Biography, Oxford History

Some notes on Garbrand Harks and family of Oxford

Some notes on Garbrand Harks and family of Oxford

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

 

Foreword

This article is a follow on from a previous article entitled “No garden games in Tudor Oxford”. [link to article = https://niallbrn.wordpress.com/2014/06/27/no-garden-games-in-tudor-oxford-4/] One of the people featured in the article was Garbrand Harks. Initially I wrote six A4 pages on the person and family of Garbrand Harks using source books published by the Oxford Historical Society. Haven gone that far, I found on the internet that a gentleman in New England, Ernest Flagg, had written extensively about the family in his book, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England: My Ancestors Part in that Undertaking, published in 1928.

After seeing this publication I was thinking of scrapping my own efforts and going off to write something original. But the internet display of Ernest’s book does not show every page of relevance concerning the Harks family. Therefore I pressed on and wrote this following article using the material I gathered and the material in Ernest’s book.

Garbrand Harks; early years and comes to England

The family of Garbrand Harks came from the Low Countries in the second quarter of the sixteenth century. They were a strong Calvinist family.[1] Garbrand Harks, also spelt as Harkes or Harckes, was born about 1510 in Holland. He learnt the stationer’s trade which included the art of scribe, limner, binder, and printer as well as the business of dealing in books and manuscripts. Such activity exposed the young Garbrand Harks to knowledge and new ideas. Garbrand Harks adopted the new Protestant religion as the true church. This was not a wise move in Catholic controlled Holland and he was persecuted for it. In 1638 Garbrand Harks fled to England where the Reformation of King Henry VIII was a welcome home to Protestant refugees.[2]

Garbrand Harks at Oxford

Garbrand Harks settled at Bulkeley Hall in St. Mary’s Parish, Oxford and opened a shop as a bookseller.[3] Another source says that he settled in the parish of St. Mary Magdalene. He was certainly living in Oxford by 1539 as he was charged with eating meat during Lent without licence. This charge did not set back his progress and by 1542 Garbrand Harks was binding books in the library of Magdalene College. In the following year he was living in the south-west ward of the city as an alien when he was charged tax of 20 pence on goods worth £5. Garbrand Harks soon after took out English citizenship and in the tax records of 1546 was listed as an Englishman and charged 15 pence on goods worth £15. The increase in Garbrand’s personal wealth was helped by the dissolution of the monasteries. The vast and ancient libraries of the monasteries came on the market and Garbrand Harks succeeded well as a dealer. His standing improved so much that Garbrand Harks was made official stationer to the University, a post his family held for three generations.[4]

 

Magdalene college by John Carter

Magdalene College, Oxford by John Carter – early workplace of Garbrand Harks

It could be surmised that one of the reason for Garbrand Harks coming to Oxford first day was to be in position to take advantage of this previously closed market. It is also possible that Garbrand Harks was invited to Oxford by a friend. The Oxford book trade in the first quarter of the sixteenth century was dominated by foreigners. A later writer described Garbrand Harks as the “most important Oxford bookseller of the Reformation”.[5]

Garbrand Harks in the Oxford Apprentice Book   

Despite this strong connection with the book trade when Garbrand Harks first appears in the Oxford Apprentice Book, in 1554, it is as a mercer when he took on Robert Gerret of Oxford as an apprentice for eight years. Robert Gerret was the son of the late James Gerret, yeoman and seems to have been a young person in 1554 as an extra year was added to the term of apprenticeship so that Robert could be twenty-one at the end of the term.[6] It would seem that Robert Gerret did not establish a business in Oxford after his apprenticeship.

By 1562 Garbrand Harks had moved on in trade to become a bookbinder. Garbrand Harks not only bound books but was also described as a book-seller. The job of a bookbinder and book seller was a nice number in a university town like Oxford where books, and the repair of books, were always in demand. The trades of bookseller and stationer also came under the protection of the University and were termed “privileged persons”. Their status often led to disputes between the University and the town. In 1562 Garbrand Harks took on Joseph Barnes, son of Thomas Barnes, husbandman of Long Wittenham, Berkshire, for a ten year term of apprenticeship.[7] As with Robert Gerret, Joseph Barnes appears not to have taken up business in Oxford after his apprenticeship. Perhaps Garbrand Harks made such a condition of the apprenticeship to avoid future competition.

