John Garbrand returned to Oxford to study at New Inn Hall where his father was a student. On 28th January 1668 John Garbrand got a B.A. from New Inn. In 1673 he went to study for a barrister-at-law in the Inner Temple, London.[62] John Garbrand had at least two sons, the second of whom was Henry Garbrand (see below).

Henry Garbrand

Henry Garbrand was mentioned in the will of his grandfather, Tobias Garbrand, M.D., in 1688.[63]

Tobias Garbrand

Tobias Garbrand was a son of Tobias Garbrand, M.D. and settled in London. There he became a fishmonger. Tobias Garbrand acquired property of some messuages in East and West Ham, Newnham, Oxfordshire. Tobias Garbrand married Margaret and left a will in 1702 which was proved in 1703. Tobias Garbrand had a few children including Thomas, Elizabeth and Robert Garbrand. The will further tells us that Robert Garbrand had three children; Margaret, Phoebe and Richard.[64]

Richard Garbrand

Richard Garbrand was the sixth child of Richard Garbrand and Anne Ferrar and was born about 1589. Richard Garbrand was living in 1618 and was possibly the Richard Garbrand of St. Peter’s, Cornhill, near London. On 27th June 1661 Richard Garbrand was buried at St. Peter’s leaving a widow called Sarah.[65]

Harkes Garbrand

Harkes Garbrand was the ninth child of Richard Garbrand and Anne Ferrar. Harkes Garbrand was born 1595 and was living in 1618. It is possible that Harkes Garbrand settled in London but his later history is uncertain. It is assumed that Harkes Garbrand was the father of John Garbrand of London.[66]

John Garbrand of London

John Garbrand of London was the assumed son of Harkes Garbrand of London and was born about 1620.[67] This John Garbrand was possibly the same John Garbrand, citizen and merchant tailor of London, who held a garden near the site of Elm Hall in Oxford sometime between 1650 and 1665.[68]

In about 1645 John Garbrand married Martha Lockey.[69]

In 1656 John Garbrand held a tenement on Catte Street, Oxford, which was held by the above Richard Garbrand in 1596. The exact relationship between the two men is not known but there must be some close link. John Garbrand and his heirs were still mentioned as holding the tenement until at least 1727.[70] Another tenement along Catte Street held by Richard Garbrand was held by John Garbrand in 1656.[71]

John Garbrand of London died in the Great Plague of 1665 in which about 70,000 people died in the London area. His left Martha a widow and four children: John, Mary (b. c. 1647), Harkes and Thomas.[72]

John Garbrand

This John Garbrand was born about 1645 as the first child of John Garbrand and Martha Lockey of London.[73] This John Garbrand matriculated at Christ Church College in April 1660.[74]

Harkes Garbrand of London and Jamaica

Harkes Garbrand was born about 1650 as the third child of John Garbrand and Martha Lockey. After gaining adulthood Harkes Garbrand settled in Jamaica where his descendants were still living in 1928.[75] Harks Garbrand was one of the people in Port Royal in February 1688 to cause an inventory of the goods belonging to a deceased mariner. Seven Negro slaves contributed most to the value of the goods.[76]

One of the children of Harkes Garbrand was Thomas Garbrand (see below).

Thomas Garbrand of Jamaica

Thomas Garbrand was born about 1684 to Harkes Garbrand of Jamaica. In June 1700 Thomas Garbrand returned to England and studied at Pembroke College, Oxford. In 1704 Thomas Garbrand got a B.A.[77] After his return to Jamaica Thomas Garbrand became rector of St. John’s Parish but his incumbency was brief. By 1707 Thomas Garbrand was dead and was replaced by Mr. Todd , former curate at Port Royal.[78]

Nicholas Garbrand

Nicholas Garbrand was the eleventh child of Richard Garbrand and Anne Ferrar and was born about 1600. In June 1618 Nicholas Garbrand began to attend Magdalene College. On 15th December 1618 Nicholas Garbrand got a B.A. 15 Dec., 1618, with an M.A. in June 1621 and a Bachelorate in Divinity in May 1631. Nicholas Garbrand was a fellow of Magdalene College from 1619 to 1639. On 8th December 1635 Nicholas Garbrand got a licence to preach and became vicar of Washington, Sussex, in 1638. Rev. Nicholas Garbrand held the vicarage until his death in 1671.[79]

