Waterford history

Devonshire Arms Hotel and Lawlor’s Hotel, Dungarvan

Devonshire Arms Hotel and Lawlor’s Hotel, Dungarvan

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

 

Today the lower end of Bridge Street in Dungarvan is dominated by the four story high, eleven bay wide, Lawlor’s Hotel. The building has the appearance of being all of one construction phase but the façade shows the marks of older buildings with a rich heritage.

Before Lawlor’s Hotel existed

As many commentators have said before ‘Previous to 1815 this place (Dungarvan) was, perhaps, as uninviting in its aspect as it is now respectable in its general appearance. Its conveniences were few, its trade unimportant and the industrious classes languishing in inactivity.’[1] One of these inconveniences was a descent hotel. To this call for action, the proprietor of much of the town, William Cavendish, 5th Duke of Devonshire, applied himself with gusto. He commissioned the destruction of numerous cabins of the ordinary people, the construction of new streets and a market square and a bridge to link Dungarvan with Abbeyside. All these improvements had more to do with increasing the Duke’s number of voter and his political power that to see a better town but then politics can throw up unintended results.

The site of Bridge Street before improvements

Before the improvements of the early nineteenth century the area around modern Bridge Street was a jumble of small cabins with dozens of small lanes worming there way in between. The area lay outside the old medieval town of Dungarvan by the banks of the Colligan River. These cabins were part of the Duke of Devonshire’s estate in the Dungarvan area and like in the Duke’s other towns, such as Lismore and Youghal; the Duke’s property was he most ruinous in the Dungarvan area. The cabins were described as in poor condition, built of mud and covered with straw and most of great antiquity.[2]

IMG_0002

Map of Dungarvan, c.1776, by Proundfoot

showing the maze of streets by the River where the cabins were

The three major improvements in the Duke’s property around Dungarvan were the Devonshire Square-Bridge Street development, the Bridge and the forty-shilling freeholders housing at Blackpool and Boreheenatra. Plans for improvements were first discussed in 1794 before nothing could be done until the fate of the third life of the head lease was discovered. In 1806 work on development Devonshire Square could finally begin.[3]

The first houses were built on Bridge Street in 1807 and the development was aided by the premature construction of the bridge shortly after 1808. The bridge was originally due to be built in about 1810 but when news that Lord Waterford had a bridge scheme of his own did the Duke’s agent press forward he project. But work on completing the bridge was slow and not finally finished until 1816.[4]

Close to the Bridge in the northwest corner of Bridge Street a new five bay, three story hotel was built with three private dwelling houses of two bays each adjoining it on the Bridge side. The development of the hotel was helped by the purchase by the Duke of Sir Thomas Osbourne estate at the rear of the hotel. This helped provide space for stables and out houses.[5] It is assumed that the hotel was built in 1807 or the two or three years after.

The Devonshire Arms name

The new hotel was named the Devonshire Arms Hotel. Apart from the Devonshire Arms Hotel in Dungarvan, other towns partly or fully owned by the Duke of Devonshire also had hotels of the same name such as Youghal, Tallow, Lismore and Bandon.

1824

In 1824 Margaret McGrath operated the Devonshire Arms Hotel on Bridge Street in Dungarvan.[6] Margaret McGrath also operated a timber merchant business on the same street.[7] Also on Bridge Street in 1824 was Rudolphus Greene (attorney), and Arthur Quinn (physician).[8]

The Royal Mail coach stopped outside the Devonshire Arms Hotel at quarter to one each day on its way to Cork from Waterford travelling via Cappoquin, Lismore, Tallow, Youghal, Castlemartyr and Midleton. The returning coach from Cork stopped at the hotel at ten passed one before calling at Kilmacthomas on its way to Waterford.[9]

Devonshire Arms

The Devonshire Arms was the first five bays on the left and three stories high

1834

Like any hotel, the Devonshire Arms has hosted other events than just welcoming guests. It was the scene of meetings, weddings, funerals, social gatherings and dances. A hotel was also a good place to hold an auction such as on 27th January 1834 when the executors of the late William Barron, Esq. auctioned the lands of Knockinpower.[10]

The Devonshire Arms balcony

The original Devonshire Arms Hotel had a cast iron balcony over the door, the length of three bays, with the Devonshire coat of arms. Many notable politicians gave speeches from the balcony including Daniel O’Connell (in 1834), Eamon De Valera, Frank Hugh O’Donnell, (last M.P. for Dungarvan) and Henry Matthews, M.P. When Lawlors Hotel purchased the Devonshire Arms the balcony was moved to hang over the main entrance door of Lawlors Hotel where it is today.[11]