During the 1560s Garbrand Harks used his circle of friends to get a job for his third son, John Harks, later known as John Garbrand. Garbrand’s friend, John Jewel (bishop of Salisbury since 1560) came up trumps with a canonry for John at Salisbury. John Jewel was a member of the Puritan sector of the Protestant faith. During the time of Queen Mary he lived in exile in Frankfort. John Jewel returned to England on the succession of Queen Elizabeth and was made Bishop of Salisbury. In his early years John Jewel studied at Oxford and during the 1540s was a public orator for the University.[8] It may be at that time that the friendship between Garbrand Harks and John Jewel developed over talks about books, study and religion.

In 1568 Garbrand Harks was still described as a bookbinder when he took on Robert Parker as an apprentice for nine years. Robert was the son of John Parker, gent, of Barnwood, Gloucestershire.[9] Much later in the 1580s Garbrand Harks is said to have taken on Francis Harris as an apprentice in the vintner trade (Garbrand Harks was granted a licence to sell wine in 1566).[10] This Francis Harris was the father of Francis Harris, mayor of Oxford 1633-34.[11]

Garbrand Harks and the Borough Council

In 1550 Garbrand Harks took Elizabeth Clare to the Chancellor’s Court because Elizabeth Clare described Garbrand’s wife, Elizabeth, as an “arrant heretic and Flemish harlot”. Elizabeth Clare denied the charge yet admitted to other offences. This was before the reign of the Catholic Queen Mary and thus the comments of Elizabeth Clare can only be described as racist rather than purely religious differences.

Despite this event by 1555 Garbrand Harks had become more English than the English themselves and was accepted into Oxford society. His activities in commerce and his work for the University had increased his public profile. In 1555 Garbrand Harks is first listed as a member of the Borough Council. In 1557 he became one of the key holders of the city. In the same year and in 1558 Garbrand Harks was chamberlain (treasurer) of the city. On 16th September 1562 he was elected one of city Associates.[12]

During the 1550s as Garbrand Harks ascended in the borough politics in Oxford his friends descended into the basement of Garbrand’s house. In the reign of Queen Mary, Garbrand Harks allowed the leading Protestants of Oxford to have service in his basement.[13]

Garbrand Harks and his property portfolio

In 1572 Garbrand Harks had a lease on a garden south of the Divinity School from Balliol College. In October of that year the garden, along with two adjoining gardens were granted to Exeter College by Balliol in exchange for a messuage and garden and a house rent elsewhere in the city. Garbrand Harks had only taken the garden a short time before as it was held by John Lewis in 1570.[14]

In 1589, Garbrand Harks held a tenement from Oriel College on the south side of High Street.[15] This tenement continued in the Harkes family until the late seventeenth century and is today a corner shop (number 108) where High Street meets King Edward Street.[16]

In 1593 Garbrand Harks increased his property portfolio when he acquired five shops, two cellars and two acres of meadow (Botley Meadow) in the parishes of All Saints and St. Thomas. These were acquired from Edmund Denton.[17]

Garbrand Harks left four sons and four daughters by his wife Elizabeth. These included Thomas, William, John, Richard, Amy and Christian Garbrand. These children took the first name of their father, Garbrand Harks, to become their surnames and so you get Thomas Garbrand instead of Thomas Harks. Amy Garbrand married John Halloway (their fourth child, George Halloway settled in York County, Virginia) while Christian Garbrand married Rev. Robert Chaloner.[18]

Thomas Garbrand

Thomas Garbrand was a son of Garbrand Harks and was born about 1539. In 1551 Thomas was a chorister of Magdalen College and a fellow of the College from 1557 to 1570. On 9th November 1558 Thomas Garbrand got a B.A. and an M.A. on 10th July 1562. In 1568 Thomas Garbrand was awarded a Bachelor in Civil Law.[19]

After the death of his brother John, Thomas Garbrand succeeded to the rectory of North Crawley on the presentation of his father. Thomas Garbrand had previously been presented by Sir William Dormer in 1570.[20]

William Garbrand

William Garbrand was another son of Garbrand Harks. William Garbrand was at Magdalen College from 1566 where he got a B.A. on 23rd October 1570, and an M.A. on 19th June 1574. William Garbrand was a fellow of Magdalen College from 1570 to 1577.[21]