In about 1646 Rev. Nicholas Garbrand married his cousin, Mrs. Judith Allibone, Ford Allen, daughter of Rev. Peter Allibone and Margaret Ballam of Chenies, Buckinghamshire. Judith had two previous marriages before marrying Nicholas Garbrand. In her will made in 1661 Judith named her son, William Ford and her other children of Peter, James, Thomas and Mary Allen. It is not known if Rev. Nicholas Garbrand had any children with Judith.[80]

In 1660 Nicholas Garbrand became rector of Patching, Sussex, and got a canonry at Chichester which he held until 1669.[81]

Susan Garbrand

The eighth child of Richard Garbrand and Anne Ferrar was Susan Garbrand, born about 1593. After the death of her mother in 1609 Susan Garbrand went to live with her childless aunt, Mrs. Christian Garbrand Chaloner at Amersham, Buckinghamshire. At Amersham, Susan Garbrand became a waiting-gentlewoman to Mrs. Joan Tothill Drake and there she met a lodger in the Drake household, Rev. Thomas Hooker, son of Thomas Hooker of Birstall, Leicestershire.[82]

On 3rd April 1621 Susan Garbrand married Rev. Thomas Hooker at Amersham where her aunt’s husband, Rev. Robert Chaloanor celebrated the nuptials.[83] Rev. Thomas Hooker was given the job of lecturer at Chelmsford, Essex but in 1626 he was silenced by Bishop Laud for non-conformity. For the next four years he held a private school at Great Baddow, Essex before further prosecution forced him to flee to Holland.[84] By this move Susan Garbrand was back in the country of her ancestor, Garbrand Harks.

 

downloadThomas Hooker

Statue of Rev. Thomas Hooker, unknown location

In 1633 the family emigrated to New England where Rev. Thomas Hooker became pastor of the church at Cambridge, Massachusetts. Their passage was part of the great Puritan migration to New England up to 1640 when about 26,000 people settled in the new land.[85] Shortly after disputes arose between Rev. Hooker and the other leaders as regards religious practice. Rev. Hooker believed that each church should be independent and that people had a right to choose their leaders.[86] Consequently in 1635 Rev. Thomas Hooker and Susan Garbrand with their family and some followers moved to Connecticut where they helped found the town of Hartford. Rev. Thomas Hooker served as pastor of Hartford until his death in 1647. Today Rev. Thomas Hooker is regarded as the “founder of Connecticut.[87] Rev. Hooker was not the first white settler in the Connecticut area. In 1614, Adriaen Block, a Dutch explorer, sailed up the Connecticut River and claimed the area for Holland (Garbrand Harks’ home). The Dutch did not act on this claim until 1633 when they built a small fort on the site of Hartford. The Dutch never settled permanently in the area and were finally driven out by the English in 1674.[88]

Susan Garbrand and Rev. Thomas Hooker had seven children; Joanne, Mary, John, Anne (died young), Sarah (died 1629), Sarah (born 1630) and Samuel.[89] Among their more notable descendants were William Howard Taft, 27th President of the United States, J.P. Morgan, the famous banker and George Catlin, the American painter who specialised in portraying Native American Indians.[90]

The descent to the noted architect and author, Ernest Flagg, was made by Mary Hooker marrying Rev. Roger Newton and had Samuel Newton, father of Sarah Newton. This Sarah Newton married Jonathan Ingersoll (great-grandson of John Webster, Governor of Connecticut) and they were the parents of Sarah Ingersoll. This Sarah Ingersoll married Deacon John Whiting of New Haven, Connecticut and they were the parents of William Whiting, father of Martha Whiting. This Martha Whiting in turn married Henry Flagg and was the mother of Rev. Jarred Flagg, who was the father of Ernest Flagg who wrote the history of his family in 1928 which work forms a large part of the information in this article.[91]

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[1] H.E. Salter & Mary Lobel (eds.), A history of the County of Oxford, Volume 3: the University of Oxford (Victoria County History, 1954), p. 299