Another notable speaker from the balcony was Michael Collins but more by accident than design. On 26th March 1922 Michael Collins as head of the Provisional Government arrived in Dungarvan. At first he began his speech on top of a lorry in the Square. But during the speech some anti-Government individual, Skins Whelan, took the driver’s seat and drove the lorry down Bridge Street, over the Bridge and onto the Causeway. At that point Collins stuck a revolver in the window and forced the lorry to stop. On returning to Dungarvan Michael Collins completed his speech from the balcony of the Devonshire Arms as nobody could run away with a balcony.[12]

The Devonshire Arms Hotel was often the scene of election rallies with speeches from the balcony and meetings inside. Sometimes these gatherings generated controversy such as in 1867 when a committee of the House of Commons was called in to investigate.[13]

1850

In about 1850 Mrs. Mary McGrath operated the Devonshire Arms Hotel and rented from the Duke of Devonshire. According to Griffith’s Valuation the building was worth £45 with one root and twenty-three perches of land.

1863

George Bradshaw’s Railway guide to Ireland (1863, reprint 2015) reports two hotels in Dungarvan; the Eagle managed by Mary Power and the Devonshire Arms Hotel, managed by Mrs. McGrath. According to recent sources Richard McGrath was proprietor of the Devonshire Arms previous to 1861 when the Hotel was acquired by James Lynch but this conflicts when Bradshaw’s claim.[14]

1867

Certainly by 1867 James Lynch is named as operator of the Devonshire Arms Hotel. Most of the hotel customers came to Dungarvan along the coach routes. At that time Dungarvan was served by a coach to Clonmel at 5.30pm (fare 3s 6d), returning at 7am; a coach to Lismore via Cappoquin at 6.35pm (fare 2s 6d); a coach to Waterford at 8am and 3pm (fare 3s 6d); to Youghal at 8am in time for 11am train to Cork with the return via the 4.30pm train from Cork.[15] The hotel customers included commercial travellers, people attending the monthly fairs on the second Wednesday and sun bathers. In the summer months around 1870 Dungarvan attracted a sizeable number of sunbathers.[16] Some of these visitors stayed at the Devonshire Arms Hotel while others stayed at the other three hotels in the town operated by J. Buckley (Imperial Square), Margaret O’Callaghan and T. &. A. O’Neill (Hibernian Hotel, Blackpool).[17]

In 1867-1870 various reports describe Dungarvan as lately improved by the Duke of Devonshire and having a very neat and clean appearance even if most of the streets were narrow. The majority of the population of Dungarvan (c.8614 in total) was employed in the fisheries trade around hake, cod and herring. The principal exports from the port were grain, cattle, butter and fish.[18]

Visitors to the Devonshire Arms Hotel

Among the visitors to stay at the Devonshire Arms Hotel over the years included William Thackeray, Canon Patrick Power and Cathal Brugha.[19] Day visitor also stayed at the Hotel as in 1895 when members of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland had lunch there before travelling around to see the ancient sites.

lawlor-s-hotel-dungarvan oringal front

The three private houses beside the Devonshire Arms Hotel

occupied 2 bays each and were three stories high –

the mouldings dividing the buildings can be see on the front facade

1881

By 1881 the fishing trade had declined in Dungarvan and much of the town was dependent on the agricultural trade. The recent arrival of the railway was expected to stimulate trade but by 1881 the expectation was still unrealised. Yet by 1884 the Waterford Mail could report that the railway had caused an expansion of the fishing trade. The butter trade also benefited from the railway.[20] In 1881 there were two monthly fairs in the town to attract customers to the Devonshire Arms Hotel. Pigs were sold on the third Tuesday of every month and cattle on the third Wednesday.[21]

In 1881 James Lynch was still operating the Devonshire Arms Hotel on Bridge Street. He also operated a car company. James Lynch needed a car company in order to convey his customers to and from the hotel. The stage coaches didn’t stop outside the Devonshire Arms as in previous times. Instead the Royal Mail coach servicing Clonmel stopped at the Post office in the Square while travellers to Cork and Waterford had to go over behind the present-day Park Hotel to attend the railway station.