Rev. John Garbrand

The third son of Garbrand Harks of Oxford was born in 1542 and was named John Harks. He later took on the name of Garbrand as his surname to become John Garbrand. This article will refer to him by his later name. John Garbrand began his education at Winchester College in 1566 before moving on to New College, Oxford in 1560.[22] John Garbrand served as a fellow of New College from 1560 to 1567. On 22nd April, 1563 he got a B.A. and on 25th February 1567 John Garbrand got a M.A. John Garbrand continued his later studies at Cambridge with an M.A. in 1568.[23] On 5th July 1582 John Garbrand got a Bachelor and Doctorate in Divinity from Oxford. 5 July, 1582.[24]

While still a student at New College, Oxford, John Garbrand became a canon of Sarum (Salisbury) in 1565. Bishop John Jewel was friends of his father, Garbrand Harks.[25] In 1566 he became rector of North Crawley, Buckinghamshire on the presentation of Sir William Dormer and served until his death in 1589. In 1571 John Garbrand became a canon at Wells Cathedral.[26] John Garbrand kept the Wells position until 1578.[27] In the following year of 1572 he became rector of Farthingston, Northamptonshire and served until 1589.[28]

On 17th November 1589 John Garbrand died at his rectory at North Crawley, aged 47 years. He was buried in the parish church where a memorial described him as a “benefactor of the poor”.[29] After the death of Rev. John Garbrand on 17th November 1589, Garbrand Harks presented Rev. Roger Hacket to the position. Rev. Roger Hacket remained the rector until his death in 1621. Rev. Roger Hacket was a brother of Sir Cuthbert Hacket, Lord Mayor of London (1626-7), and was a cousin of Anne Ferrar, daughter-in-law of Garbrand Harks.[30] Other sources give the impression that Thomas Garbrand, brother of John, succeeded for a time to North Crawley.[31]

Despite his time in Buckinghamshire and Northamptonshire, Rev. John Garbrand did not forget Salisbury and his patron Bishop John Jewel. When Bishop Jewel died in 1571 he bequeathed his papers to John Garbrand. Over the next decade John Garbrand edited the papers and between 1582 and 1583 published their content in three volumes.[32] The volumes contained many of Bishop Jewel’s sermons of the strength of the Protestant faith and the Puritan tradition.

John Garbrand of Oxford

John Garbrand was the son of Rev. John Garbrand of North Crawley and was born about 1580. In February 1604 he entered New College, Oxford and on 15h June 1608 received a B.A. Like his grandfather John Garbrand took up employment as a bookseller.[33]

It appears that John Garbrand lived in the parish of St. Mary in Oxford. In 1616 Walter Hardwell of Great Milton, Oxfordshire, agreed in court to take charge of John Smyth (aged 6½ years), son of the late John Smyth, innkeeper of the Swan in Oxford. The parish of St. Mary was to pay Walter Hardwell 12 pence per week until John Smyth was of sufficient age to become an apprentice. John Garbrand paid Walter Hardwell a month’s allowance of 4 shillings at the court.[34]

About the year 1618 John Garbrand died.[35]

Richard Garbrand, alias Harks

Richard Garbrand, alias Harks, was another son of Garbrand Harks. Richard Harks succeeded his father in the book business sometime in the 1590s. In 1600 Richard Garbrand was described as a stationer in Oxford.[36] Richard Harks established his business as a stationer yet changed his surname to that of his father’s Christian name and thus became Richard Garbrand. Richard Garbrand had at least two sons, Edward and Tobias, who are noted separately below.

In 1569 Richard Garbrand was one of the churchwardens of St. Mary’s, Oxford.[37]

Richard Garbrand succeeded to his father’s tenancy of the tenement from Oriel College on High Street. By 1618 Richard Garbrand was dead and the tenement in High Street was held by his widow.[38] Richard Garbrand also succeeded to advowson of North Crawley in Buckinghamshire and by his will of 1602 gave the advowson to his son John Garbrand.[39]

Elsewhere Richard Garbrand held a tenement off High Street in 1587 wherein Roger Stevens lived.[40] The tenement is now under the Rhodes Building of Oriel College.[41] Across the road from the Rhodes Building Richard Garbrand held another tenement on Catte Street which was also occupied by Roger Stevens. This tenement was later held (1656) by John Garbrand (see below).[42]

Further along Catte Street Richard Garbrand held another tenement in 1578 bounded on the south by a tenement held by Henry Miles, carpenter. This tenement was held by Richard Garbrand in 1594 and by John Garbrand, possible son of Richard, in 1609.[43]