[2] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England: My Ancestors Part in that Undertaking (Clearfield, Baltimore, 1996), p. 318

[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Garbrand_(priest) accessed on 29 June 2014

[4] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 318

[5] Strickland Gibson, Abstracts from the wills and testamentary documents of Binders, printers, and Stationers of Oxford, from 1493 to 1638 (Bibliographical Society, London, 1907), p. xvii

[6] Alan Crossley (ed.), Oxford City Apprentices 1513-1602 (Oxford Historical Society, New Series, Vol. 44, 2012), no. 371

[7] Alan Crossley (ed.), Oxford City Apprentices 1513-1602, p. xvi, no. 545

[8] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Jewel accessed on 29 June 2014

[9] Alan Crossley (ed.), Oxford City Apprentices 1513-1602, no. 679

[10] Madan Falconer, The Early Oxford Press (Applewood, Bedford, Massachusetts, reprint), p. 274

[11] http://www.oxfordhistory.org.uk/mayors/1603_1714/harris_francis_1633.html accessed on 3 July 2014

[12] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 318

[13] Strickland Gibson, Abstracts from the wills of Binders, printers, and Stationers of Oxford, p. xvii

[14] Rev. H.E. Salter (ed.), The Oxford deeds of Balliol College (Oxford Historical Society, Vol. 64, 1913), p. 157; Rev. Charles W. Boase (ed.), Register of Exeter College, Oxford (Oxford Historical Society, Vol. 27, 1894), p. 298

[15] Rev. H.E. Salter (ed.), The Oxford deeds of Balliol College (Oxford Historical Society, Vol. 64, 1913), p. 207

[16] http://www.oxfordhistory.org.uk/high/tour/south/108.html accessed on 26 June 2014

[17] Rev. H.E. Salter (ed.), The cartulary of the Hospital of St. John the Baptist (Oxford Historical Society, Vol. 68, 1915), Vol. 2, p. 461

[18] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, pp. 17, 321; http://arlisherring.com/tng/getperson.php?personID=I014550&tree=Herring&PHPSESSID=4b64040446767f11f94b4a32b60e435f accessed on 3 July 2014

[19] http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=117060&strquery=Garbrand%20Harks accessed on 29 June 2014

[20] http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=62594&strquery=North%20Crawley accessed on 3 July 2014

[21] http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=117060&strquery=Garbrand%20Harks accessed on 29 June 2014

[22] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Garbrand_(priest) accessed on 29 June 2014

[23] http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=117060&strquery=Garbrand%20Harks accessed on 29 June 2014

[24] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Garbrand_(priest) accessed on 29 June 2014

[25] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Garbrand_(priest) accessed on 29 June 2014

[26] http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=117060&strquery=Garbrand%20Harks accessed on 29 June 2014; http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=62594&strquery=North%20Crawley accessed on 3 July 2014

[27] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Garbrand_(priest) accessed on 29 June 2014

[28] http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=117060&strquery=Garbrand%20Harks accessed on 29 June 2014

[29] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Garbrand_(priest) accessed on 29 June 2014

[30] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 321

[31] http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=62594&strquery=North%20Crawley accessed on 3 July 2014

[32] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Garbrand_(priest) accessed on 29 June 2014

[33] http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=117060&strquery=Garbrand%20Harks accessed on 29 June 2014

[34] Robin Blades (ed.), Oxford quarter sessions order book 1614-1637 (Oxford Historical Society, New Series, Vol. 29, 2009), no. 1616H5

[35] http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=117060&strquery=Garbrand%20Harks accessed on 29 June 2014

[36] Jill Barlow (ed.), A calendar of the Register of Apprentices of the City of Gloucester 1595-1700 (Bristol & Gloucester Archaeological Society, Record Series, Vol. 14, 2001), no. 1/77

[37] Madan Falconer, The Early Oxford Press, p. 274

[38] Rev. H.E. Salter (ed.), The Oxford deeds of Balliol College, pp. 207-8

[39] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 321

[40] Rev. H.E. Salter (ed.), The cartulary of the Hospital of St. John the Baptist (Oxford Historical Society, Vol. 66, 1914), Vol. 1, p. 411