Other businesses on Bridge Street in 1881 included two banks (Munster Bank and the Provincial Bank of Ireland), J.W. Denroche operated as agent for the Alliance Insurance Company (he was manager of the Provincial Bank in 1893) and Benjamin S. Harris, also on Bridge Street, was agent for the Life Association of Scotland. Also on the Street was Thomas Slattery (solicitor), Michael Kennedy (agent for Lane & Co. brewers of Cork) and Robert Longan (Commissioner of Affidavits and clerk of petty sessions).[22]

In 1881 there were two other hotels in Dungarvan, the Commercial Hotel in Devonshire Square (Mary Flynn) and the Hibernian Hotel in Blackpool (Thomas O’Neill).[23]

1893

In 1893 Maurice F. Lynch operated the Devonshire Arms Hotel with competition from the Commercial Hotel (Captain Richard Curran) and the Hibernian Hotel (Mrs. Mary O’Neill).[24]

Other businesses on Bridge Street in 1893 beside the two banks (Munster & Leinster and the Provincial Bank) and the Devonshire Arms included James Holland (physician and county magistrate), Danial O’Connell (solicitor) and Edward Williams (solicitor). In O’Connell Street there was a grocer/baker called William Lawlor – not sure if he was any relation to the later hotel owners.[25]

The big change

For near ninety years the Devonshire Arms Hotel enjoyed the sole rule of the roast on Bridge Street. The stage coaches dropped customers at the front door and the balcony overhead drew a crowd when the great and the good wished to speak. Then William Lawlor came from County Kilkenny. In 1894 William Lawlor was named as proprietor of the Devonshire Arms Hotel but not for long.[26] Some disagreement occurred and William Lawlor lost his job but he was not for surrendering without a fight.

Sometime between 1894 and 1901 William Lawlor took a lease on one of the three private dwelling houses adjoining the Devonshire Arms and opened his own hotel, Lawlor’s Hotel. Shortly after, he acquired a lease on a second house from Margaret Coady. The third house, nearest the bridge, remained a private dwelling house until the third quarter of the twentieth century. In 1901 it was occupied by Susan Quinlan.[27]

lawlor-s-hotel-dungarvan oringal front

Lawlor’s Hotel in 1900 occupied first 4 bays with private house at the 2 bays on right

1901 census at the Devonshire Arms Hotel

In the 1901 census (taken on 1st April – the other houses on the street were done on 8th April) Maurice F. Lynch was named owner/operator of the Devonshire Arms Hotel. The Hotel was number five on Thomas F. Meagher Street (the new name for Bridge Street). In the building returns the Hotel had twelve windows in the front façade and there were nineteen rooms with ten outbuildings in the back.[28]

In 1901 Mary Anne Kelly, aged 24 years, unmarried and from County Leitrim, was the manager of the Devonshire Arms Hotel. She was assisted on census night by five members of staff who had little service jobs to do as there were no guests. The five staff were all born in County Waterford and unmarried. They were; Patrick Dunne (aged 18 years), William Dunne (aged 26), Bridget McGrath (aged 21), Declan Brien (aged 18) and Bridget Power (aged 21).[29]

Maurice F. Lynch was not in the hotel on census night but was living at 99 North Main Street in Youghal as a veterinary surgeon and hotel proprietor. He was 31 years old and living with his wife Belia Lynch (24 years) and their servant Ellen Crotty.[30]

1901 census at Lawlor’s Hotel

In 1901 Lawlor’s Hotel occupied two former private dwelling houses on Bridge Street, adjoining the Devonshire Arms Hotel. The corner mouldings of the buildings are still visible on the façade of Lawlor’s Hotel today. The 1901 Lawlor’s Hotel had eleven windows on the front façade and twenty-one rooms within and had six outbuildings.[31]

William Lawlor was born in County Kilkenny in about 1858 even if he initially considered writing Dungarvan as his birth place. Possibly he always had an eye on the Waterford coastal town from the days of his youth. By the ages of his children William Lawlor was living in County Waterford since about 1891. In 1901 William Lawlor described himself as a merchant and was married (c.1890) to Mary Rose Lawlor (aged 33 years and born in County Waterford). The couple had one son and two daughters. They were James Lawlor (aged 10 and born in County Waterford), May F. Lawlor (aged 9 and born in County Waterford) and Angela Lawlor (aged 4 and born in County Waterford). But William Lawlor saw the world far beyond County Waterford and employed Augustina Banquier, born in France, as governess to the children. There was only one visitor registered in Lawlor’s Hotel on census night, 1st April 1901, a Catholic priest named Patrick Power.[32]