In 1578 Richard Harks married Anne Ferrar, sister of John Ferrar, Principal of New Inn Hall (1593-1609), as his second wife. Richard Harks died in January 1602 and was buried in the church of St. Mary Magdalene. He left at least one child, John, by his first wife and eleven children by his second wife, Anne Ferrar. These children were called Tobias, Elizabeth, Bysse, Ambrose, Edmund, Richard, Joan, Susan, Anne, Harks and Nicholas. Anne Ferrar Harks continued to operate the bookshop until her death in 1609 when she was buried beside her husband in the church of St. Mary Magdalene.[44]

John Garbrand

This John Garbrand was the son of Richard Garbrand, alias Harks by his first wife. By the will of his father in 1602 John Garbrand succeeded to the advowson of North Crawley, Buckinghamshire and to the lease of Sidlie Close that was once held by his grandfather, Garbrand Harks.[45] Other sources say that Richard Garbrand gave the advowson of North Crawley to Tobias Garbrand and not to John.[46] It is difficult to judge without more information which was the correct story. Sometime in the reign of James I the advowson was acquired by Roger Hackett, the rector of the parish mentioned earlier.[47]

Tobias Garbrand

Tobias Garbrand was the first child of Richard Garbrand and Anne Ferrar. Tobias Garbrand was born about 1579, a year after the marriage of his parents. From 1591 to 1605 Tobias Garbrand attended Magdalen College. On 13th December 1602 he received a B.A. and on 12th June 1605 he got a M.A. Tobias Garbrand was a fellow of Magdalene College between 1605 and 1619. On 1st December 1613 Tobias Garbrand received a Bachelorate in Divinity and was given a licence to preach on 10th December, 1617. In 1619 Rev. Tobias Garbrand became vicar of Findon, Sussex, 1619 as Tobias Harks. In 1638 Rev. Tobias Garbrand died.[48]

Bysse Garbrand

Bysse Garbrand was the third child of Richard Garbrand and Anne Ferrar. Little is known about Bysse Garbrand as the page showing his biography is excluded from that internet version of Ernes Flagg’s book. It is noted that on 26th September 1611 Bysee Garbrand married Martha Ballam at Chenies, Buckinghamshire. Martha Balam was sister-in-law of the then rector of Chenies, Rev. Peter Allibone. After the death of Bysse Garbrand, Martha Garbrand married Rev. Christopher Rogers, Principal of New Inn Hall (1626-1643).[49]

Bysse Garbrand left two children at the time of his death, Tobias (whom see) and Mary. Apart from the birth of Mary Garbrand in 1615 we know little else about her.[50]

Tobias Garbrand

Tobias Garbrand was baptised on 19th September 1612.[51] On 25th January 1631 Tobias Garbrand received a B.A. from New Inn Hall and on 24th October 1633 got a M.A. from same. On 22nd October 1639 he got a Bachelor in Medicine degree.[52] Following all these academic achievements Tobias Garbrand continued to live in Oxford. In December 1642 he held the tenement on High Street which his mother held from Oriel College. Even after Tobias Garbrand moved to Abingdon in Berkshire he continued to keep this tenement until at least 1683. His heirs held the tenement after the death of Tobias Garbrand and are noted as tenants in 1692. By 1702 a new tenant held the tenement.[53]

In the English Civil War Tobias Garbrand supported the side of Parliament. This was a brave thing to do, especially for a person living in Oxford, as the city was the capital for King Charles and his court. Yet as the war changed in favour of Parliament Tobias Garbrand was well positioned to reap some rewards.

 In 1647 John Maplett was nominated Principal of Gloucester Hall by the Chancellor, the Marquess of Hertford, but within a few months both he and Maplett were ejected and Tobias Garbrand, M.D., was nominated by the Parliamentary Visitors. Yet Gloucester Hall was not much of a reward. The fortunes of Gloucester Hall had been declining for many years. A document in 1649 said that there was within the Hall, the Principal, three Masters of Arts, and one bachelor, along with two ‘readers’ in the hall and other officials and little else. The Government had to give Tobias Garbrand £50 to augment his income. Nevertheless Tobias Garbrand held the position at Gloucester Hall from 1647 to 1660.[54]

On 14th April 1648 Tobias Garbrand obtained a Doctorate in Medicine.[55] Thus in a lease of 1655 Tobias Garbrand was described as Doctor in Physics and Principal of Gloucester Hall. This lease was on a tenement at 38 Cornmarket Street in Oxford from Christ Church College. As part of the lease Tobias was to pitch, pave and amend the pitching and ground before the tenement as far as the street gutter. Tobias Garbrand was also to pitch with good stone and gravel the laneway beside the tenement. A charge of 2 shillings 6 pence was on the property to pay the local church wardens. The rent on the tenement was 6 shillings 8 pence per year with 40 years for the term of the lease.[56]