[41] http://www.oxfordhistory.org.uk/high/tour/south/095_101.html accessed on 29 June 014

[42] Rev. H.E. Salter (ed.), The cartulary of the Hospital of St. John the Baptist (Oxford Historical Society, Vol. 66, 1914), Vol. 1, p. 431

[43] Rev. H.E. Salter (ed.), The cartulary of the Hospital of St. John the Baptist (Oxford Historical Society, Vol. 66, 1914), Vol. 1, p. 457

[44] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 321

[45] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 321

[46] http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=62594&strquery=North%20Crawley accessed on 3 July 2014

[47] http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=62594&strquery=North%20Crawley accessed on 3 July 2014

[48] http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=117060&strquery=Garbrand%20Harks access on 1 July 2014

[49] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 323

[50] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 323

[51] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 323

[52] http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=117060&strquery=Garbrand%20Harks accessed on 29 June 2014

[53] Rev. H.E. Salter (ed.), The Oxford deeds of Balliol College, pp. 208-9

[54] H.E. Salter & Mary Lobel (eds.), A history of the County of Oxford, Volume 3: the University of Oxford, p. 299

[55] http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=117060&strquery=Garbrand%20Harks accessed on 29 June 2014

[56] Rev. H.E. Slater (ed.), Cartulary of Oseney Abbey (Oxford Historical Society, Vol. 89, 1929), Vol. 1, p. 88

[57] H.E. Salter & Mary Lobel (eds.), A history of the County of Oxford, Volume 3: the University of Oxford, p. 299

[58] Rev. H.E. Slater (ed.), Cartulary of Oseney Abbey (Oxford Historical Society, Vol. 91, 1931), Vol. 3, pp. 319, 321, 322, 324

[59] Rev. H.E. Slater (ed.), Cartulary of Oseney Abbey, Vol. 1, p. 88

[60] http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=117060&strquery=Garbrand%20Harks accessed on 29 June 2014

[61] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 323

[62] http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=117060&strquery=Garbrand%20Harks accessed on 29 June 2014

[63] http://www.amazon.com/Abstracts-Somersetshire-Manuscript-Collections-Frederick/dp/1231192429 accessed on 3 July 2014

[64] http://www.amazon.com/Abstracts-Somersetshire-Manuscript-Collections-Frederick/dp/1231192429 accessed on 3 July 2014

[65] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 323

[66] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 324

[67] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 324

[68] Rev. H.E. Slater (ed.), Cartulary of Oseney Abbey, Vol. 1, p. 102

[69] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 324

[70] Rev. H.E. Salter (ed.), The cartulary of the Hospital of St. John the Baptist (Oxford Historical Society, Vol. 66, 1914), Vol. 1, p. 431

[71] Rev. H.E. Salter (ed.), The cartulary of the Hospital of St. John the Baptist (Oxford Historical Society, Vol. 66, 1914), Vol. 1, p. 457

[72] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 324

[73] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 324

[74] http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=117060&strquery=Garbrand%20Harks accessed on 29 June 2014

[75] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 324

[76] http://nautarch.tamu.edu/portroyal/archives/Inventories/Vol3/3-52.htm accessed on 3 July 2014

[77] http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=117060&strquery=Garbrand%20Harks accessed on 2 July 2014

[78] http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Members/bcarib50.htm accessed on 3 July 2014

[79] http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=117060&strquery=Garbrand%20Harks accessed on 2 July 2014

[80] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 324

[81] http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=117060&strquery=Garbrand%20Harks accessed on 2 July 2014

[82] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 323

[83] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 323

[84] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 324

[85] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 11

[86] Bradford Smith, ‘Hooker, Thomas’, in The World Book Encyclopedia (Chicago, 1981), Vol. 9, p. 290

[87] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Hooker accessed on 3 July 2014

[88] Joseph Hoyt & Albert Van Dusen, ‘Connecticut’, in The World Book Encyclopedia (Chicago, 1981), Vol. 4, p. 772

[89] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 324

[90] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Hooker accessed on 3 July 2014

[91] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, pp. 118, 121

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