This was no ordinary Catholic priest. He had first served as a priest in Liverpool and Australia before returning to Waterford for three years at the Cathedral until he got the curates job in Portlaw. In 1900 Rev. Patrick Power wrote his first book, A Manual of Religious Instruction, but he had previously written a few articles on history. In a short time he would go on to write many more historical articles and in 1907 published his most celebrated work, Place-Names of the Decies. Rev. Patrick Power went on to become Professor of Archaeology at U.C.C. Today he is best known to as Canon Patrick Power, one of the top five historians of County Waterford.[33]

Canon Patrick Power

Canon Patrick Power

1911 census at the Devonshire Arms Hotel

By 1911 the Lynch family had sold their interests in the Devonshire Arms Hotel to William Dunne, one of the workers at the Hotel in 1901 and he was listed as owner/operator in 1911. The Hotel also had structural changes over the previous decade with two additional windows to the front façade to make the fourteen windows that can be seen today. The number of outbuildings was reduced from ten to nine while the number of rooms increased dramatically from nineteen to thirty-seven.[34] The outbuildings consisted of six stables, one coach house, one harness house and one fowl house.[35]

In the hotel on census night were eleven people. They were; William Dunne (proprietor), Annie Dunne (aged 28 and sister of William), James Dunne (aged 39, brother), Patrick Dunne (aged 27, brother), Charles Lynch (aged 18, born Co. Longford and car driver), Patrick Burke (aged 38, born Co. Waterford, car driver), Martin Whelan (age 18, born Co. Waterford and billiard marker), John Whelan (aged 19, born Co. Waterford, porter), Mary Murphy (aged 48, born Co. Dublin, cook), Bridget O’Brien (aged 20, born Co. Waterford, waitress), Nora Riordan (aged 20, born Co. Kerry, bar maid), [36]

1911 census at Lawlor’s Hotel

In 1911 William Lawlor still rented the premises of Lawlor’s Hotel from Margaret Cody. In the previous ten years William Lawlor decreased his number of rooms by one to eighteen and increased the number of outbuildings from six to thirteen.[37] These outbuildings consisted of seven stables, four coach houses, one harness house and one fowl house.[38]

In Lawlor’s Hotel on census night were seven people, namely; William Lawlor, his wife Mary and daughter May along with four visitors; John B. McHugh (priest from Fermanagh), Thomas Maquer (priest from Cork), Donnchadh Turner and Mary Power from County Waterford.[39]

The third house in 1911

The single dwelling house at the Bridge end of the Lawlor’s Hotel was in 1911 occupied by Patrick Dunne (aged 36, single, merchant) and two female servants.[40] The house was rented from Mrs. D. Ryan.[41]

During the Civil War

At the start of the Civil War in 1922 most of County Waterford was under the control of the Anti-Treaty forces. By early August 1922 the Free State forces had gained control on the River Suir between Waterford and Clonmel. This action placed Dungarvan on the front line. But the Free State forces didn’t make a frontal attack just yet. Instead they effective landings at Youghal and Cork Harbour which isolated the Dungarvan garrison. The Anti-Treaty forces evacuated the town, burning the chief buildings as they went. On 16th August 1922 the Free State forces moved into Dungarvan and the commander, Commandant Paddy Paul, established his headquarters in the Devonshire Arms Hotel. During their occupation, the Anti-Treaty forces stayed in hotels, like the Devonshire Arms and in private houses. They issued promises to their hosts that they would pay the fare when the Republic of Ireland was established. It is not known if they ever paid up.[42]

1929

In the 1929 Munster trade directory it was said that there were three hotels in Dungarvan. The Devonshire Arms on Bridge Street with Lawlor’s Hotel next door and the Hibernian Hotel at 70 O’Connell Street.[43]

1937

By 1937 the number of hotels in the Dungarvan area had increased although a writer in the 1940s described the Devonshire Arms Hotel as the only hotel in Dungarvan. The writer also described the service in the dinning room as ‘slow’. Back in 1937 the Devonshire Arms Hotel was still on Bridge Street with Lawlor’s Hotel next door and the young kid next door had a telephone (Dungarvan no. 22). Curran’s Commercial Hotel was now also on Bridge Street. The old Hibernian Hotel at 70 O’Connell Street was now Egan’s Hotel. On Main Street there was Phelan’s Hotel with the Strand Hotel over in Abbeyside and the Ocean View Hotel at Clonea Strand endeavouring to capture the summer tourist.[44]

1955

A photograph of the Bridge Street area in 1955 shows the Devonshire Arms Hotel with its balcony and fourteen windows in the front façade. The ground floor is of cut stone while the first and second floors were covered in plaster. Next door Lawlor’s Hotel was painted white all over and had eleven windows in the front façade. The private dwelling house towards the bridge had five windows on the front and a grey colour.[45] The whole terrace was thus three floors high.