 

Gloucester Hall

Worcester College, Oxford – once known as Gloucester Hall

At the Restoration in 1660 Tobias Garbrand resigned the position of Principal of Gloucester Hall and the previous Principal, John Maplett returned to the position. But in 1662 John Maplett also resigned, and Byrom Eaton, D.D., was nominated. He held a number of livings along with prebendal income as archdeacon at Stowe and Leicester and was not dependent on the profits of Gloucester Hall for his livelihood. He treated the hall as a convenient place of residence.[57]

After getting his Doctorate in Medicine Tobias Garbrand moved out of Oxford to take up his practice as a medical doctor at Abingdon in Berkshire. Tobias Garbrand stayed in Abingdon for the rest of his life yet he maintained some property interests in Oxford for a time. In the rentals of Christ Church, Tobias Garbrand continued to hold the tenement in Cornmrket Street in 1660, 1666, 1676, and in 1686.[58] On 9th May 1679 he renewed the lease on the tenement in Cornmarket Street for another 40 years at the same rent of 6 shillings 8 pence. The new lease described Tobias as a Doctor in Physics and late of the University of Oxford. Yet within seven months Tobias Garbrand surrendered the lease to William Walker, perrywig maker of Oxford.[59]

On 7th April 1689 Tobias Garbrand died at Abingdon. He was buried in the nearby church of St. Helen.[60] Tobias Garbrand left four sons and two daughters by his unnamed wife. These were Susanna (born c. 1645), John (see below), Daniel, Samuel, Judith and Tobias.[61]

John Garbrand

John Garbrand was a son of Tobias Garbrand, M.D., of Abingdon, Berkshire and was born about 1647. On 16th July 1664 John Garbrand returned to Oxford to study at New Inn Hall where his father was a student. On 28th January 1668 John Garbrand got a B.A. from New Inn. In 1673 he went to study for a barrister-at-law in the Inner Temple, London.[62] John Garbrand had at least two sons, the second of whom was Henry Garbrand (see below).

Henry Garbrand

Henry Garbrand was mentioned in the will of his grandfather, Tobias Garbrand, M.D., in 1688.[63]

Tobias Garbrand

Tobias Garbrand was a son of Tobias Garbrand, M.D. and settled in London. There he became a fishmonger. Tobias Garbrand acquired property of some messuages in East and West Ham, Newnham, Oxfordshire. Tobias Garbrand married Margaret and left a will in 1702 which was proved in 1703. Tobias Garbrand had a few children including Thomas, Elizabeth and Robert Garbrand. The will further tells us that Robert Garbrand had three children; Margaret, Phoebe and Richard.[64]

Richard Garbrand

Richard Garbrand was the sixth child of Richard Garbrand and Anne Ferrar and was born about 1589. Richard Garbrand was living in 1618 and was possibly the Richard Garbrand of St. Peter’s, Cornhill, near London. On 27th June 1661 Richard Garbrand was buried at St. Peter’s leaving a widow called Sarah.[65]

Harkes Garbrand

Harkes Garbrand was the ninth child of Richard Garbrand and Anne Ferrar. Harkes Garbrand was born 1595 and was living in 1618. It is possible that Harkes Garbrand settled in London but his later history is uncertain. It is assumed that Harkes Garbrand was the father of John Garbrand of London.[66]

John Garbrand of London

John Garbrand of London was the assumed son of Harkes Garbrand of London and was born about 1620.[67] This John Garbrand was possibly the same John Garbrand, citizen and merchant tailor of London, who held a garden near the site of Elm Hall in Oxford sometime between 1650 and 1665.[68]

In about 1645 John Garbrand married Martha Lockey.[69]

In 1656 John Garbrand held a tenement on Catte Street, Oxford, which was held by the above Richard Garbrand in 1596. The exact relationship between the two men is not known but there must be some close link. John Garbrand and his heirs were still mentioned as holding the tenement until at least 1727.[70] Another tenement along Catte Street held by Richard Garbrand was held by John Garbrand in 1656.[71]

John Garbrand of London died in the Great Plague of 1665 in which about 70,000 people died in the London area. His left Martha a widow and four children: John, Mary (b. c. 1647), Harkes and Thomas.[72]

John Garbrand

This John Garbrand was born about 1645 as the first child of John Garbrand and Martha Lockey of London.[73] This John Garbrand matriculated at Christ Church College in April 1660.[74]

Harkes Garbrand of London and Jamaica

Harkes Garbrand was born about 1650 as the third child of John Garbrand and Martha Lockey. After gaining adulthood Harkes Garbrand settled in Jamaica where his descendants were still living in 1928.[75] Harks Garbrand was one of the people in Port Royal in February 1688 to cause an inventory of the goods belonging to a deceased mariner. Seven Negro slaves contributed most to the value of the goods.[76]

One of the children of Harkes Garbrand was Thomas Garbrand (see below).

Thomas Garbrand of Jamaica

Thomas Garbrand was born about 1684 to Harkes Garbrand of Jamaica. In June 1700 Thomas Garbrand returned to England and studied at Pembroke College, Oxford. In 1704 Thomas Garbrand got a B.A.[77] After his return to Jamaica Thomas Garbrand became rector of St. John’s Parish but his incumbency was brief. By 1707 Thomas Garbrand was dead and was replaced by Mr. Todd , former curate at Port Royal.[78]

Nicholas Garbrand

Nicholas Garbrand was the eleventh child of Richard Garbrand and Anne Ferrar and was born about 1600. In June 1618 Nicholas Garbrand began to attend Magdalene College. On 15th December 1618 Nicholas Garbrand got a B.A. 15 Dec., 1618, with an M.A. in June 1621 and a Bachelorate in Divinity in May 1631. Nicholas Garbrand was a fellow of Magdalene College from 1619 to 1639. On 8th December 1635 Nicholas Garbrand got a licence to preach and became vicar of Washington, Sussex, in 1638. Rev. Nicholas Garbrand held the vicarage until his death in 1671.[79]

In about 1646 Rev. Nicholas Garbrand married his cousin, Mrs. Judith Allibone, Ford Allen, daughter of Rev. Peter Allibone and Margaret Ballam of Chenies, Buckinghamshire. Judith had two previous marriages before marrying Nicholas Garbrand. In her will made in 1661 Judith named her son, William Ford and her other children of Peter, James, Thomas and Mary Allen. It is not known if Rev. Nicholas Garbrand had any children with Judith.[80]

In 1660 Nicholas Garbrand became rector of Patching, Sussex, and got a canonry at Chichester which he held until 1669.[81]

Susan Garbrand

The eighth child of Richard Garbrand and Anne Ferrar was Susan Garbrand, born about 1593. After the death of her mother in 1609 Susan Garbrand went to live with her childless aunt, Mrs. Christian Garbrand Chaloner at Amersham, Buckinghamshire. At Amersham, Susan Garbrand became a waiting-gentlewoman to Mrs. Joan Tothill Drake and there she met a lodger in the Drake household, Rev. Thomas Hooker, son of Thomas Hooker of Birstall, Leicestershire.[82]

On 3rd April 1621 Susan Garbrand married Rev. Thomas Hooker at Amersham where her aunt’s husband, Rev. Robert Chaloanor celebrated the nuptials.[83] Rev. Thomas Hooker was given the job of lecturer at Chelmsford, Essex but in 1626 he was silenced by Bishop Laud for non-conformity. For the next four years he held a private school at Great Baddow, Essex before further prosecution forced him to flee to Holland.[84] By this move Susan Garbrand was back in the country of her ancestor, Garbrand Harks.

 

downloadThomas Hooker

Statue of Rev. Thomas Hooker, unknown location

In 1633 the family emigrated to New England where Rev. Thomas Hooker became pastor of the church at Cambridge, Massachusetts. Their passage was part of the great Puritan migration to New England up to 1640 when about 26,000 people settled in the new land.[85] Shortly after disputes arose between Rev. Hooker and the other leaders as regards religious practice. Rev. Hooker believed that each church should be independent and that people had a right to choose their leaders.[86] Consequently in 1635 Rev. Thomas Hooker and Susan Garbrand with their family and some followers moved to Connecticut where they helped found the town of Hartford. Rev. Thomas Hooker served as pastor of Hartford until his death in 1647. Today Rev. Thomas Hooker is regarded as the “founder of Connecticut.[87] Rev. Hooker was not the first white settler in the Connecticut area. In 1614, Adriaen Block, a Dutch explorer, sailed up the Connecticut River and claimed the area for Holland (Garbrand Harks’ home). The Dutch did not act on this claim until 1633 when they built a small fort on the site of Hartford. The Dutch never settled permanently in the area and were finally driven out by the English in 1674.[88]