Devonshire_Arms_Hotel__Dungarvan

L-R = Devonshire Arms (5 bays), Lawlor’s (4 bays) and private house (2 bays): Waterford Co. Museum photo

The Kelly family

For many years in the mid twentieth century the Kelly family were owners and managers of the Devonshire Arms Hotel. Michael Kelly was the chief proprietor with his brother Nicholas Kelly as part owner. Nicholas Kelly was a politician on the Dungarvan Urban Council for many years and had another brother, Joe, who operated a grocery shop in Mitchell Street.[46] Following the unexpected death of Michael Kelly in February 1972 the family decided to sell the hotel.

1972

The Dungarvan Leader of 12th December 1972 announced that the Devonshire Arms Hotel was sold by the Kelly family to Terry Creagh-Percy by private treaty. Terry Creagh-Percy had operated a hotel near Heathrow Airport for about eight years and had connections to Lismore.[47] In December 1972 Terry and Pauline Creagh-Percy announced the temporary closure of the Devonshire Arms Hotel as they were renovating the dining room and accommodation area. For thirsty workmen and visitors the bar would remain open for the Christmas season. In the same edition of the Dungarvan Leader the Presentation Convent past pupils advertised their annual dinner and social to be held in Lawlor’s Hotel on 6th January 1973.[48]

1980s

The early 1980s saw a number of hotels operating in and around the Dungarvan area. The Devonshire Arms Hotel and Lawlor’s Hotel now had competition for the summer tourist in the form of Clonea Strand Hotel. To the west of the town, Whitechurch House Hotel had opened its doors and would go on in later years to build the Park Hotel on the Dungarvan By-pass.

The expanded Lawlor’s Hotel and the Burke family

Since the 1980s the landscape has changed very much in the terrace containing the Devonshire Arms Hotel and Lawlor’s Hotel and the remaining private dwelling. In February 1984 the Devonshire Arms Hotel (a disco on Friday and Saturday) and Lawlor’s Hotel (Jimmy Crowley on Wednesday) shared the same advert space to inform the public of their entertainments.[49] They had separate adverts in later editions.

Over time Lawlor’s Hotel purchased the dwelling house, which today (2016) provides a side door into the bar of Lawlor’s Hotel. But the biggest changed was the acquisition of the Devonshire Arms Hotel by Lawlor’s Hotel in March 1984. The main door of the former Devonshire Arms is still in place but is rarely used and the balcony overhead was removed and placed over the front door of Lawlor’s Hotel. William Lawlor who started Lawlor’s Hotel after being removed as manager of the Devonshire Arms Hotel back in the 1890s would be smiling in his grave. In 1984 Michael and Mary Burke of the new Lawlor’s Hotel advertised Zetas night club in a section of the old Devonshire Arms.[50]

In the last few decades the Burke family owned the expanded Lawlor’s Hotel and still do as of 2016. As part of their contribution to the façade of the terrace a fourth floor was built along the full length of the terrace. With this construction this article concludes the tradition of hospitality begun on the then new Bridge Street, sometimes called Thomas F. Meagher Street, with the Devonshire Arms Hotel in the early nineteenth century, and continued today, over two hundred years later, with Lawlor’s Hotel.

lawlors_hotel_exterior_dungarvan_ireland

The 2016 view of Lawlor’s Hotel

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End of post

 

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[1] Patrick C. Power, A History of Dungarvan: Town and District (De Paor, Dungarvan, 2000), p. 134

[2] Lindsay J. Proudfoot, Urban Patronage and Social Authority: The Management of the Duke of Devonshire’s Towns in Ireland, 1764-1891 (Catholic University Press, Washington, 1995), p. 78

[3] Lindsay J. Proudfoot, Urban Patronage and Social Authority, pp. 188, 189, 190