Susan Garbrand and Rev. Thomas Hooker had seven children; Joanne, Mary, John, Anne (died young), Sarah (died 1629), Sarah (born 1630) and Samuel.[89] Among their more notable descendants were William Howard Taft, 27th President of the United States, J.P. Morgan, the famous banker and George Catlin, the American painter who specialised in portraying Native American Indians.[90]

The descent to the noted architect and author, Ernest Flagg, was made by Mary Hooker marrying Rev. Roger Newton and had Samuel Newton, father of Sarah Newton. This Sarah Newton married Jonathan Ingersoll (great-grandson of John Webster, Governor of Connecticut) and they were the parents of Sarah Ingersoll. This Sarah Ingersoll married Deacon John Whiting of New Haven, Connecticut and they were the parents of William Whiting, father of Martha Whiting. This Martha Whiting in turn married Henry Flagg and was the mother of Rev. Jarred Flagg, who was the father of Ernest Flagg who wrote the history of his family in 1928 which work forms a large part of the information in this article.[91]

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[1] H.E. Salter & Mary Lobel (eds.), A history of the County of Oxford, Volume 3: the University of Oxford (Victoria County History, 1954), p. 299

[2] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England: My Ancestors Part in that Undertaking (Clearfield, Baltimore, 1996), p. 318

[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Garbrand_(priest) accessed on 29 June 2014

[4] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 318

[5] Strickland Gibson, Abstracts from the wills and testamentary documents of Binders, printers, and Stationers of Oxford, from 1493 to 1638 (Bibliographical Society, London, 1907), p. xvii

[6] Alan Crossley (ed.), Oxford City Apprentices 1513-1602 (Oxford Historical Society, New Series, Vol. 44, 2012), no. 371

[7] Alan Crossley (ed.), Oxford City Apprentices 1513-1602, p. xvi, no. 545

[8] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Jewel accessed on 29 June 2014

[9] Alan Crossley (ed.), Oxford City Apprentices 1513-1602, no. 679

[10] Madan Falconer, The Early Oxford Press (Applewood, Bedford, Massachusetts, reprint), p. 274

[11] http://www.oxfordhistory.org.uk/mayors/1603_1714/harris_francis_1633.html accessed on 3 July 2014

[12] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 318

[13] Strickland Gibson, Abstracts from the wills of Binders, printers, and Stationers of Oxford, p. xvii

[14] Rev. H.E. Salter (ed.), The Oxford deeds of Balliol College (Oxford Historical Society, Vol. 64, 1913), p. 157; Rev. Charles W. Boase (ed.), Register of Exeter College, Oxford (Oxford Historical Society, Vol. 27, 1894), p. 298

[15] Rev. H.E. Salter (ed.), The Oxford deeds of Balliol College (Oxford Historical Society, Vol. 64, 1913), p. 207

[16] http://www.oxfordhistory.org.uk/high/tour/south/108.html accessed on 26 June 2014

[17] Rev. H.E. Salter (ed.), The cartulary of the Hospital of St. John the Baptist (Oxford Historical Society, Vol. 68, 1915), Vol. 2, p. 461

[18] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, pp. 17, 321; http://arlisherring.com/tng/getperson.php?personID=I014550&tree=Herring&PHPSESSID=4b64040446767f11f94b4a32b60e435f accessed on 3 July 2014

[19] http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=117060&strquery=Garbrand%20Harks accessed on 29 June 2014

[20] http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=62594&strquery=North%20Crawley accessed on 3 July 2014

[21] http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=117060&strquery=Garbrand%20Harks accessed on 29 June 2014

[22] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Garbrand_(priest) accessed on 29 June 2014

[23] http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=117060&strquery=Garbrand%20Harks accessed on 29 June 2014

[24] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Garbrand_(priest) accessed on 29 June 2014

[25] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Garbrand_(priest) accessed on 29 June 2014

[26] http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=117060&strquery=Garbrand%20Harks accessed on 29 June 2014; http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=62594&strquery=North%20Crawley accessed on 3 July 2014

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[30] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 321

[31] http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=62594&strquery=North%20Crawley accessed on 3 July 2014

[32] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Garbrand_(priest) accessed on 29 June 2014

[33] http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=117060&strquery=Garbrand%20Harks accessed on 29 June 2014

[34] Robin Blades (ed.), Oxford quarter sessions order book 1614-1637 (Oxford Historical Society, New Series, Vol. 29, 2009), no. 1616H5

[35] http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=117060&strquery=Garbrand%20Harks accessed on 29 June 2014

[36] Jill Barlow (ed.), A calendar of the Register of Apprentices of the City of Gloucester 1595-1700 (Bristol & Gloucester Archaeological Society, Record Series, Vol. 14, 2001), no. 1/77

[37] Madan Falconer, The Early Oxford Press, p. 274

[38] Rev. H.E. Salter (ed.), The Oxford deeds of Balliol College, pp. 207-8

[39] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 321

[40] Rev. H.E. Salter (ed.), The cartulary of the Hospital of St. John the Baptist (Oxford Historical Society, Vol. 66, 1914), Vol. 1, p. 411

[41] http://www.oxfordhistory.org.uk/high/tour/south/095_101.html accessed on 29 June 014

[42] Rev. H.E. Salter (ed.), The cartulary of the Hospital of St. John the Baptist (Oxford Historical Society, Vol. 66, 1914), Vol. 1, p. 431

[43] Rev. H.E. Salter (ed.), The cartulary of the Hospital of St. John the Baptist (Oxford Historical Society, Vol. 66, 1914), Vol. 1, p. 457

[44] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 321

[45] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 321

[46] http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=62594&strquery=North%20Crawley accessed on 3 July 2014

[47] http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=62594&strquery=North%20Crawley accessed on 3 July 2014

[48] http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=117060&strquery=Garbrand%20Harks access on 1 July 2014

[49] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 323

[50] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 323

[51] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 323

[52] http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=117060&strquery=Garbrand%20Harks accessed on 29 June 2014

[53] Rev. H.E. Salter (ed.), The Oxford deeds of Balliol College, pp. 208-9

[54] H.E. Salter & Mary Lobel (eds.), A history of the County of Oxford, Volume 3: the University of Oxford, p. 299

[55] http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=117060&strquery=Garbrand%20Harks accessed on 29 June 2014

[56] Rev. H.E. Slater (ed.), Cartulary of Oseney Abbey (Oxford Historical Society, Vol. 89, 1929), Vol. 1, p. 88

[57] H.E. Salter & Mary Lobel (eds.), A history of the County of Oxford, Volume 3: the University of Oxford, p. 299

[58] Rev. H.E. Slater (ed.), Cartulary of Oseney Abbey (Oxford Historical Society, Vol. 91, 1931), Vol. 3, pp. 319, 321, 322, 324

[59] Rev. H.E. Slater (ed.), Cartulary of Oseney Abbey, Vol. 1, p. 88

[60] http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=117060&strquery=Garbrand%20Harks accessed on 29 June 2014

[61] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 323

[62] http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=117060&strquery=Garbrand%20Harks accessed on 29 June 2014

[63] http://www.amazon.com/Abstracts-Somersetshire-Manuscript-Collections-Frederick/dp/1231192429 accessed on 3 July 2014

[64] http://www.amazon.com/Abstracts-Somersetshire-Manuscript-Collections-Frederick/dp/1231192429 accessed on 3 July 2014

[65] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 323

[66] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 324

[67] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 324

[68] Rev. H.E. Slater (ed.), Cartulary of Oseney Abbey, Vol. 1, p. 102

[69] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 324

[70] Rev. H.E. Salter (ed.), The cartulary of the Hospital of St. John the Baptist (Oxford Historical Society, Vol. 66, 1914), Vol. 1, p. 431

[71] Rev. H.E. Salter (ed.), The cartulary of the Hospital of St. John the Baptist (Oxford Historical Society, Vol. 66, 1914), Vol. 1, p. 457

[72] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 324

[73] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 324

[74] http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=117060&strquery=Garbrand%20Harks accessed on 29 June 2014

[75] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 324

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[80] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 324

[81] http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=117060&strquery=Garbrand%20Harks accessed on 2 July 2014

[82] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 323

[83] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 323

[84] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 324

[85] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 11

[86] Bradford Smith, ‘Hooker, Thomas’, in The World Book Encyclopedia (Chicago, 1981), Vol. 9, p. 290

[87] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Hooker accessed on 3 July 2014

[88] Joseph Hoyt & Albert Van Dusen, ‘Connecticut’, in The World Book Encyclopedia (Chicago, 1981), Vol. 4, p. 772

[89] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, p. 324

[90] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Hooker accessed on 3 July 2014

[91] Ernest Flagg, Genealogical notes on the Founding of New England, pp. 118, 121

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