[4] Lindsay J. Proudfoot, Urban Patronage and Social Authority, pp. 191, 193, 194

[5] Lindsay J. Proudfoot, Urban Patronage and Social Authority, p. 197

[6] http://www.failteromhat.com/pigot/0041.pdf accessed on 30 July 2016

[7] http://www.failteromhat.com/pigot/0042.pdf accessed on 30 July 2016

[8] http://www.failteromhat.com/pigot/0041.pdf accessed on 30 July 2016

[9] http://www.failteromhat.com/pigot/0042.pdf accessed on 30 July 2016

[10] Waterford Mail, 22nd January 1834

[11] William Fraher & William Whelan, Dungarvan: Historic Guide and Town Trail (Waterford County Museum, 2012), p. 28

[12] Sean & Sile Murphy, The Comeraghs “Gunfire & Civil War”: The Story of the Deise Brigade IRA 1914-24 (Comeragh Publications, Kilmacthomas, 2003), p. 130

[13] http://www.dippam.ac.uk/eppi/documents/15202/page/182897 accessed on 5 August 2016

[14] http://www.europese-bibliotheek.nl/en/Books/Dungarvan_in_old_picture_postcards/100-134450/Article/5

[15] Henry & Coghlan, General Directory of Cork and Munster, 1867, pp. 424, 425

[16] The National Encyclopaedia (13 vols. Wm. Mackenzie, London, 1870), Vol. XIII, p. 747

[17] Henry & Coghlan, General Directory of Cork and Munster, 1867, p. 424

[18] The National Encyclopaedia (13 vols. Wm. Mackenzie, London, 1870), Vol. XIII, p. 747

[19] William Fraher & William Whelan, Dungarvan: Historic Guide and Town Trail (Waterford County Museum, 2012), p. 28; Patrick C. Power, A History of Dungarvan: Town and District (De Paor, Dungarvan, 2000), p. 222

[20] Patrick C. Power, A History of Dungarvan: Town and District (De Paor, Dungarvan, 2000), p. 183

[21] Slater’s Directory, 1881, p. 120

[22] Slater’s Directory, 1881, pp. 121, 122

[23] Slater’s Directory, 1881, pp. 122, 123

[24] Guy’s Directory of the Province of Munster, 1893, Waterford section, p. 19

[25] Guy’s Directory of the Province of Munster, 1893, Waterford section, pp. 24, 25

[26] http://www.lennonwylie.co.uk/1894WaterfordCountyDirectory.htm accessed on 5 August 2016

[27] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai001245795/ accessed on 3 August 2016

[28] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai001245795/ accessed on 3 August 2016

[29] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai001245800/ accessed on 3 August 2016

[30] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/pages/1901/Cork/Youghal_Urban/North_Main_Street/1161315/

[31] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai001245795/ accessed on 3 August 2016

[32] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai001245801/ accessed on 3 August 2016

[33] http://waterfordireland.tripod.com/rev__patrick_power_-_historian.htm accessed on 4 August 2016

[34] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai003476884/ accessed on 4 August 2016

[35] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai003476886/ accessed on 4 August 2016

[36] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai003476900/ accessed on 4 August 2016

[37] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai003476884/ accessed on 4 August 2016

[38] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai003476886/ accessed on 4 August 2016

[39] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai003476898/ accessed on 4 August 2016

[40] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai003476896/ accessed on 4 August 2016

[41] http://www.census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai003476884/ accessed on 4 August 2016

[42] Patrick C. Power, A History of Dungarvan: Town and District (De Paor, Dungarvan, 2000), p. 228, 230

[43] Patrick C. Power, A History of Dungarvan: Town and District (De Paor, Dungarvan, 2000), p. 240

[44] Cork & Munster Trade Directory, 1937; Sylvia Couturie, No Tears in Ireland: a memoir (The Free Press, New York, 2001), pp. 109, 111

[45] http://www.waterfordmuseum.ie/exhibit/web/DisplayPrintableImage/K0kEboGQcs6zQ accessed on 4 August 2016

[46] http://www.munster-express.ie/community-notes/dungarvan/dungarvan-18/ accessed on 4 August 2016

[47] Dungarvan leader, 12th December 1972

[48] Dungarvan Leader, 23rd December 1972

[49] Dungarvan Leader, 3rd February 1984

[50] Dungarvan Leader, 21st December 1984

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